Genatic engeneering


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Genatic engeneering

  1. 1. Genetics and Genetic Engineering By: Muhammad Asif Pu pak Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  2. 2. terms <ul><li>agar- porous gelatin like material used as a support matrix for living cells in artificial environments </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  3. 3. centrifuge <ul><li>device for separating substances on the basis of density </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  4. 4. clones <ul><li>organisms or cells of nearly identical genetic makeup derived from a single source </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  5. 5. complementary <ul><li>containing structures that match or bond with related structures </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  6. 6. electrophoresis <ul><li>technique used to separate migrating molecules in an electrical field </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  7. 7. Excise <ul><li>to remove a part by a process similar to cutting </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  8. 8. Expression <ul><li>the appearance of a trait directed by a gene </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  9. 9. Genetic code <ul><li>a series of three nucleotide bases that determine the amino acid order and the proteins formed in cell reproduction </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  10. 10. Genetic Engineering <ul><li>technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  11. 11. Genetics <ul><li>science dealing with passage of traits from one generation to another </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  12. 12. Host <ul><li>a cell or organism that harbors another organism or DNA from a foreign source </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  13. 13. Hybrid <ul><li>offspring or cell originating from parents with differing genetic makeup </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  14. 14. Ligase <ul><li>enzyme used to join two pieces of DNA </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  15. 15. Molecular weight <ul><li>sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  16. 16. Mutation <ul><li>a heritable change in genetic makeup </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  17. 17. Nucleotides <ul><li>building blocks of nucleic acid composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  18. 18. Plasmid <ul><li>a small, usually circular, piece of DNA that is separate from the chromosomal DNA </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  19. 19. Polymerase <ul><li>an enzyme that joins nucleotides to make nucleic acid </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  20. 20. Recombinant DNA <ul><li>DNA that has been altered by genetic engineering </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  21. 21. Restriction enzyme <ul><li>restriction endonuclease </li></ul><ul><li>enzyme that cuts DNA strands at specific sites </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  22. 22. sequence <ul><li>order of nucleotides or amino acids </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  23. 23. template <ul><li>a pattern used for developing a complementary structure </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  24. 24. trait <ul><li>a characteristic resulting from gene expression </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  25. 25. transform <ul><li>to change the genetic makeup of an organism by alteration of the DNA </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  26. 26. vector <ul><li>an agent such as a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a host cell </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  27. 27. Living material <ul><li>Organism - unit of living matter capable of independent function and reproduction </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  28. 28. Complex Organism <ul><li>higher organism </li></ul><ul><li>an organism with cells, tissues, and organs arranged to function as a single unit </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Plants, animals, humans </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  29. 29. Organ <ul><li>arrangement of tissues which provides life support function for an organism </li></ul><ul><li>leaf is an organ that carries out respiration, transpiration and ps. </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  30. 30. Tissue <ul><li>arrangement of cells with similar structures in clusters or sheets for specific function in an organ </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  31. 31. Cell <ul><li>smallest structural unit of living matter that is capable of carrying out basic life processes </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  32. 32. Basic Cell structures <ul><li>cell wall - protective layer in plants that keeps the cell intact </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  33. 33. cell membrane <ul><li>delicate structure that surrounds the cell </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  34. 34. chloroplasts <ul><li>site of photosynthesis in plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>contain some DNA </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  35. 35. Cytoplasm <ul><li>cell fluid containing all cell structures </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  36. 36. Nucleus <ul><li>control center of a cell </li></ul><ul><li>contains most of the DNA </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  37. 37. Chromosomes <ul><li>structures that are physical carriers of genes </li></ul><ul><li>made p of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>are located in cell nucleus </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  38. 38. Mitochondria <ul><li>energy producing structures in the cell cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>contain some DNA </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  39. 39. Plasmid <ul><li>extra chromosomal piece of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>located in the cell cytoplasm </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  40. 40. Ribosome <ul><li>site where new proteins are produced </li></ul><ul><li>result of genetic expression </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  41. 41. Cell reproduction <ul><li>mitosis - occurs in body (somatic) cells </li></ul><ul><li>increases by simple division </li></ul><ul><li>chromosomes remain paired during cell division </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  42. 42. meiosis <ul><li>occurs in reproductive cells (gametes) </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  43. 43. meiosis <ul><li>increases by division into single chromosomes and recombination of male and female cells to form a new individual </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  44. 44. meiosis <ul><li>one chromosome from each parent forms the new pair </li></ul><ul><li>each organism has a specific number of paired chromosomes </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  45. 45. Genetic engineering <ul><li>technology involved in removing, modifying, or adding genes to a DNA molecule </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  46. 46. Genetic engineering <ul><li>movement of a gene from one organism to another </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  47. 47. Other names <ul><li>recombinant DNA technology </li></ul><ul><li>recombinant DNA science </li></ul><ul><li>gene transfer </li></ul><ul><li>gene splicing gene cloning </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  48. 48. Naturally occurring <ul><li>alternations in the genetic makeup of plants and animals allow them to respond to changes in their environment </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  49. 49. Naturally occurring <ul><li>some bacteria and viruses change the function of cells by inserting their DNA into the DNA of the cell </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  50. 50. Naturally occurring <ul><li>natural selection ensures that the adapted individual leaves offspring for the next generation </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  51. 51. Scientific Gen eng. <ul><li>Scientists have developed the ability to transfer genetic material from one organism to another </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  52. 52. Scientific Gen eng. <ul><li>Plasmids found in some organisms can be engineered to accept DNA from other sources </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  53. 53. Scientific Gen eng. <ul><li>Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific sites </li></ul><ul><li>cut ends of plasmid rings can accept pieces of DNA from other organisms </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan
  54. 54. Scientific Gen eng. <ul><li>The ability to cut and splice DNA segments is providing many opportunities for changing the function of organisms </li></ul>Muhammad Asif Pakistan