Guiding Events and Figures These may be political, scientific, literary, philosophical, religious Ca. 1455, Gutenberg develops the printing press Luther nails his 95 Theses to Wittenberg Cathedral in 1517 Leads to the Protestant Reformation Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther in 1520; Diet of Worms condemns him in 1521 Henry VIII takes control of Church of England in 1534 In 1609, Galileo adapts telescope for astronomy His scientific beliefs will lead to his excommunication
Reflections of the Age SCIENCE LITERATURE Francis Bacon William Shakespeare Established scientific method Author of 37 plays and 154 sonnets Privileges observation and He is ―not for an age, but for experimentation all time.‖—Ben Johnson Rene Descartes Michel de Montaigne Emphasizes deductive Establishes the essai as an reasoning in answering attempt to answer ―What do I philosophical questions know?‖ ―I think; therefore, I am.‖ Assumes that we can find our own answers
Guiding Question…GIVEN FREE WILL, WHAT WILL MAN CHOOSE TO QUESTION? IDEALIZATION THE CHURCHONE’S BEING (AN EXISTENTIAL QUESTION)
Idealization IN THE VISUAL ARTS, THE GENRE SCENE IS PREFERRED IN MUSIC, MADRIGALS ARE POPULARGiven free will, what will man choose to question?
My mistress eyes are nothing like the sun; A Coral is far more red than her lips red: BShakespeare’s If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; A Sonnet 130 If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. B I have seen roses damaskd, red and white, C But no such roses see I in her cheeks; D And in some perfumes is there more delight C Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks. D I love to hear her speak, yet well I know EFORM That music hath a far more pleasing sound. F14 lines I grant I never saw a goddess go: E3 quatrains My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground. F1 couplet And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare GIambic pentameter As any she belied with false compare. G Unstress/stress
The Catholic Church THE WEALTHY WILL SUPPORT THE SPLIT AS THEY WILL NOT BE REQUIRED TO : a. PAY TAXES TO THE CATHOLIC CHURCH b. ADOPT THE RELIGIOUS APPOINTMENTS OF THE PAPACY IN NORTHERN EUROPE LANDSGiven free will, what will man choose to question?
Author of the 95Theses, whichargue that faith, notworks, bringssalvationAngry that CatholicChurch is chargingfor indulgences andthe forgiveness ofsinsGerman monkteaching atWittenbergUniversity Lucas Cranach’s Portrait of Martin Luther, ca. 1526
Scientific Discovery questions Church Authority Copernicus (1473-1543) argues that the Earth revolves around the sun Based on a Greek geographer and astronomer, Ptolemy In 1533, Gemma Fisius explained triangulation in mapmaking and surveying, and in 1553, the principle of longitude In 1609, Galileo adapts telescope to astronomy
One’s Being WHAT IS OUR NATURE? OUR PURPOSE? WHY ARE WE HERE?Given free will, what will man choose to question?
HieronymousBosch’sHaywain, ca.1495--1500Based on FlemishProverbsMessage: Man’snature is avaracious(greedy)
To be, or not to be, that is the question:From Hamlet’s Whether tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Soliloquy Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them? To die, to sleep, No more; and by a sleep to say we end The heart-ache, and the thousand natural shocksInternal thoughts That flesh is heir to: tis a consummationspoken out loud Devoutly to be wished. To die, to sleep; To sleep, perchance to dream – ay, theres the rub: For in that sleep of death what dreams may come,Existential in When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,nature Must give us pause – theres the respect That makes calamity of so long life. For who would bear the whips and scorns of time, The oppressors wrong, the proud mans contumely, The pangs of disprized love, the law’s delay, The insolence of office… But that the dread of something after death… makes us rather bear those ills we have Than fly to others that we know not of?
In subsequent presentations, you will learn more about: Middle-class preferences in the Visual Arts Distinctions between Northern European and Italian styles These presentations will prepare you to incorporate the information in the assignments and assessments for the week