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QUALITY CONTROL IN BLOOD
COMPONANT PREPAPRATION
Muhammad Asif zeb
Lecturer Hematology
IPMS-KMU
Peshawar
Blood components
Importance of component separation
Separation of blood into component allows optimal
survival of each constituents
Component separation allows transfusion of only
specific desired component to the patient
Transfusion of only the specific constituent of the blood
avoids the use of unnecessary component
By using blood components several patient can be
treated with the blood from one donor
Blood bags
• Single blood bag:
• Whole blood
• Double bags:
• Backed red cells
• plasma
• Triple bags:
• Packed cells
• Plasma
• Platelets
• Quarterly bags:
• Packed cells
• Plasma
• Platelets
• Plasma factors
Action of ingredients of anticoagulant solution.
Citrate
Prevents coagulation by
chelating calcium
Sodium di-
phospate
Prevents fall in pH
Glucose
Supports ATP generation
by glycolytic pathways
Adenine
Synthesizes ATP,
increases level of ATP,
extends the self life of
RBC to 35 days.
Blood Products
Red Cell Concentrates
Platelet Concentrates
Granulocyte Concentrate
Fresh Frozen plasma
Cryoprecipitate
Cryopoor plasma
Stored plasma
Albumin
Immunoglobulin
Coagulation Factors
Plasma Derivatives
Plasma Components
Cellular Components
Blood
Centrifugation
This is the first step of blood preparation
• Depend on 2 factors:
• Speed of centrifugation
• Duration of centrifugation.
1. Light spin
• 4170 /g/2min = platelet rich plasma
2. Heavy spin
• 5000 /g / 7min = leukocyte-poor RBC, or cell free plasma.
• 5000/g / 5min = backed cell and platelet concentrate.
• 4170/ g / 10min = cryoprecipitate
Preparation of blood components from wholePreparation of blood components from whole
BloodBlood
Plasma extractor
1- Whole Blood:
• Contents
• RBC’s
• WBC’s
• Platelets
• Plasma
• Clotting factors
• Storage:
2-6 c̊
 Whole blood remains a choice for major
trauma, for rapid GIB (gastrointestinal
bleeding), and for other clinical situations
that benefit from simultaneous
administration of red cells, volume
replacement, and coagulation factors
 Sever burns
Product Quality Assurance Parameters
WHOLE BLOOD
 Volume : 450 + 50 ml
 Sampling Frequency : 1% of collection
 Confirmation specificity : ≥ 75%
• Transportation :
- Temperature : 2 ̊ – 10 ̊C
- Time 12 hrs at the maximum
2- Packed Red Cells
 Also called Red Cells Concentrate
 Platelets and plasma are removed
• Contents
• RBC’s
• 20% Plasma
Storage:
2-6 c̊
Product Quality Assurance Parameters
Packed Red Cells
 Volume : 250 + 50 ml
 Hematocrit : 65 – 80 %
 Sampling Frequency : 1% of collection
 Confirmation specificity : ≥ 75%
• Transportation :
- Temperature : 2 ̊ – 10 ̊C
- Time 12 hrs at the maximum
Indication
• Severe anaemia
• Aplastic anemia
• Sickle cell anemia
• Thalassemia major
Indications in surgery
• Organ transplantation
• Cardiac surgery
• Other surgeries.
PRBC
Dose of blood transfusion =10ml/kg
cardiac failure = 3-5ml/kg
Rate of Blood Transfusion = 3ml/kg/hr
Transfusion temperature: room temperature
3- Washed red cells
• It’s convenient but expensive.
• Washed RBCs are free of almost all traces of
plasma, most WBCs, and platelets.
• They are generally given to patients who have
severe reactions to plasma
• In IgA-immunized patients, blood collected from IgA-
deficient donors may be preferable for transfusion.
Product Quality Assurance Parameters
 Washed Packed Red cells :
 Volume : 280 + 60 ml
 Hematocrit : 65 – 75 %
 Residual protein g/unit: < 0.5
 Sampling Frequency/month : 10 or all components if
 Confirmation specificity : ≥ 75%
 Transportation :
- Temperature : 2 ̊ – 10 ̊C
3- Leukocyte-poor red cells
or WBC-depleted RBCs:
• Can be prepared by several
techniques:
• Double centrifuge
• Heavy spin.
• Filtration: passing the blood
through a nylon filter which is an
efficient method for removal of
granulocytes. Heparin is the
anticoagulant used for this
procedure.
