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How Semantic Web ideas connect to e-portfolio interoperability

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How Semantic Web ideas connect to e-portfolio interoperability

  1. 1. How Semantic Web ideas connect to e-portfolio interoperability <ul><ul><li>Simon Grant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JISC CETIS & independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalised Technologies for Lifelong Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>London 2008-11-18 </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. What is e-portfolio information? <ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal and contact details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Records of experiences / activities / events / meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills/competencies/abilities/qualities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>claimed (the claim really needs to be stated) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>desired and being worked towards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence for individuals having skills etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>including artefacts and other resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans for developing their skills etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal reflections as integral to process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogue with or feedback from others </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Portfolio and Semantic Web <ul><li>Portfolio information is inter-related, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>achievement – has evidence – resource (dissertation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>activity (course) – supports – achievement (good grade) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>achievement – is evidence of – assertion (my statement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assertion – claims – ability (learning outcome of course) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meeting – attended by – person </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maps very well onto Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vertices (blobs) and edges (arrows) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LEAP 2.0 allows recording of these vital connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>but the patterns are changeable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different structures for different purposes and views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>so better not in large fixed structures like IMS LIP </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. A small corner of vertices and edges course (activity) outcome (ability) achievement (good grade) assertion is evidence of has outcome supports claims personally defined resource (essay) has evidence
  5. 5. Vocabularies for interoperability <ul><li>Each resource needs to have a URI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>do NOT need to be common domain or structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each resource will need a meaningful type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>those DO need agreed common URIs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meaningful predicates / properties necessary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they also need agreed common URIs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So, someone needs to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>define the types in a way which will be agreeable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>give them URIs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>That's the essence of LEAP 2.0 and LEAP2A </li></ul>
  6. 6. LEAP2A uses Atom <ul><li>atom:entry ↔ a single portfolio item ↔ RDF resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9 types of entry so far agreed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>atom:link ↔ relationship ↔ some RDF predicates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 relationships so far agreed (plus inverses) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>atom:category ↔ tag ↔ some RDF predicates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 category schemes so far </li></ul></ul><ul><li>new elements ↔ metadata ↔ RDF predicates & literals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dc:spatial from Dublin Core for place of activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rdf:type from RDF for item type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>date and status newly defined for LEAP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LEAP2A represents agreed core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LEAP 2.0 includes many forward-looking possibilities </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>These are the vertices </li></ul><ul><li>Based on established usage within partner portfolio systems </li></ul><ul><li>More have been sketched out in LEAP 2.0 for future consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Entry is used as itself for any general pieces of writing </li></ul><ul><li>Graceful degradation </li></ul><ul><li>“ plan” includes goal </li></ul>LEAP2A types of information <ul><li>entry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>meeting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>plan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. LEAP2A relationships & inverses <ul><li>relation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reflects on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has ordered part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attended by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has reply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>author (no inverse) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(inverse ones) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reflected on by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is part of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is ordered part of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>supported by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is evidence of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is agenda of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is outcome of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in reply to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>more mapped out in LEAP 2.0 for future consideration </li></ul>
  9. 9. About entries: metadata etc. <ul><li>Entries have authors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atom allows plain text name, e-mail, URI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in LEAP2A, URI can relate to separate person entry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but we haven't yet decided how to cover personal details </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Records created, modified at certain times </li></ul><ul><li>Achievements each have one date of achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Plans each have one target date of completion </li></ul><ul><li>Activities, meetings have start and end dates </li></ul><ul><li>Things happen in locations </li></ul><ul><li>These things are recorded “literally” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rather than by a relationship to another item “blob” </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Example of LEAP2A Atom <ul><li><entry> </li></ul><ul><li><title>Change of Semester Meeting</title> </li></ul><ul><li><id>portfolio:meeting/1512</id> </li></ul><ul><li><published>2007-10-16T12:59:30Z</published> </li></ul><ul><li><updated>2007-11-19T01:00:00Z</updated> </li></ul><ul><li><content type=&quot;text&quot;>Please take a little time to give the School some feedback on the maths modules you took in the Autumn Semester. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be done on-line via the link &quot;Evaluation of Modules&quot; on the School SSCC web page.</content> </li></ul><ul><li><rdf:type rdf:resource=&quot;leaptype:meeting&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li><leap:date leap:point=&quot;start&quot;>2009-02-06T10:00:00Z</leap:date> </li></ul><ul><li><leap:date leap:point=&quot;end&quot;>2009-02-06T11:00:00Z&quot;</leap:date> </li></ul><ul><li><dc:spatial>Maths Room C307<dc:spatial/> </li></ul><ul><li><link rel=&quot;leap:has_agenda&quot; href=&quot;portfolio:meeting/3347&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li><link rel=&quot;leap:has_agenda&quot; href=&quot;portfolio:meeting/3366&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li><link rel=&quot;leap:has_agenda&quot; href=&quot;portfolio:meeting/3385&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li><link rel=&quot;leap:attended_by&quot; href=&quot;portfolio:people/0001&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li><link rel=&quot;leap:attended_by&quot; href=&quot;portfolio:people/0226&quot; /> </li></ul><ul><li></entry> </li></ul>
  11. 11. Easy to see how to map to triples <ul><li>Each entry is its own resource </li></ul><ul><li>URIs for types, relationships, literal elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(URIs need a long-term home domain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>literal values remain literal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use of “CURIEs” makes human reading easier </li></ul><ul><li>Just a couple of slightly tricky bits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordered parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blank nodes possible if they had defined type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All this remains to be tested </li></ul>
  12. 12. Other XML formats <ul><li>For any other XML format dealing with portfolio information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define a transform to RDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare the triples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If this works OK, should also be able to transform straight between XML formats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XHTML / RDFa is a special case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with predefined transform to RDF </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Now a W3C Recommendation (2008-10-14) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XHTML does the layout </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for human reading on browser, so can use for e-portfolio presentations </li></ul><ul><li>RDFa attributes within XHTML tags define RDF content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ideally reusing all the content visible in the XHTML </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should be quite straightforward to take RDFa, extract RDF, and put into e-portfolio database accurately </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as accurately as LEAP2A, anyway </li></ul></ul>RDFa
  14. 14. Summary <ul><li>Portfolio information is easily represented by Semantic Web structures </li></ul><ul><li>LEAP 2.0 maps out agreed and possible vocabulary terms for item types and for predicates </li></ul><ul><li>LEAP2A defines Atom serialisation and formulates agreement on established practice </li></ul><ul><li>Other XML formats could be mapped to LEAP 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>RDFa would allow use by human and machine </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks for your attention </li></ul><ul><li>If there is time, questions and discussion? </li></ul>