Natural CuriosityIslamic Art Reflected in the Arts
DISCLAIMERThis presentation is an overview of the material in your text. It is notcomprehensive, nor is it meant to be. This presentation allows you to introduceyourself to concepts and images in the respective chapter. Best practice says toview this presentation with your book open, as many of the images in thispresentation are small or incomplete.
Guiding Questions• How do you reflect religious belief without narratives (unlike Christian and Jewish artists)?• How does an interest in natural sciences and observation affect the religious arts? Prayer Hall, Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain
The Islamic Empire will surpass the geographic extent of theRoman empire. That is impressive given the land mass that the Where in the worldRoman ruled. Delve into your text to see how the Islamic are we?caliphs and dynasties achieved such success. Could it bebecause they were interested in gaining knowledge fromvarious customs and cultures?
Guiding HistoricalEvents• Abraham has a son with his servant, Hagar, and he names him Ishmael. Together they build a shrine to the monotheistic Creator at Mecca—the same Creator worshipped by Christians and Jews• In 610, Mohammed begins writing the Quran, meaning recitations. He finishes in 623. It is considered the first time God, Allah in Arabic, spoke his words in Arabic to an Arabic people• The Umayyads establish the first Muslim dynasty in 661 and rule from their capital in Damascus, Syria• The Ottomans capture Byzantine Constantinople in 1453 The Kabah, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Five Pillars of Islam• Shahadah--proclamation of the monotheistic Creator--God• Salat--prayer five times a day• Zakah--voluntary giving• Sawm--fasting during the month of Ramadan (as determined by lunar, ceremonial calendar)• Hajj--pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime if physically and financially able Maliwiya Minaret, Sammarra, Iraq
Contributions ofArabic Culture, to name afew• The number zero• Soap for personal hygiene (Christians at the time do not bathe for fear that they will tempt evil, lust, and the devil into their homes)• Preservation of Greek and Roman philosophical texts (which Christians destroy but will later translate and reconcile with Christian doctrines) Hall of the Two Sisters, The Alhambra, Grenada, Spain
Triumph of Islam reflected in architecture Newgrange, Ireland Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem The site on which the Dome of the Rock sits is important to all three monotheistic religions, and so is an appropriate location to place an architecture that shows triumph. In Islam: Rock from which Mohammed ascended to the Heavens in his Night JourneySelf Study: In Christianity andWhat have Islamic leaders adopted from Roman and Judaism:Christian architecture? What have they chosen to do Burial site of Adam, the slab on which Abraham wasdifferently as they try to distinguish themselves from to sacrifice Isaac, and the sitepagan and Christian culture? of the destroyed Temple of Solomon.
Architecture asReligious Expression• The interior hypostyle hall and exterior columns are meant to remind believers of the olive trees Mohammed preached in front of• The interior prayer hall is arranged in rows to organize communal prayer• The ablution fountain the courtyard is vital for ritual washing before entering Great Mosque, Damascus, Syria sacred space
Elements of the Islamic Mosque Minaret Minbar Mihrab Maqsura Qibla WallSelf Study:Look over these elements asyou read about them in yourtext.
Christian Parallels• The mihrab is similar to the Apse, but does not hold an altar or imagery of anything living• The minbar is similar to the Christian pulpit. The Imam reads from the minbar texts of the Quran• The maqsura is akin to the stage or choir in the Christian church. Tis is a space reserved for important figures, I.e. royalty• The qibla wall faces Mecca and is like the church that is directed to ward the cardinal point of East, the direction of the rising sun, and so Christ• The minaret is like a Christian lantern tower or steeple
Tile Work in Islamic Decoration• Meant to reflect the beauty of Paradise and of Creation• Often meant to Baghdad Kiosk at Topkapi imitate fabric Palace, Istanbul, Turkey• Often high liter with Kufic, an abstracted Arabic script Mosaic Mihrab, from the Madrasa Imami, Isfahan, Iran Iwan Muqarnas from Royal Mosque, Isfahan, Iran
In subsequent presentations, you will explore:• The Dome of the Rock• The mathematics of religious ornament