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Field Marshal SHFJ Manekshaw, MC A Pdf Presentation


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Biography of India\'s First Living Field Marshal

Field Marshal SHFJ Manekshaw, MC A Pdf Presentation

  1. 1. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 1 Kharagpur
  2. 2. Field Marshal  SHFJ Manekshaw Military Cross y Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan 13 April 1914  27 Jun 2008 13 April 1914 – 27 Jun 2008 Soldiering with Dignity g gy Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 2 Kharagpur
  3. 3. BIOGRAPHY Full Name Full Name Sam Hormusji Framji Jamshedji Manekshaw Sam Hormusji Framji Jamshedji Manekshaw • Nickname  Sam Bahadur  • Place of birth of birth  Amritsar, Punjab Amritsar Punjab • Place of death  Wellington, Tamil Nadu  • Se ce/b a c Service/branch  Indian Army/ Infantry  8 GR da y/ a t y 8 G • Service  1934‐1973 • 8th Chief of the Indian Army  Appointment • Highest Rank  Held • Field Marshal Field Marshal  Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 3 Kharagpur
  4. 4. BIOGRAPHY • Battles/wars Battles/wars  World War II Indo‐Pakistan War of 1947 Indo‐Pakistan War of 1947 Sino‐Indian War  Indo‐Pakistan War of 1965 Indo‐Pakistan War of 1971 • Awards Military Cross     y Padma Vibhushan Padma Bhushan  Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 4 Kharagpur
  5. 5. EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION • Parents. Dr. Hormusji Manekshaw and  Heerabai – a humble Parsi family from Gujrat. y j • Schooling. Amritsar and Sherwood College  (Nainital) • Commission. IMA in Dec 1934 in the first  batch of Officers Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 5 Kharagpur
  6. 6. Military Career Military Career Four Decades and Five Wars – 1934 to 1973 Four Decades and Five Wars 1934 to 1973 WW II. WW II Defence of Sittang Bridge, Burma, 1941 – Captain Manekshaw received 9 bullets in the lung liver and lung, kidney – critically injured ‐ moved to hospital. Fearing the worst, Major General DT Cowan quickly pinned his own Military Cross ribbon saying, quot;A dead person cannot be awarded a Military Cross.” When the surgeon asked what had happened to him he is said to have replied that he was kicked by a donkey. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 6 Kharagpur
  7. 7. Military Career 1947: Pak Invasion of Kashmir • Manekshaw was in charge of operations in Army HQ • Displayed incisive grasp of situation and acumen for planning – noticed by superior commanders Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 7 Kharagpur
  8. 8. 1961 • Refused to toe the line of then Defence Minister VK Krishan Menon – He was side lined • After humiliating defeat in 1962 war – He was rushed by PM Pt JL Nehru Pt. to contain advancing Chinese aggression • His first order of the day was “There will be no withdrawal without orders – and these orders shall i hd l ih d dh d h ll never be issued”. Chinese never got an inch after that. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 8 Kharagpur
  9. 9. 1963: Tezpur Commander 4 Corps Tezpur, • Denied Indira Gandhi’s entry into the Operations Room during briefing of PM Nehru saying she had not taken the oath to secrecy (recounted by the Defence Minister’s Secretary Mr RB Pradhan in a book) Minister s • Six years later Indira Gandhi accepted him as the COAS and had an excellent rapport with him Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 9 Kharagpur
  10. 10. 1965 As the GOC in C Eastern Command, advised astern against attacking East Pakistan stating the people would be the main sufferers sufferers. The wisdom of his advice dawned when Indian Army f I di A fought P k A ht Pak Army i E t P k i 1971 in East Pak in – people of East Pakistan welcomed and helped Indian Army Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 10 Kharagpur
  11. 11. 1971 Mrs. Gandhi wanted a swift, surgical strike on East  Pakistan in Jun 1971 to install a government led by Mujib‐ur‐ Rehman. Refusing to be politically coerced  he said “ If ordered  it will be done, but I guarantee a defeat….and I have following  reasons to say so: First ‐ In Jun the monsoon would render troop movement in the Eastern region near impossible Second – Open Himalayan mountain passes will not permit lifting at least two Infantry divisions from the Chinese front” Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 11 Kharagpur