Product Quality Assurance Parameters
 Leucodepleted RBCs :
 WBCs count /unit : < 5× 10⁶
 Hematocrit : 55 – 75 %
 Sampling Frequency/month : 1%
 Confirmation specificity : ≥ 75%
 Storage :
- Closed system : 35 days
- Open system : 6 hrs
Fresh frozen plasma (FFP)
Definition:
Plasma separated from freshly drawn whole
blood and placed in a deep freezer ( -20 -- - 80C)with in̊
6-8 hrs of blood collection .
Technical Information:
separation of plasma should be effected
with in 6 hrs of blood collection and before the red
cells is cooled to the storage temperature i.e 4 ±2 C̊ ̊
•Contents
• Clotting factors
• Fibrinogen, factor VIII
• Prothrombin
• Albumin
• Globulins
Product Quality Assurance
 Fresh Frozen Plasma :
 Donor unit must not be refrigerated prior to component
preparation
 FFP once thawed must not be refrozen
 Transportation
Every effort must be made to ensure that the prescribed
core- temperature is maintained through out the transit
period.
Product Quality Assurance Parameters
 Volume: ≥ 150 ml
• Platelets 30 × 10³/ul
• Factor VIII ≥ 0.7 iu – 100iu/unit
 Sampling Frequency : 1%
 Confirmation specificity : ≥ 75%
6- Platelet concentrate
• Preparation:
• Platelet-rich plasma is separated by
light spin from erythrocyte.
• Platelet conc. is then obtained by a
heavy spin of platelet rich plasma.
• Centrifugation should be done at 22c.̊
• Separation should be done within 4h.
After the blood is drawn.
Platelet shaker
Product Quality Assurance Parameters
Platelets rich plasma
Platelets concentrate
Apheresis platelets
 Storage pH : 6.8± 0.4
 Storage Temperature : 22 ± 2 C̊
 Storage duration :
- Closed system : 5 days
- Open system : 6 hrs
Product Quality Assurance Parameters
Platelets rich plasma
Platelets concentrate
• Volume : 55± 10 ml
 Platelets count : ≥ 5.5× 10 ⁰/unitᴵ
 WBCs : < 0.2× 10⁹/unit
 Sampling Frequency : 1%
 Confirmation specificity : ≥ 75%
 Continuous Gentle Agitation
Product Quality Assurance Parameters
• Must be prepared prior to storage of the
collected unit or within 8 hrs of its storage in
the refrigerator.
• Platelets Storage cabinet which are thermo
statistically controlled and have an agitator
• Infusion duration should not be > 30 minutes
6- Platelet concentrate
Platelet concentrates are increasingly being prepared
by automated devices that harvest the platelets (or
other cells) and return unneeded components (eg,
RBCs, plasma) to the donor.
This procedure, called cytapheresis, provides
enough platelets from a single donation (equivalent
to 10 random platelet units) for transfusion to an
adult, which, because it minimizes infectious and
immunogenic risks, is preferred to multiple donor
transfusions in certain conditions.
7- Cryoprecipitated
Contents
• Factors VIII and XIII, Fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor
(vWF)v. It also contains fibronectin
Indications
• Hemophilia A
• Fibrinogen deficiency
• Factor XIII deficiency
• Disseminated intravascular coagulation
• Rare factor XIII deficiency.
Preparation:
• Cryoprecipitate is a concentrate prepared
from FFP, it should be frozen within 4h and
stored at -20 c or less.̊
• A bag of cryoprecipitate should be contain
on the average about ≥ 80 units of AHF/unit
and Fibrinogen ≥ 150mg.
• The shelf life is 12 month, when store at -18
C and for 7 years at – 65 C.̊ ̊
7- Cryo-precipitated
Product Quality Assurance Parameters
• Cryo-precipitated
• Technical information:
- Cryoprecipitate if thawed but not used
immediately, may be kept at 4 C for å
maximum period of 4 hrs. If still not used, the
unit should be discarded it must not be
refrozen.
- Maximum storage period:
12 months at – 18 C̊
7 years at – 65 C̊
Cryo-precipitated
• Transportation:
- Every effort must be made to maintain the
core temperature of the cryoprecipitate at the
minimum of – 20 C during transit̊ .
- If the unit thaws in transit, it must be
transfused immediately. It should neither be
stored nor should be refrozen.
- It is best to discard cryoprecipitate thawed in
transit rather then trying to preserve it.
Blood component & its QC

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Blood component & its QC

  • 1.
