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Project development cycle

Project development cycle

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Project development cycle

  1. 1. Project Development Cycle project life cycle
  2. 2. System Development Cycle - Introduction  Systems are dynamic—they change over time. Using systems terminology, we say that the state of the system is in flux.  The flux in system properties is definitely not random; it tends to follow a distinct pattern that is repeated again and again.  life cycle of living organisms—birth, growth, maturity , decline, and death, have similarity with the life cycles of virtually all human- made products and organizations. Recognizing this is important because it enables us to create systems, anticipate and guide their actions, and plan appropriately for them.
  3. 3. Systems Development Cycle  The life cycle of a human-made system can be segmented into a logical series of phases or stages, each representative of the types of tasks or activities typically conducted during some period in the life of the system.  The normative four-phase sequence(1.Conception phase, 2. Definition phase, 3. Execution phase ,4. Operation phase), called the systems development cycle, encompasses the total developmental life cycle of systems.  The phases overlap and interact, yet are clearly differentiable.
  4. 4. Systems Development Cycle
  5. 5. Project Development Cycle  A project typically spans Phases A through C, the conception, definition and execution phases of the cycle.  In that context, a project can be thought of as an organization that exists to develop a system, and the project life cycle as being the first three phases of the systems development cycle.  When Phase C is terminated upon implementation of the system, so is the project. At that time the system transits from being the end result of a project to being an operational entity.
  6. 6. Project Development Cycle - Introductio  Projects are undertaken for the purpose of developing systems— either to create new ones or improve existing ones.  The natural life cycle of systems gives rise to a similar life cycle in projects called the project life cycle.
  7. 7. Introduction to project life cycle  Projects follow a logical sequence of phases to completion.  Phases are typically different from project to project since the project work will differ from one to the next.  The point of segmenting projects into phases is to allow for smaller, manageable sections, and to provide deliverables in support of the ongoing operations.
  8. 8. Introduction to project life cycle  The five sequential phases in time through which any project passes: Concept, Planning, Initiation, Implementation, and Closeout.  These phases comprise activities, tasks, and subtasks.  The collection of the project phases, as a whole, is known as the project life cycle.
  9. 9. Project Life Cycle  A project life cycle is a collection of project phases that defines: ◦ What work will be performed in each phase ◦ What deliverables will be produced and when ◦ Who is involved in each phase ◦ How management will control and approve work produced in each phase  A deliverable is a product or service produced or provided as part of a project 9
  10. 10. Project Management Life Cycle.  The process each manager follows during the life of a project is called the Project Management Life Cycle.  A proven methodical life cycle is necessary to repeatedly implement and manage projects successfully
  11. 11. project life cycle
  12. 12. Phases of Project Life Cycle  Initiating :The project is authorized.  Planning :Project objectives are determined, as well as how to reach those objectives with the given constraints.  Executing :The project is executed utilizing acquired resources.  Monitoring and controlling :Project performance is monitored and measured to ensure the project plan is being implemented to design specifications and requirements.  Closing :The project, its phases, and contracts are brought to a formal end.
  13. 13. Significance Project life cycle allow a project manager to determine several things about the project, such as: ■ What work will be completed in each phase of the project? ■ What resources, people, equipment, and facilities will be needed within each phase? ■ What are the expected deliverables of each phase? ■ What is the expected cost to complete a project phase? ■ Which phases contain the highest amount of risk?
  14. 14. Significance  Project life cycles define the beginning, middle, and end of a project.  Projects have a greater risk and uncertainty in the early phases of the project life cycle than near their end.  The project is also most susceptible to change, failure, and stakeholder influences at the beginning of the life cycle than near its end.  In tandem, project costs and demand for resources are generally low at the beginning of the project, have a tendency to peak near the end of the project work, and then diminish.
  15. 15. More on Project Phases  In early phases of a project life cycle: ◦ Resource needs are usually lowest ◦ The level of uncertainty (risk) is highest ◦ Project stakeholders have the greatest opportunity to influence the project  In middle phases of a project life cycle: ◦ The certainty of completing a project improves ◦ More resources are needed  The final phase of a project life cycle focuses on: ◦ Ensuring that project requirements were met ◦ The sponsor approves completion of the project 16
  16. 16. Phases of the Traditional Project Life Cycle 17
  17. 17. Phases of the Traditional Project Life Cycle  Concept phase – managers briefly describe the project ◦ Develop a very high-level or summary plan for the project describing the need for the project and basic underlying concepts ◦ Rough cost estimate is developed and an overview of the work involved is created ◦ A work breakdown structure (WBS) outlines project work by decomposing the work activities into different levels of tasks  The WBS is a deliverable-oriented document that defines the total scope of the project 18
  18. 18. Phases of the Traditional Project Life Cycle  Development phase – project team creates more detailed project management plans, a more accurate cost estimate and a more thorough WBS ◦ If the concept phase suggested that laptops were one means of increasing the use of technology on campus, then further study would be required in this phase to determine buy/lease, type of hardware and software, how much to charge students, how to handle training and maintenance, etc. ◦ If the concept phase suggested that laptops were not the way to go, the project would have been cancelled at that point thereby saving time and money 19
  19. 19. Phases of the Traditional Project Life Cycle  Implementation– project team creates a very accurate cost estimate, delivers the required work and provides performance reports to stakeholders  Close-out – all the work is completed, customer acceptance of the entire project ◦ Project team should document their experiences on the project 20
  20. 20. The Importance of Project Phases and Management Reviews  A project should successfully pass through each of the project phases in order to continue on to the next  Management reviews, also called phase exits or kill points, should occur after each phase to evaluate the project’s progress, likely success, and continued compatibility with organizational goals 21

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