  12. 12. Dec 1971 His strategic and operational finesse was evident when  His strategic and operational finesse was evident when Indian pincers cut through Pakistani forces like butter  through knife in Dec 1971. through knife in Dec 1971. Pak Army was checkmated in  14 days flat – with a total  of 45,000 Pak soldiers and 45,000 civilians taken as POW. of 45 000 Pak soldiers and 45 000 civilians taken as POW The greatest military victory for India. Celebrated as the  ‘Vijay Diwas’ on 16 Dec each year.  ‘Vij Di ’ 16 D h Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 12 Kharagpur
  13. 13. A Man of Conviction. Following  g 1971 victory he flew into Calcutta  to compliment his officers. p In the ceremonial reception at  p the Dum Dum Airport he was  escorted to a car – a Mercedes  captured from the enemy. He refused to sit in it and left in  nearest available Indian car.   Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 13 Kharagpur
  14. 14. 01 Jan 1973. As the national anthem rang out in the crisp g p winter air, General SHFJ Manekshaw, Military Cross, Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan stepped forward to the , pp Presidential dais and saluted stiffly. President VV Giri ceremoniously handed Manekshaw an V.V. ornate silver‐tipped baton to give the nation her first Indian Field Marshal in history history. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 14 Kharagpur
  15. 15. • Professional Competence. Once a defence secretary made an observation on the note written by Manekshaw for the PM and the Defence Minister • He walked straight into Mrs Gandhi’s office • He politely told her that if she found the defence secretary more competent than him on military matters, then she did not have a need for him • The defence secretary was found a new job Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 15 Kharagpur
  16. 16. Defence Services Staff College November 1998 Defence Services Staff College November 1998 • Lecture on Leadership and Discipline to Officers from the three Defence Services under training for handling senior level appointments. appointments • Sam’s definition of the key attributes of a successful leader are summarised below:‐ • Attribute 1 – Professional Knowledge and Professional Competence a ‘sine qua non’ – hard work and constant study study. • Attribute 2 – The ability to make up your mind to make a decision and accept full responsibility f th t d i i ibilit for that decision ‐ A act of An t f omission is much worse that an act of commission. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 16 Kharagpur
  17. 17. Defence Services Staff College November 1998 Defence Services Staff College November 1998 • Att ib t 3 – Ab l t h Attribute Absolute honesty, f i t fairness andd justice ‐ should be perceived by his team, to be fair in his dealings with one and all. • Attribute 4 – Physical and Moral courage ‐ A ‘yes’ man is a dangerous man. • Attribute 5 – Loyalty ‐ to our subordinates to subordinates, our colleagues, deal firmly with trouble creators in a team. • Attribute 6 – Manliness ‐ a certain measure of flamboyance, a certain style and a vibrant personality, both in women and men leaders. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 17 Kharagpur
  18. 18. Model for Own Officers • The Sam Bahadur was a team player. He almost always finished his own work in an hour and spent the rest of his time floating from one office to another to understand what keeps people so busy. He often dropped in on harried juniors and eagerly helped them with their tasks • Those who served with him said that he never raised his voice voice. But even a mild rebuke accompanied by “Sweetheart, this will not do,” was enough to tame the wildest of soldiery egos. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 18 Kharagpur
  19. 19. ROLE MODEL FOR CORPORATE  LEADRES • For the future corporate leaders  ……….  aspiring to make the crossover from  ………. aspiring to make the crossover from good to great, the Field Marshal can be the  ultimate role model. ultimate role model • What can we learn from the 94 years of  brilliance, selfless service and joie de vivre that  Sam Bahadur gave us?  Sam Bahadur gave us? Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 19 Kharagpur
  20. 20. On the Board of Several Top Indian  Companies.  • Ch i Chairman A d Di t Of N And Director Nagarjuna F tili j Fertilizers & Chemicals ; Agro Tech Ltd; Muller & Phipps (India) Ltd; Foods & Inns Ltd. ,Finns Frozen Food Ltd. • Director Of Indian Metals & Ferro Alloys Ltd., CIFCO Finance LTD., International Limited, Eih Ltd., A. V. Thomas Industrial Products Ltd., Indian Charge Chrome Ltd., Goetze (India) Ltd And East India Hotels Association Limited Services Private Limited and Limited, Limited, Leila Lands Sdn Berhad (Malaysia). ; Avt Natural Products Ltd. Until July 29, 2006……… • Non‐executive and Independent Director and Director Emeritus Of Britannia Industries Ltd. ; Bombay Burmah Trading Corp. Ltd. Bomba B rmah Tradin Corp Ltd ; Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 20 Kharagpur
