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Neurogenic and myogenic hearts

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Neurogenic and myogenic hearts

  1. 1. LECTURER
  2. 2. In animals with open circulatory system theIn animals with open circulatory system the heart is usually sac-like or tubular. It has ostiaheart is usually sac-like or tubular. It has ostia or lateral openings which get closed whenor lateral openings which get closed when heart contracts and opens when heart relaxes.heart contracts and opens when heart relaxes. When heart relaxes vaccum is created to suckWhen heart relaxes vaccum is created to suck blood in the heart. Hence these hearts areblood in the heart. Hence these hearts are known as suction pumps.known as suction pumps. In most of the suction pump hearts the beatingIn most of the suction pump hearts the beating rhythm is set through nerve impulses. Suchrhythm is set through nerve impulses. Such hearts are known ashearts are known as Neurogenic heartsNeurogenic hearts..
  3. 3. In higher animals with closed ciruclatory system 2, 3 or 4In higher animals with closed ciruclatory system 2, 3 or 4 chambered hearts are seen with muscular ventricles which pumpschambered hearts are seen with muscular ventricles which pumps the blood in the body with pressure and hence heart are known asthe blood in the body with pressure and hence heart are known as pressure pumps.pressure pumps. In pressure pump heart the rhythm is set in specialised muscleIn pressure pump heart the rhythm is set in specialised muscle cells within the heart. They are known ascells within the heart. They are known as Myogenic heartsMyogenic hearts.. Most of the embryonic hearts are myogenic which later on may beMost of the embryonic hearts are myogenic which later on may be become myogenic or neurogenicbecome myogenic or neurogenic..
  4. 4. In some invertebrates and all vertebrates the heart isIn some invertebrates and all vertebrates the heart is myogenic. In them the setting of the rhythm (pacemaking) is bymyogenic. In them the setting of the rhythm (pacemaking) is by specialized cells (pacemakers).specialized cells (pacemakers). These cells are highly specialized for generating andThese cells are highly specialized for generating and conducting the impulse.conducting the impulse. In some animals they can be distinguished histologically fromIn some animals they can be distinguished histologically from the other heart musclesthe other heart muscles whereas in some others the distinction is not clear.whereas in some others the distinction is not clear.
  5. 5. Snakes Bat Rat Guinea pig Rabbit Pace maker cells cannot be distinguished i.e. the distinction between pacemakers and other cells is not clear.
  6. 6. Humming bird Chick Platypus Anteater Sheep Cow Pig etc. Specialized cells can be distinguished or differentiated
  7. 7. The pacemaking regions are different from animal toThe pacemaking regions are different from animal to animal.animal. In Teleost cells of floor of atrium and auriculo-ventricularIn Teleost cells of floor of atrium and auriculo-ventricular junction act as pacemaker.junction act as pacemaker. In elasmobranch fishes sinus venouses,In elasmobranch fishes sinus venouses, auriculoventricular junction and truncus arterioses act asauriculoventricular junction and truncus arterioses act as pacemaker.pacemaker. In amphibians and reptiles sinus venousus act asIn amphibians and reptiles sinus venousus act as pacemakerspacemakers In mammals and birds sinu-atrial and auriculo-ventricularIn mammals and birds sinu-atrial and auriculo-ventricular nodes act as pacemakers.nodes act as pacemakers. In invertebrates the pace making area is wondering i.e.In invertebrates the pace making area is wondering i.e. changing place.changing place.
  8. 8. In birds and mammals as mentioned above pacemakingIn birds and mammals as mentioned above pacemaking impulse arises in sinu-atrial node (S.A. node). It is a smallimpulse arises in sinu-atrial node (S.A. node). It is a small mass in right atrium. (In man 2 cm x 2cm) It is situated nearmass in right atrium. (In man 2 cm x 2cm) It is situated near entrance of vein.Atrio-ventricular node (A.V. node) is situatedentrance of vein.Atrio-ventricular node (A.V. node) is situated near auriculoventricular junction from which the impulse isnear auriculoventricular junction from which the impulse is carried to ventricle by specialised conducting musclescarried to ventricle by specialised conducting muscles forming auriculoventricular bundle (AV bundle) or Bundle offorming auriculoventricular bundle (AV bundle) or Bundle of ‘His’ i.e. bundle of God.‘His’ i.e. bundle of God. In birds bundle of His forms a network in atria.In birds bundle of His forms a network in atria.
  9. 9. S.A. node is known to be true pacemaker. If it is surgicallyS.A. node is known to be true pacemaker. If it is surgically manipulated or given temperature, chemical or electricalmanipulated or given temperature, chemical or electrical stimuli, it affects cardiac activity, thus the wave of heartstimuli, it affects cardiac activity, thus the wave of heart action starts from this point.action starts from this point. The wave is picked up by A.V. node situated in right atriumThe wave is picked up by A.V. node situated in right atrium near AV septum and then spreads into ventricle through thenear AV septum and then spreads into ventricle through the branches of auricular- ventricular bundles which forms abranches of auricular- ventricular bundles which forms a network in ventricle.(Purkinge fibres)network in ventricle.(Purkinge fibres)
  10. 10. In birds network is present in right andIn birds network is present in right and left atria as well. AV bundle tissue isleft atria as well. AV bundle tissue is highly specialized in conductance andhighly specialized in conductance and hence spreads the impulse very fast.hence spreads the impulse very fast.
  11. 11. In myogenic heart in fact all cells have ability to set the rhythm.In myogenic heart in fact all cells have ability to set the rhythm. But certain cells are more specialized.But certain cells are more specialized. The difference in them and other cells is they are highlyThe difference in them and other cells is they are highly unstable and have changing electrical potential. These cellsunstable and have changing electrical potential. These cells are known as pacemaker cells.are known as pacemaker cells. According to Kollikar and Miller heart have 3 type of cells 1)According to Kollikar and Miller heart have 3 type of cells 1) Pacemaker muscle cell 2) Conductive muscle cell 3)Pacemaker muscle cell 2) Conductive muscle cell 3) Contracting muscle cellsContracting muscle cells
  12. 12. Pacemaker cells initially have inside negative as compared toPacemaker cells initially have inside negative as compared to outside and have a charge or potential of about –55 mV.outside and have a charge or potential of about –55 mV. This charge is unstable there is a slow leakage up to –30 mVThis charge is unstable there is a slow leakage up to –30 mV which is known as slow depolarization.which is known as slow depolarization. This is followed by rapid depolarization up to +10 mV.This is followed by rapid depolarization up to +10 mV. This depolarization causes contraction of muscles.This depolarization causes contraction of muscles. The depolarization is followed by repolarisation which causesThe depolarization is followed by repolarisation which causes relaxation or diastole.relaxation or diastole.
  13. 13. This way the charges on pacemaker cellsThis way the charges on pacemaker cells keep on changing constantly.keep on changing constantly. These changes in the form of depolarisationThese changes in the form of depolarisation and repolarisation spread in the heartand repolarisation spread in the heart muscle through conducting cells causingmuscle through conducting cells causing rhythmic contraction and relaxation of heartrhythmic contraction and relaxation of heart..

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