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The working of a fire triangle

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Working of a Fire Triangle

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The working of a fire triangle

  1. 1. Through the study of :- • Formation of Hazardous Area • Ignition • Upper & Lower Explosive Limits • Prevention WORKING OF A FIRE TRIANGLE Consider…… an industrial facility with A source of Flammable Gas or Vapors. (Referred to as FUEL in this study)
  2. 2. OXYGEN (From the surrounding Air) FUEL 12.00
  3. 3. OXYGEN FUEL OXYGEN is present in the air 12.00 Source of release .
  4. 4. OXYGEN FUEL A mixture of flammable gas & oxygen starts to form an explosive GAS-AIR MIXTURE 12.10
  5. 5. OXYGEN FUEL 12.20 The volume of the GAS-AIR Mixture increases with time
  6. 6. OXYGEN FUEL 12.30 The GAS-Air mixture is explosive and is now occupying the most of the space
  7. 7. OXYGEN FUEL 12.31 ANY spark can ignite this AIR GAS MIXTURE. This spark can be from a number of sources. IGNITION The GAS-Air mixture is explosive and is now occupying the most of the space
  8. 8. OXYGEN FUEL 12.31 ANY spark can now ignite this AIR GAS MIXTURE. This spark can be from a number of sources. IGNITION The GAS-Air mixture is explosive and is now occupying the most of the space near & around the leaking GAS cylinder
  9. 9. OXYGEN FUEL IGNITION ANALYSIS Before the explosion . A mixture of flammable GAS & oxygen (from air) was being formed and gaining more volume with passage of time . But still there was no explosion because there was no SPARK to ignite the mixture. With an accidently generated spark the MIXTURE was ignited and resulted in an EXPLOSION. The effects of the heat and flame covered the whole of the area previously occupied by the GAS-AIR mixture . AT this point , we will stop our clock and go , one slide back to analyze the situation.
  10. 10. OXYGEN FUEL IGNITION We can easily recognize the EXPLOSIVE TRIANGLE present in this situation and responsible for the explosion. OXYGEN + FUEL + SPARK
  11. 11. OXYGEN FUEL IGNITION The Explosive Triangle resulted in an explosion due to the following favorable condition : The GAS-AIR mixture was in proper proportion (NOT RICH & NOT LEAN) Technically the Mixture composition was within the EXPLOSIVE LIMITS.
  12. 12. OXYGEN FUEL 12.30 High concentration of air and very low concentration of FUEL in this region so there will be no explosion even with a spark . Explosive Triangle will simply not exist. The mixture is too thin or lean. This is the START of the LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT High concentration of FUEL and very low concentration of AIR in this region so there will be no explosion even with a spark . Explosive Triangle will not exist. The mixture is too rich. This the START of the UPPER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT ThemostfavorableconcentrationofAIR–FUELMixture
  13. 13. OXYGEN FUEL 12.30 This concentration of the GAS-AIR Mixture is most dangerous and may explode if ignited
  14. 14. MOST EFFECTIVE BASIC RULE OF PREVENTION/ SAFETY in HAZARDOUS AREAS STOP / Prevent the formation of FIRE TRIANGLES Guide lines : IEC 60079

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