Photosynthesisand cellularrespiration


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Photosynthesisand cellularrespiration

  1. 1. By Muhammad Asif Pu Pak Muhammad Asif
  2. 2. <ul><li>I can explain in detail the flow of energy through living systems </li></ul><ul><li>I can compare the chemical processes of autotrophs and heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>I can describe the role of ATP in metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>I can describe how energy is released by ATP. </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  3. 3. <ul><li>Metabolism: all of the chemical reactions that take place within an organism </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic pathways alter molecules in a series of steps. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes selectively accelerate each step. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enzymes are regulated to maintain a balance of supply and demand. </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif
  4. 4. <ul><li>Catabolic reactions give off energy by breaking down complicated molecules to simpler compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Anabolic reactions use energy to build complicated molecules from simpler compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>The energy released by catabolic pathways is used to drive anabolic pathways. </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  5. 5. Muhammad Asif
  6. 6. <ul><li>Autotrophs make their own food through anabolic reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many autotrophs carry out photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs can not make their own food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs must eat other organisms to obtain energy from food through catabolic reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs utilize cellular respiration </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif
  7. 7. <ul><li>ATP powers cellular work </li></ul><ul><li>A cell does three main kinds of work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical work, beating of cilia, contraction of muscle cells, and movement of chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport work, pumping substances across membranes against the direction of spontaneous movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical work, driving endergonic reactions such as the synthesis of polymers from monomers </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif
  8. 8. <ul><li>ATP ( adenosine triphosphate ) is a type of nucleotide consisting of the nitrogenous base adenine, the sugar ribose, and a chain of three phosphate groups. </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  9. 9. <ul><li>The bonds between phosphate groups can be broken by hydrolysis. </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  10. 10. <ul><li>Energy is stored in these bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>So? </li></ul><ul><li>The breaking of the chemical bond releases the energy </li></ul><ul><li>ATP + H 2 O -> ADP + P + ENERGY </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  11. 11. <ul><li>The process by which mitochondria break down glucose to make ATP </li></ul><ul><li>In order for our bodies to use the energy, the food must be broken down into a usable form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the usable form of energy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What type of process breaks down molecules? </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif
  12. 12. <ul><li>I can summarize how glucose is broken down in glycolysis. </li></ul><ul><li>I can describe how ATP is made in cellular respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>I can identify the role of fermentation in cellular respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>I can evaluate the importance of oxygen in aerobic respiration. </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  13. 13. <ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 -> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 38 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Overall this is a three stage process </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in the cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose is broken down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Krebs Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks down pyruvate into CO2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs in mitochondrial matrix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E lectron T ransport C hain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP is synthesized </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif
  14. 14. <ul><li>Glyco = glucose Lysis = break down </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>This stage occurs in BOTH aerobic and anaerobic respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose breaks down into 2 pyruvate (2 ATP are also made) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose is a 6-carbon sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyruvate is a 3-carbon molecule (there are two of them) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See diagram on simple explanation handout </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif
  15. 15. <ul><li>Reactants </li></ul><ul><li>1 glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are needed </li></ul><ul><li>2 ATP are needed to start </li></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><li>2 Pyruvates (go to next step) </li></ul><ul><li>4 ATP (2 are gained) </li></ul><ul><li>2 NADH (go to ETC) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  16. 16. <ul><li>Pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>See diagram on simple explanation handout </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  17. 17. <ul><li>Reactants </li></ul><ul><li>2 pyruvate (from glycolysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><li>2 Acetyl CoA (go to next step) </li></ul><ul><li>2 CO 2 (given off as waste) </li></ul><ul><li>2 NADH (go to ETC) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  18. 18. <ul><li>Occurs in the matrix of mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>A series of reactions occur (this is not just one step) </li></ul><ul><li>Main purpose is to generate electrons for use in ETC </li></ul><ul><li>2 ATP is given off </li></ul><ul><li>See diagram on simple explanation handout </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  19. 19. <ul><li>Reactants </li></ul><ul><li>2 Acetyl CoA </li></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><li>2 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>6 NADH (go to ETC) </li></ul><ul><li>2 FADH 2 (go to ETC) </li></ul><ul><li>4 CO 2 (given off as waste) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  20. 20. <ul><li>Occurs in inner membrane of mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Series (chain) of coupled redox reactions (electrons are transported through the chain) </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons carried to this step by NADH and FADH 2 (produced in previous steps) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is used in this step </li></ul><ul><li>Water is given off </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  21. 21. <ul><li>Reactants </li></ul><ul><li>10 NADH </li></ul><ul><li>2 FADH 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><li>34 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  22. 22. <ul><li>2 ATP made in glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>2 ATP made in Krebs Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>34 ATP made in ETC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 NADH = 3 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 X 3 = 30 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 FADH 2 = 2 ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 X 2 = 4 </li></ul></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif
  23. 23. <ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Yields 2 pyruvate and 2 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>With no oxygen present, cellular respiration does not occur </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY 2 ATP ARE PRODUCED (compare to aerobic respiration) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  24. 24. <ul><li>Alcoholic Fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate converted to ethyl alcohol and CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out by yeast and some bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Used in producing alcohol (both consumable and for ethanol), and for baking </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic Acid Fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate converted to lactic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out by muscles when working hard (muscles need ATP but can’t get O 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Causes muscle soreness and cramps </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  25. 25. <ul><li>Carried out by most (not all) autotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light energy-> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Basically this reaction is the OPPOSITE of cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><li>See simple explanation handout and text </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  26. 26. <ul><li>Light reaction (depends on light) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traps sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces electrons and ATP required to power the dark reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen given off here </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dark reaction, aka Calvin Cycle (does not directly depend on light) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses ATP and electrons from light reaction and CO2 to make glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See diagram on simple explanation handout </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif