SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 38
ASHWINI KUMAR 1MS11CH016 
ANISH KUMAR 1MS11CH016 
PRABHAT JHA 1MS11CH031 
Meat storage and preparation
Meat? 
• Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as 
food. 
• Humans are omnivorous and have 
hunted and killed animals for meat 
since prehistoric times. 
• The advent of civilization allowed 
the domestication of animals such as 
chickens, sheep, fish, seafood, pigs 
and cattle, and eventually their use in 
meat production on an industrial 
scale.
meatandeducation.com 2011
Module focus 
New developments in preservation and packaging of meat have 
lead to a greater variety and range of fresh meat and meat 
products. 
Preservation and packaging can help to prevent food deterioration 
and food poisoning. For wise consumers, this is economical and 
also reduces food wastage. 
A sound knowledge of different preparation and cooking 
techniques for meat will also improve the quality and flavour of 
products and meals. 
This module explains the different methods of food preservation, 
and how the different methods affect the colour, texture and 
flavour of meat meals.
Meat pigments and colour changes 
• Meat color is impacted by the following factors: 
(1) Quantity of myoglobin 
(2) Chemical state of myoglobin 
(3) Metmyoglobin Reducing Activity (MRA) 
(4) Cooked color problems 
(5) Wrapping film
Food spoilage 
Food becomes spoiled when it loses water and dries out. All 
food contains a quantity of water - the longer the food is 
exposed to air the more water it will lose due to evaporation. 
Covering and packaging foods with suitable materials slows 
down water loss. 
Preservation methods such as vacuum sealing or deep-freezing 
also prevents water loss.
Preventing food spoilage 
If raw food is cooked for a sufficient length of time, enzymes and 
most micro-organisms are destroyed. 
However, if cooked food is stored for any length of time, it can 
become re-contaminated by micro-organisms which will then start 
to cause deterioration. 
To prevent this, all raw and cooked food needs to be handled 
hygienically and must be properly packaged. It must then be stored 
at the correct temperature to prevent the action and multiplication 
of micro-organisms. Raw and cooked meats should be stored in the 
refrigerator between 0-3°C. This should be covered and stored 
away from other fresh foods in the refrigerator. For extended shelf 
life meat needs to be frozen.
The shelf life of meat 
If the carcase is hygienically prepared, the following carcase storage 
life can be expected: 
•Beef and veal up to 21 days 
•Lamb up to 15 days 
•Pigs up to 14 days 
•Offal up to 7 days 
For retail refrigerated display options, the shelf life of 1-2 days is 
normal. 
Overwrapped – shelf life 1-2 days 
Modified atmosphere packs – shelf life 7-10 days 
Vacuum packed – shelf life of up to 10 days
The shelf life of meat 
The length of time that a food will maintain its quality and be safe 
to eat is called its ‘shelf life’. 
The shelf life of foods depends on: 
● water 
● acidity 
● hygienic handling 
● methods of preservation
Water 
Food which contains a lot of water often has a shorter shelf 
life, e.g. milk. Food containing little water tend to have a 
longer shelf life, e.g. nuts. 
Acidity 
Food which is acidic (or have a low pH) tend to keep for 
longer, e.g. citrus fruit.
Storage conditions 
Food which is correctly wrapped and kept 
at low temperatures will keep for longer. 
Hygienic handling 
Unhygienic food handling will reduce the shelf life of food. 
Food can be contaminated by micro-organisms in several 
ways: through contact with unhygienic equipment, surfaces, or 
transport, and through human contact. 
It is important for food handlers to wash their hands before, in 
between and after handling raw meat.
Methods of preservation 
Foods can be preserved in several ways: 
a) the removal of oxygen or water; 
b) cooking to high temperatures; 
c) airtight sealing and freezing at low temperatures. 
d) freezing 
Foods which have been preserved have a longer or extended shelf-life. 
This includes canning, e.g. meat pies and hot dogs and salting 
or curing, e.g. bacon and ham.
Cooking meat 
There are three main methods of heat transfer normally used for cooking meat . 
These are: 
• convection 
• conduction 
• radiation 
Do you know which cooking method is 
used in the meals below?
Convection 
In this method of cooking, currents of hot air or hot liquid transfer 
the heat energy to the food. 
When gases (such as air) or liquids (such as water) are heated the 
molecules expand, become lighter in weight and so rise up. 
Cooler and heavier molecules in the gas or liquid fall to take their 
place – until they also become heated and rise up.
Convection 
Because the molecules of gas or liquid are constantly being heated 
and keep moving, circular convection currents are created. 
Food which is placed in such a liquid or gas in an enclosed space 
becomes cooked. This happens because the heat from the 
convection currents is transferred from the air or liquid, firstly to the 
outside part of the food then gradually through to the centre. 
For efficient and quicker cooking, convection currents in air need to 
be kept in an enclosed space such as an oven. As hot air rises, cooler 
air falls – so the hottest part in an oven is at the top. Some ovens are 
fan assisted so that the hot air is driven around the oven to keep the 
temperature even from the bottom to the top. 
One example of convection in meat cookery is roasting.
Conduction 
In this method of cooking, heat is transferred through solid objects 
by the vibration of heated molecules. 
Those molecules nearest to the heat source first become heated and 
vibrate. 
Molecules next to those already vibrating also start to vibrate – so 
that a chain reaction is set up.
Conduction 
In this way the heat is transferred throughout the food until it 
becomes hot. Heat is transferred by conduction in cooking methods 
using hot fat, hot water or steam. 
The heat is firstly conducted from the fuel source to the cooking 
container (usually made of metal – a good conductor of heat). 
The container in turn heats the cooking medium (fat, water or 
steam) and finally the food. 
Cooking by conduction depends on good contact between the: 
• source of heat 
• cooking equipment 
• food to be cooked 
Examples of conduction in meat cookery include stir 
frying and shallow frying.
Radiation 
In this method of cooking, heat is transferred from a heat source in 
the form of rays which travel quickly in straight lines. 
Food placed in the path of the rays quickly absorbs heat. 
The surface of the food nearest to the rays becomes quickly 
browned – and regular turning of the food is needed to ensure even 
cooking.
Radiation – heat rays 
Heat rays from gas or electric grills travel down onto the food 
below. The further away the food, the further the heat rays have to 
travel – so foods cook more slowly. 
The grill can be controlled by turning down the heat source, so that 
food cooks more slowly. 
Heat rays from a charcoal grill or barbeque travel upwards to cook 
the food placed above on a grid or spit.
Radiation 
Radiant heat is fierce and food can be come dry and overcooked. So 
the heat must be carefully controlled and the food regularly turned. 
Without careful control of radiant heat thicker pieces of food can 
burn on the outside before the inside is cooked. 
This method is most suitable for thinner, flatter, tender meat cuts. 
Examples of radiant heat in meat cookery include barbequing and 
grilling.
Freezing 
• Optimum temperature (0°F or lower) 
• Works by completely stopping enzyme activity & inhibiting 
spoilage microorganisms 
Bacteria 
Yeasts 
Molds
Freezing 
• REMEMBER: Thaw meat at refrigeration temps or 
in the microwave 
• DO NOT THAW AT ROOM TEMPS
How long with frozen meat last? 
Beef – 12 months 
Pork - 6 months 
Poultry – 3-6 months 
Lamb – 6-9 months
Preparing and cooking meat to improve 
tenderness 
The tenderness of meat depends on the: 
• structure of the meat muscle 
• age of the animal before slaughter 
• part of the animal meat muscle comes from 
• the method of preparation and choice of cooking method
Tenderising meat with physical force 
It is possible to increase the tenderness of meat by using special 
food preparation techniques before and during cooking. 
The muscle fibres can be physically broken down by mincing and 
chopping. 
The muscle fibres can be physically separated by using a meat 
hammer with a spiked edge. Butchers use this method to prepare 
quick-frying steaks.
