Protestant reformation an its consequences


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  • Brought the idea of Many German princes (especially Prince Fredrick of Saxony) in the Holy Roman Empire stood by Luther and against the pope – some for political and economic reasons, others because they believed in Luther’s ideas regarding salvation and they liked the idea of a “German Church”
  • Protestant reformation an its consequences

    1. 1. Protestant ReformationAnd Its Consequences
    2. 2. Just a Reminder…• Renaissance ▫ “Rebirth” of learning and science ▫ Rediscovery of Greco-roman ideals• Humanism ▫ Idea that man, not God, was the center of the universe ▫ Man controls his own destiny ▫ Man can learn about and understand his world by observation and reason without God’s help ▫ Led many to question both governments and the institutional Church
    3. 3. Protestant ReformationProtestant – one who protestsand works for reform outside theCatholic Church
    4. 4. Why is this necessary?• Church Corruption ▫ History of popes with mistresses and children; John XII ran a brothel from inside the Vatican in the 10th century ▫ Clergy sells indulgences to forgive sins, decrease days spent in purgatory, save the dead from damnation• Belief is superstitious ▫ Worship of “relics” thought to provide salvation• Humanism emphasizes reason ▫ Church used its power and authority to keep the people ignorant and illiterate – people couldn’t think for themselves
    5. 5. An Indulgence (1517) signed by Johann Tetzel “With the Authority of all Saints and with mercy for you, I free you of all sins and crimes and excuse you from all punishments for ten days. Johann Tetzel”“When the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs.” – saying attributed to Johann Tetzel
    6. 6. Martin Luther: A Protestor• Monk and religious scholar• Trained in the law before going into the seminary; comfortable with legal arguments and logical reasoning• One of the most educated men at the time in Europe• Understood the power of the printing press and used it to his advantage
    7. 7. Luther’s 95 Theses (1517)• Arguments against the Catholic Church ▫ Based on his reading of Romans 1:17, “He who through faith is righteous shall live.”• Nailed to the Wittenberg Cathedral door ▫ Written in German so people could read for themselves ▫ Mass produced with the printing press and widely distributed• Humanism emphasizes reason ▫ Church used its power and authority to keep the people ignorant and illiterate – people couldn’t think for themselves
    8. 8. Luther’s Ideas• Justification (salvation) by Faith Alone ▫ Based on his reading of Romans 1:17, “He who through faith is righteous shall live.”• The Bible is the Sole Authority ▫ Undermines the infallibility of the Pope and the clergy members of the Catholic Church• An Educated People is Necessary ▫ If people can read, they can read their own Bibles and so rely on themselves to know what it says ▫ Citizens in “protestant” areas of Europe will generally be more literate than in Catholic ones well into the 20th century
    9. 9. Cultural Impact of the Printing PressLuther takes advantage of arising literacy and printspamphlets for the massesUses images used to teach theilliterate criticisms of theCatholic Church
    10. 10. Other MajorProtestant Reformers• Calvin ▫ In Switzerland with influence in Scotland, France, and the Netherlands ▫ Strong Proponent of a Predestination and the “Elect” – only 144,000 earn heaven in the end ▫ Influential for colonial Puritans and their legacy of an American idea of US as God’s chosen people• Henry VIII ▫ In England, after the Catholic Church would not grant him a divorce, creates the Church of England• Elizabeth I ▫ In England, creates the Anglican Church as a compromise ▫ Like her father, is sworn allegiance to as the head of the church
    11. 11. Henry VIIIIn 1534 is the head of theChurch of EnglandOrders destruction ofmonasteries in 1535Thomas Cromwell, on behalfof the King, destroys religious“idols”
    12. 12. Consequences• Thirty Years War ▫ War between Catholics and Protestants (1618 to 1648)  Culmination of a series of sporadic wars that first broke out in the German lands during the time of Luther (1520s)  The most destructive war in European history before the outbreak of World War I in 1914 ▫ Ends with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, which decrees that Catholic nations recognize the existence of Protestant states• Counter-Reformation ▫ Ignatius Loyola (Catholic) founds the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 1534, an order dedicated reforming the Church within the Church ▫ A learned order, the Jesuits open schools and colleges to more people to read both the Bible and other works ▫ Emphasized a Classical Education (Greco-Roman) with faith woven into the curriculum