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Week 5.middle class preferences


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Week 5.middle class preferences

  1. 1. Middle Class CommissionsIn 15th Century Northern Europe
  2. 2. Region Determines Preference• Commercial and Agricultural specialization—each region did what it could best and depended on trade ▫ England—sheep raising ▫ Germany—grains (and so beer) ▫ Italy—Banking ▫ Bruges—a sea port of trade• A rise in Capitalism after feudalism ▫ Personal income begins to Humanism influences this grow—more money for region, but Life here is less luxuries like butter, milk…and idealized than in Italy art
  3. 3. PortraitureBecomes increasinglypopular—the wealthy canafford to invest in portraitsof posterity, and they havedefinite ideas about HOWthey will be remembered.Portraiture is more than acollection of pictures ofunknown people.Portraiture can actually tellus a lot of about the culturalworldview of an age—howdo people want to beremembered, what isimportant toMan in Red Turban VAN EYCK, them.
  4. 4. Development of Oil Painting• Several Advantages ▫ Artist can more easily control the medium ▫ Artist can represent darker and lighter shades more intensely ▫ Artist can present more luminosity in thin glazes ▫ Artist can make mistakes  more time can be spent refining images, correcting and adding details ▫ Artist can give surface an enameled, polished look  appeals to the growing middle-class with money
  5. 5. Tapestries Important in a region of especially cold weather (compared to the weather in a Mediterranean country like Italy). They provide insulation for large churches, large stone castles; they also reflect the wealth of the patron as they are VERY expensive (more expensive than paintings or murals). For instance, a wealthy commission would use gold and silver thread“Unicorn is found at the Fountain,” from The Hunt of the that would reflect light in the Unicorn tapestry series evening against a
  6. 6. Illuminated Manuscripts Small Portable Objects appropriate for roving courts Book of Hours A collection of prayers and daily readings for an individual’s private s devotion Northern European faith is more private than communal, so here Mary (the patron) is NOT in the church, not at Mass, notMARYdirected by priests but inat her OF BURGUNDY PAINTER, Mary her domestic spaceDevotions, from Hours of Mary of Burgundy
  7. 7. Altarpieces Altarpieces were both commissioned for chapels and churches as well as for personalCAMPIN, Merode Altarpiece devotional objects Meant to remind the donor to pray, to be ever constant in devotion. Allow donor/s to
  8. 8. Couple Things toRemember:• Northern European works will tend to emphasize redemption over damnation (Italian works emphasize man’s sinfulness ▫ This worldview will lead to the Protestant Reformation and its iconoclasm• Northern European artists have more freedom to play with religious imagery (Italian artists are required to abide by more standards of iconography) ▫ This means artists are interpreting Christian symbols and composing scenes with their imaginations ▫ This emphasis on the individual will also contribute to
  9. 9. In Summary▫ Remember, the Plague devastated Western Europe, leaving populations decreased by at least half.▫ Cities start to specialize and personal incomes increase.▫ With the rise of the middle-class, and with a regal court system in place, humanism affects the laity and artists begin to gain more and more commissions for private artworks—altarpieces for