  21. 21. Raw Physical Courage  • Any aspiring leader needs raw courage in abundance. abundance Raw physical courage Sam Bahadur possessed in full and overflowing measure ‐ but does a CEO need it? • Of course he does ‐ natural disasters, terrorist strikes, industrial accidents other emergencies ‐ will the C O id il id h i ill h CEO be the first to run or first to respond? His response could make or b k hi organisation and hi own ld k break his ii d his future. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 21 Kharagpur
  22. 22. Moral Courage  • Even more important is moral courage ‐ the courage of conviction, the courage to stand up to the values one believes in. •TTrue corporate l d t leaders should neither h ld ith buckle under pressure nor deviate from p organisational welfare ‐ to command loyalty and followership followership. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 22 Kharagpur
  23. 23. Spotting & Deploying Talent  Spotting & Deploying Talent • The real genius of Sam lay in his choice of field commanders. That is a skill that every CEO must build to spell the difference between success and failure. • Abili to spot and d l right Ability d deploy i h talent ‐ with the skill set and mindscape that guarantees delivery Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 23 Kharagpur
  24. 24. Planning & Faith  Pl i & F ith • Th ability t plan t th nth The bilit to l to the th degree and simultaneously invest consummate faith in your people. Sam practised this expertly p py throughout his career, especially 1971 war war. • CEOs need to carryout detailed and meticulous planning and back their team fully. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 24 Kharagpur
  25. 25. Seek The Best Ideas  • The best ideas may be embedded d b dd d deep within the h h organisation. The CEO’s job is to f ferret them out and h d implement them. • Sam excelled in getting ideas from the rank and file; he would never pull rank on his subordinates trying to tell him something that was very different from his own ideas. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 25 Kharagpur
  26. 26. Strategic & Tactical balance  • Sam assembled his assault force, supplied , pp them with strategic guidance and demanded execution of plans from the field commanders. • This balance is what CEOs need. need While strategic initiatives are important, important grassroots implementation is equally vital Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 26 Kharagpur
  27. 27. Direct Communication  • Sam teaches us the importance of simple, direct and many times and, times, earthy communication. Known for his wit and informality, he could get straight to the heart of the matter. • CEOs must imbibe this in full measure Many times measure. corporate communications and discussions are mired in obfuscation and jargonising The principle of “say jargonising. of, say what you will do and then do what you said” is the bedrock of credibility. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 27 Kharagpur
  28. 28. Giving Due Credit to Subordinates (and Readiness to Accept Full Responsibility for Failure)  (and Readiness to Accept Full Responsibility for Failure) • Manekshaw declined to preside over the Pakistani surrender in Dhaka He insisted that the credit go to Dhaka. the Eastern Army Commander Lt Gen. Jagjit Aurora. • He remarked that h would go only to accept the k d h he ld l h surrender of the entire Pakistani Army. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 28 Kharagpur
  29. 29. Professional Respect and Ethos Professional Respect and Ethos • After the 1971 war, Manekshaw insisted that the bodies of Pakistani officers be returned in proper coffins, and with military citation if they had gone down fighting bravely. • H l d d th b He lauded the bravery of even hi enemies. f his i Such magnanimity is rare in military history. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 29 Kharagpur
  30. 30. Connect with Troops Connect with Troops • As COAS, Manekshaw had issued instructions that if anyone from 54 Sikh came visiting, he be brought straight to him, whatever time or g g engagement. • All were received with a robust burst of colloquial Punjabi, which Manekshaw spoke like l k a native. And none was l f unrequited. d left d Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 30 Kharagpur