  • 2. QUALITY CONTROL IN BLOOD COMPONANT PREPAPRATION Muhammad Asif zeb Lecturer Hematology IPMS-KMU Peshawar
  • 3. Blood components Importance of component separation Separation of blood into component allows optimal survival of each constituents Component separation allows transfusion of only specific desired component to the patient Transfusion of only the specific constituent of the blood avoids the use of unnecessary component By using blood components several patient can be treated with the blood from one donor
  • 4. Blood bags • Single blood bag: • Whole blood
  • 5. • Double bags: • Backed red cells • plasma
  • 6. • Triple bags: • Packed cells • Plasma • Platelets
  • 7. • Quarterly bags: • Packed cells • Plasma • Platelets • Plasma factors
  • 8.
  • 9. Action of ingredients of anticoagulant solution. Citrate Prevents coagulation by chelating calcium Sodium di- phospate Prevents fall in pH Glucose Supports ATP generation by glycolytic pathways Adenine Synthesizes ATP, increases level of ATP, extends the self life of RBC to 35 days.
  • 10. Blood Products Red Cell Concentrates Platelet Concentrates Granulocyte Concentrate Fresh Frozen plasma Cryoprecipitate Cryopoor plasma Stored plasma Albumin Immunoglobulin Coagulation Factors Plasma Derivatives Plasma Components Cellular Components Blood
  • 11. Centrifugation This is the first step of blood preparation • Depend on 2 factors: • Speed of centrifugation • Duration of centrifugation. 1. Light spin • 4170 /g/2min = platelet rich plasma 2. Heavy spin • 5000 /g / 7min = leukocyte-poor RBC, or cell free plasma. • 5000/g / 5min = backed cell and platelet concentrate. • 4170/ g / 10min = cryoprecipitate
  • 12. Preparation of blood components from wholePreparation of blood components from whole BloodBlood
  • 14. 1- Whole Blood: • Contents • RBC’s • WBC’s • Platelets • Plasma • Clotting factors • Storage: 2-6 c̊
  • 15.  Whole blood remains a choice for major trauma, for rapid GIB (gastrointestinal bleeding), and for other clinical situations that benefit from simultaneous administration of red cells, volume replacement, and coagulation factors  Sever burns
  • 16. Product Quality Assurance Parameters WHOLE BLOOD  Volume : 450 + 50 ml  Sampling Frequency : 1% of collection  Confirmation specificity : ≥ 75% • Transportation : - Temperature : 2 ̊ – 10 ̊C - Time 12 hrs at the maximum
  • 17. 2- Packed Red Cells  Also called Red Cells Concentrate  Platelets and plasma are removed • Contents • RBC’s • 20% Plasma Storage: 2-6 c̊
  • 18. Product Quality Assurance Parameters Packed Red Cells  Volume : 250 + 50 ml  Hematocrit : 65 – 80 %  Sampling Frequency : 1% of collection  Confirmation specificity : ≥ 75% • Transportation : - Temperature : 2 ̊ – 10 ̊C - Time 12 hrs at the maximum
  • 19. Indication • Severe anaemia • Aplastic anemia • Sickle cell anemia • Thalassemia major Indications in surgery • Organ transplantation • Cardiac surgery • Other surgeries.
  • 20. PRBC Dose of blood transfusion =10ml/kg cardiac failure = 3-5ml/kg Rate of Blood Transfusion = 3ml/kg/hr Transfusion temperature: room temperature
  • 21. 3- Washed red cells • It’s convenient but expensive. • Washed RBCs are free of almost all traces of plasma, most WBCs, and platelets. • They are generally given to patients who have severe reactions to plasma • In IgA-immunized patients, blood collected from IgA- deficient donors may be preferable for transfusion.
  • 22. Product Quality Assurance Parameters  Washed Packed Red cells :  Volume : 280 + 60 ml  Hematocrit : 65 – 75 %  Residual protein g/unit: < 0.5  Sampling Frequency/month : 10 or all components if  Confirmation specificity : ≥ 75%  Transportation : - Temperature : 2 ̊ – 10 ̊C
  • 23. 3- Leukocyte-poor red cells or WBC-depleted RBCs: • Can be prepared by several techniques: • Double centrifuge • Heavy spin. • Filtration: passing the blood through a nylon filter which is an efficient method for removal of granulocytes. Heparin is the anticoagulant used for this procedure.
