Linguistics

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Linguistics

  1. 1. Anthropology Experience by Muhammad Asif UOL Pakistan Linguistics Muhammad Asif
  2. 2. Design Features All Systems Share Muhammad Asif Mode of Communication Pragmatic Function Semanticity
  3. 3. Design Features Some Systems Share Muhammad Asif Cultural Transmission Discreteness Arbitrariness Interchangeability
  4. 4. Design Features Unique To Human Speech Muhammad Asif Displacement Stimulus Freedom Productivity
  5. 5. Linguistic Competencies Muhammad Asif Phonetics Morphology Phonology Syntax
  6. 6. Phonetics <ul><li>Phones : Mouth sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemes : Phones in a language </li></ul><ul><li>Acoustic Phonetics : Study of phonemes as soundwaves </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Phonetics : Study of phoneme perception </li></ul><ul><li>Articulatory Phonetics : Study of the physical production of phonemes. </li></ul>Muhammad Asif
  7. 7. Phonology Muhammad Asif Rules of Phoneme Combination Limits possible phoneme combinations
  8. 8. Morphology <ul><li>Bound Morphemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only have meaning in context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/s/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/z/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Free Morphemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have meaning out of context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/bus/ </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif Assigning meaning to phonemes and phoneme combinations
  9. 9. Syntax <ul><li>The woman hit the man with the lamp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did she hit with a lamp? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was the man holding the lamp? </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif The meaningful arrangement of morphemes and morpheme classes
  10. 10. Language and the Brain <ul><li>Wernicke’s Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages morphemes, their phonemes, and their meanings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broca’s Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies syntax and sends information to the motor cortex. </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif
  11. 11. Language Acquisition <ul><li>First Stage (Neonate – 6 mos.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary, uncreative performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonetic competency present </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Babbling Stage (6 mos. – 1yr.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phoneme production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on surrounding phonemes </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif
  12. 12. Language Acquisition <ul><li>Holophrastic Stage (1yr. –2yrs.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphemes produced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalized utterances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two Word Stage (by 2 yrs.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two word sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less generalization of morphemes </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif
  13. 13. Language Acquisition <ul><li>Telegraphic Speech and Beyond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utterances become longer but may lack function words (‘telegraphic speech’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ ball roll down hill” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalization continues to decrease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 3 ½ years or so, child is more or less a fluent speaker </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif
  14. 14. Dialects <ul><li>What varies? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What determines dialect? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul>Muhammad Asif Mutually intelligible variations of the same language

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