  31. 31. Final Days Fi l D • A Field Marshal never retires. Instead of a salary, Sam Manekshaw was given a paltry pension of Rs. 1300 a g p yp month with no perks, not even a car......thanks to the political masters and the bureaucrats. • Let alone taking up a case he never even mentioned it to any one. The matter came to light eventually when the Government gave him a cheque for Rs. 16 million in lieu of the salary he should have received as Field Marshal but didn’t get over 36 years years. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 31 Kharagpur
  32. 32. • Field Marshal Sam Horm sji Framji Jamshedji Hormusji Manekshaw was admitted in the hospital for quot;progressive lung disease“. He had slipped into a pg g pp coma earlier in the day and the end came just after midnight at 00:30am, on June 27 2008. • He passed away into the pantheon of immortal Indian heroes and all‐time great military leaders of the world The saga of his life will continue to world. motivate and inspire untold generations. • As quoted by one of the doctors in MH Wellington … q y g his last words were …”I am better”. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 32 Kharagpur
  34. 34. ADIEU • A condolence book for Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw was k t at th M kh kept t the M t ' Martyrs' Memorial at India Gate. The book had to be kept open for two more days owing to tremendous public response. p p • The government said opening a condolence book for the Field Marshal is a singular honour Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 34 Kharagpur
  35. 35. LEADERSHIP ANALYSIS Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 35 Kharagpur
  36. 36. Perspective on Effective Leadership  Behavior • Participative Leadership. Accepted full responsibility for all decisions • Being supportive, constructive and goal oriented Being supportive constructive and goal oriented • Subordinate participation in decision making • Improved communication d ii • Facilitate conflict resolution • Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 36 Kharagpur
  37. 37. Nature of Participative Leadership • War Time: Consultative Made decisions after taking inputs from  his field commanders (final decision  undisputable): di bl ) • Quality of decisions (accurate in time  and space ‐14 days of planned war) and space 14 days of planned war) • Decision acceptance (by the political  leadership) • Yielded highest performance  (Liberation of Bangladesh) (Liberation of Bangladesh) • Minimum collateral damage Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 37 Kharagpur
  38. 38. Nature of Participative Leadership • Peace Time: Delegation Commanders at all level had functional freedom within the given framework • Actively defined the goals to be achieved • Task oriented • Yielded high morale • High standards of discipline Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 38 Kharagpur
  39. 39. Charismatic Leader • A i l d Vi i Articulated Vision and Mission. He planned all the operations  d Mi i Hl d ll h i of war meticulously and achieved remarkable success in  them.  them • Taking Personal Risks. The Sittang Bridge defence episode and  his firm and professional dealings with the bureaucracy and  his firm and professional dealings with the bureaucracy and political leadership ‐ were a clear indicator. • Sensitivity to Followers’ Needs. His dealing with the officers  y g and men were of exemplary order ‐ raising the morale of the  Indian Army through a telling defeat on Pakistan and looking  after the troops of 54 Sikh are examples. f h f Sikh l • Unconventional Behavior. His dressing style, the characteristic  sense of humor and handling of the political masters. sense of h mor and handling of the political masters Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 39 Kharagpur
  40. 40. Charismatic Traits and Skills Traits  Ti • Authoritatively Stylish: Magnificently moustachioed, charming  and dapper. and dapper • Self confidence and self control: The quintessential soldier:  cool and bold  cool and bold • Personal Integrity (Behavior consistent with espoused values – honesty, ethical , trustworthy):  Irreverent (no apple polishing).  honesty ethical trustworthy): Irreverent (no apple polishing). • Characteristic sense of Humor  Skills • Interpersonal skills: He was an able listener, irrespective of  how junior his interlocutor.  j Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 40 Kharagpur
  41. 41. Transformational Traits and Skills Traits • Self confidence: Seminal and decisive.  • Internal Locus of control (life determined by own actions and  ( y not by chance or uncontrollable forces) • Achievement orientation (assumed responsibility, displayed  desire to excel and drive to succeed) • Emotional Stability and Maturity:  • Considerate to those under his command • Above all, impervious to political pressure.  Skills  Skill • Conceptual skills: Through earthiness and plain‐speak he  motivated an army that achieved what no other army has  motivated an army that achieved what no other army has done since the Second World War — liberating a nation. Even  the U.S., with all its might and technical wizardry, has not  , g y, managed such a feat in the past years.  Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 41 Kharagpur
  42. 42. Types of power yp p Legitimate Power:  Legitimate Power: Executive Authority on behalf of the  President of India on Matters National and  President of India on Matters National and Matters Military Expert Power: Had expertise on all Operations of War Faced bullets and death in war – awarded  Military Cross for exceptional gallantry  y p g y Had fought 5 wars ‐ decorated three times ‐ served the Nation for nearly 40 years  served the Nation for nearly 40 years Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 42 Kharagpur
  43. 43. Types of power yp p Referent Power: The officers and men  Referent Power: The officers and men equally admired and identified with his  charisma – they also behaved fearlessly  hi h l b h df l l and in upright manner to gain approval. pg g pp Reward Power: He had the final say on  Reward Power: He had the final say on the war and peace time citations and  rewards Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 43 Kharagpur
  44. 44. Famous Anecdotes  Famous Anecdotes Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 44 Kharagpur
  45. 45. • He surmised once: quot;I wonder whether those of our p political masters who have been put in charge of the p g defence of the country can distinguish a mortar from a motor; a gun from a howitzer; a guerrilla from a ;g ;g gorilla ‐‐ although a great many of them in the past have resembled the latter......” Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 45 Kharagpur
  46. 46. Famous Anecdotes  Famous Anecdotes • Once the PM reportedly confronted him with rumours that he was planning a coup against p g pg her…… • He is said to have replied: “Don’t you think I Don t would be a worthy replacement for you, prime minister?..............You h have a l long nose. ………….So have I......……………….But I don’t poke my don t nose into other people’s affairs …” Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 46 Kharagpur
  47. 47. •O Once when at a presidential b h t id ti l banquet, h t ld t he told Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi: quot;You look very pretty tonightquot;. Surrounded by her ministers, she blushed and said……quot;Thank you, Samquot;. y, Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 47 Kharagpur
  48. 48. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 48 Kharagpur
  49. 49. Famous Anecdotes  • How many chiefs would refuse to call the  y prime minister ‘Madame’ on the  grounds that it would be impolite to use  d th t it ld b i lit t a word more appropriate in bawdy  houses?  • quot;I' quot;I'm always ready, sweetie,quot;‐ 1971 l d ti quot; 1971 war,  on being asked by Indira Gandhi about  g y the Indian Army's readiness. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 49 Kharagpur
  50. 50. Famous Anecdotes • quot;You received three at this age; when I was of your age, I received nine bullets and look today I am the look‐ today, Commander in Chief of the Indian Army.quot;‐ During h d quot; the 1971 Indo‐Pakistan War when he met an injured soldier in Army Hospital with three bullet wounds. wounds Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 50 Kharagpur
  51. 51. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 51 Kharagpur
  52. 52. Speech to cadets at IMA, Dehradun,  March 30, 1972  •MManekshaw said....You are going t b given kh id Y i to be i command of troops in an operational area. ..........Your t k will b t administer t th i needs Y tasks ill be to d i i t to their d and to lead them in battle........ What sort of men will you b l di ? Y will b l di veterans, men be leading? You ill be leading t who have fought, men who have won, men who are used t good l d hi M k sure you give it t d to d leadership. Make i to them.quot; • His speech, his bearing and the suggested grace was more important in victory than in defeat. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 52 Kharagpur