  • 24. Product Quality Assurance Parameters  Leucodepleted RBCs :  WBCs count /unit : < 5× 10⁶  Hematocrit : 55 – 75 %  Sampling Frequency/month : 1%  Confirmation specificity : ≥ 75%  Storage : - Closed system : 35 days - Open system : 6 hrs
  • 25. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) Definition: Plasma separated from freshly drawn whole blood and placed in a deep freezer ( -20 -- - 80C)with in̊ 6-8 hrs of blood collection . Technical Information: separation of plasma should be effected with in 6 hrs of blood collection and before the red cells is cooled to the storage temperature i.e 4 ±2 C̊ ̊
  • 26. •Contents • Clotting factors • Fibrinogen, factor VIII • Prothrombin • Albumin • Globulins
  • 27. Product Quality Assurance  Fresh Frozen Plasma :  Donor unit must not be refrigerated prior to component preparation  FFP once thawed must not be refrozen  Transportation Every effort must be made to ensure that the prescribed core- temperature is maintained through out the transit period.
  • 28. Product Quality Assurance Parameters  Volume: ≥ 150 ml • Platelets 30 × 10³/ul • Factor VIII ≥ 0.7 iu – 100iu/unit  Sampling Frequency : 1%  Confirmation specificity : ≥ 75%
  • 29. 6- Platelet concentrate • Preparation: • Platelet-rich plasma is separated by light spin from erythrocyte. • Platelet conc. is then obtained by a heavy spin of platelet rich plasma. • Centrifugation should be done at 22c.̊ • Separation should be done within 4h. After the blood is drawn.
  • 31. Product Quality Assurance Parameters Platelets rich plasma Platelets concentrate Apheresis platelets  Storage pH : 6.8± 0.4  Storage Temperature : 22 ± 2 C̊  Storage duration : - Closed system : 5 days - Open system : 6 hrs
  • 32. Product Quality Assurance Parameters Platelets rich plasma Platelets concentrate • Volume : 55± 10 ml  Platelets count : ≥ 5.5× 10 ⁰/unitᴵ  WBCs : < 0.2× 10⁹/unit  Sampling Frequency : 1%  Confirmation specificity : ≥ 75%  Continuous Gentle Agitation
  • 33. Product Quality Assurance Parameters • Must be prepared prior to storage of the collected unit or within 8 hrs of its storage in the refrigerator. • Platelets Storage cabinet which are thermo statistically controlled and have an agitator • Infusion duration should not be > 30 minutes
  • 34. 6- Platelet concentrate Platelet concentrates are increasingly being prepared by automated devices that harvest the platelets (or other cells) and return unneeded components (eg, RBCs, plasma) to the donor. This procedure, called cytapheresis, provides enough platelets from a single donation (equivalent to 10 random platelet units) for transfusion to an adult, which, because it minimizes infectious and immunogenic risks, is preferred to multiple donor transfusions in certain conditions.
  • 35.
  • 36. 7- Cryoprecipitated Contents • Factors VIII and XIII, Fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor (vWF)v. It also contains fibronectin Indications • Hemophilia A • Fibrinogen deficiency • Factor XIII deficiency • Disseminated intravascular coagulation • Rare factor XIII deficiency.
  • 37. Preparation: • Cryoprecipitate is a concentrate prepared from FFP, it should be frozen within 4h and stored at -20 c or less.̊ • A bag of cryoprecipitate should be contain on the average about ≥ 80 units of AHF/unit and Fibrinogen ≥ 150mg. • The shelf life is 12 month, when store at -18 C and for 7 years at – 65 C.̊ ̊ 7- Cryo-precipitated
  • 38. Product Quality Assurance Parameters • Cryo-precipitated • Technical information: - Cryoprecipitate if thawed but not used immediately, may be kept at 4 C for å maximum period of 4 hrs. If still not used, the unit should be discarded it must not be refrozen. - Maximum storage period: 12 months at – 18 C̊ 7 years at – 65 C̊
  • 39. Cryo-precipitated • Transportation: - Every effort must be made to maintain the core temperature of the cryoprecipitate at the minimum of – 20 C during transit̊ . - If the unit thaws in transit, it must be transfused immediately. It should neither be stored nor should be refrozen. - It is best to discard cryoprecipitate thawed in transit rather then trying to preserve it.

Editor's Notes

  1. The separation of blood into components means that patients can be treated with the specific fraction of blood that they lack. This reduces the chances of adverse reactions to unnecessary administration of blood constituents and ensures that more than one patient can be treated using blood from one donor.
  2. unless life threatening.