  53. 53. Looking back: Looking back: India’s finest war‐time chief and noble warrior going through  photographs on him at an exhibition in New Delhi in this file photo  dated April 3, 2003. dated April 3 2003 Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 53 Kharagpur
  54. 54. Famous Anecdotes  Barbie Dolls • T an i t i To interviewer about a row of B bi d ll i bt f Barbie dolls in his house promptly explained: “I always wanted to play with dolls When I was young my mom dolls. young, wouldn’t allow me to, then my wife came along, and I still was not allowed to. Finally, I told myself, y, y, ‘now I am the Field Marshall, I will damn well do as I please and went and got myself the dolls!’ ” • Sam Manekshaw married Siloo in 1939. When  she died in 2001, those who knew him in  Wellington observed, that its only then did age  Wellington observed that its only then did age begin to show on him. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 54 Kharagpur
  55. 55. Recollections of People in Civvies p • I recollect my meeting with Manekshaw at the  Mumbai airport a couple of years ago. While waiting  at the departure lounge, I saw the Field Marshal walk  in with an attendant in tow. I went across from  where I was sitting to greet him.  • He shook my hand warmly and was surprised when I  asked him for his autograph. “My autograph, what  gp y g p, will you do with it son ” he asked. I replied that I  would show it to my children, and preserve it for  y , p generations to come. He obliged. It was one of the  best moments of my life. ‐ T.V. Suresh  y Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 55 Kharagpur
  56. 56. References and Sources References and Sources • Time: Jan 1973 • Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw’s biography by Lt. Col. (Later Lt  Gen) Depinder Singh G ) D i d Si h • Encyclopaedia Britannica • h // di k/ ld/2008/j /30/i di • India’s political establishment and its shabby treatment of a  national hero, by Commodore C Uday national hero by Commodore C Uday Bhaskar (retd) • Mehta Ashok : The wonder that was Sam, New Delhi,  June  28, 2008 28 2008 Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 56 Kharagpur
  57. 57. References and Sources References and Sources • Compton Mackenzie (1951), Eastern Epic, Chatto & Windus,  London, pp. 440–1  •SSam Bahadur: A soldier's general, Times of India, 27 June  B h d A ldi ' l Ti f I di 27 J 2008. Retrieved 2008‐06‐30.  • London Gazette: (Supplement) no 35532 p 1797 21 April London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35532, p. 1797, 21 April  1942. Retrieved on 2008‐06‐30.  • Recommendations for Honours and Awards (Army)—Image Recommendations for Honours and Awards (Army) Image  details—Manekshaw, Sam Hormuzji Framji Jamshetji,  Documents online, The National Archives (fee required to  view pdf of original citation). Retrieved 2008‐06‐30.  Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 57 Kharagpur
  58. 58. References and Sources • quot;Obituary: Sam Manekshawquot;. The Economist (5 July, 2008):  p p. 107. y_id=11661408. Retrieved on 2008‐07‐07. • Tarun (2008), p. 2 • quot;Sam H.F.J. Manekshaw Dies at 94; Key to India's Victory in  1971 Warquot;. New York Times. June 30, 2008. shaw.html. Retrieved on 2008‐06‐30.  Field Marshal Sam  shaw html Retrieved on 2008 06 30 quot;Field Marshal Sam Hormusji Framji Jamshedji Manekshaw, India's best‐known  soldier and the architect of the country's victory in the 1971  y y war with Pakistan that gave birth to Bangladesh, died in  Wellington, India, on Friday. He was 94. The cause was  pneumonia, India's Defense Ministry said in a statement.quot; Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 58 Kharagpur
  59. 59. References and Sources References and Sources • DNA ‐ India ‐ NRIs irked by poor Manekshaw farewell ‐ Daily DNA  India  NRIs irked by poor Manekshaw farewell  Daily  News & Analysis • Saighal, Vinod, Obituary—Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw,  g, , y , The Guardian, 30 June 2008. Retrieved 2008‐06‐30.  • Vijay, Tarun (30 June, 2008). quot;Saluting Sam Bahadurquot;. Times  of India website. un_Vijay/The_Right_View/Saluting_Sam_Bahadur/articlesh Vij /Th Ri ht Vi /S l ti S B h d / ti l h ow/msid‐3179920,curpg‐1.cms. Retrieved on 2008‐07‐08. Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 59 Kharagpur
  60. 60. THANK YOU THANK YOU Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 60 Kharagpur
  61. 61. Field Marshal SHFJ Manekshaw, Military Cross,  Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan Colonel Ashutosh Sirothia, VGSOM, IIT  19 April 2009 61 Kharagpur