Tenderising meat with enzymes 
Certain enzymes contained in plants can be used to tenderise 
tougher cuts of meat. These enzymes work by partly breaking 
down protein and connective tissue. 
Natural plant sources of enzymes can be used as tenderisers: 
• Bromelin in fresh pineapple 
• Papin in paw-paw 
• Ficin in fresh figs 
Commercially prepared tenderisers are usually in the form of 
powders for easy sprinkling.
Tenderising meat with a marinade 
Tougher cuts of meat can be placed in a marinade, covered and 
stored in a refrigerator for several hours, or overnight. 
This helps to hydrate (keep water in) the muscle fibres and to 
convert collagen to gelatine. 
Marinades usually contain an acid such as lemon juice, tomato , 
vinegar or wine.
Tenderness during cooking 
One important reason for cooking meat is to make the muscle 
fibres more tender. The method by which meat is cooked will 
affect its tenderness and texture. 
During cooking muscle fibres coagulate ( shrink and harden). 
When this happens water is squeezed out of the meat and 
shrinks in size.
Cooking meat in liquid 
To prevent toughening and the loss of liquid from meat, it can be 
cooked slowly in liquid. 
When meat is cooked with liquid, known as a moist cooking method 
(such as stewing, braising and casseroling) the shrinkage and 
toughening of meat muscle happens more slowly. 
Long, slow methods of cooking using liquids converts collagen in 
connective tissue to gelatine, making the meat tender. Moist 
cooking methods are especially suitable for less tender meat which 
contains more connective tissue.
What happens during cooking? 
Long cooking – on a low heat, in a liquid - will help make 
tougher meats tender. At temperatures of 80ºC and above the 
collagen is softened and converted to gelatine (which is 
soluble). 
Muscle fibres cooked in this way fall apart easily and are easier 
to chew. 
Acid ingredients (such as wine, lemon juice and tomatoes) 
added to the liquid during cooking aid the conversion of 
collagen to gelatine and add flavour.
Reducing the fat content of meat dishes 
During cooking the fat present in meat starts to melt. For healthy 
meat meals a grid or trivet used in dry cooking methods helps the 
fat to drip away into the cooking container. The melted fat also 
helps to stop the surface of the meat from getting too dry. 
In moist methods of cookery, the fat melts into the cooking liquid 
and eventually rises to the top. For healthy meat dishes this fat can 
be skimmed off with a spoon.
Preparing dishes with improved flavour 
Cooking meat increases the flavour by developing meat 
extractives and melting the fat. In dry methods of cooking the 
meat extractives cling to the meat surface. In moist methods of 
cooking they are absorbed into the cooking liquid. 
Extractives contain soluble flavour compounds, which are 
stronger in meat muscle from older animals and from muscle 
areas used the most. This can provide a depth of flavour to the 
dish or meal.
Preparing dishes with improved flavour 
Fat contains flavouring compounds 
which release characteristic smells 
associated with lamb, beef and pork 
during cooking. The melted fat also 
helps to crisp the surface of cooked 
meat which increases the flavour. 
Apart from the development of natural 
meat flavours, cooking helps the 
absorption of any flavourings such as 
herbs and spices added during cooking. 
meatandeducation.com 2011
Colour changes during food preparation 
When meat is cooked the colour changes from red to brown. 
Meat muscle contains a protein called myoglobin (similar to 
haemoglobin) which gives meat its red colour. Immediately after 
cutting, meat is a purple colour, which turns to bright red after 
about thirty minutes as myoglobin takes on oxygen to form 
oxymyoglobin. 
After several days of exposure to air the surface of meat turns a 
brownish colour as the myoglobin oxidises to become 
metmyoglobin. 
During cooking all these pigments are denatured and the meat will 
take on a brownish colour throughout. 
meatandeducation.com 2011
Summary 
•Food preservation is important to increase the shelf life of products. 
•Shelf life depends on: water; acidity; hygienic handling; methods of 
preservation. 
•Convection is where currents of hot air or hot liquid transfer the heat energy to 
the food. 
•Conduction is where heat is transferred through solid objects by the vibration 
of heated molecules. 
•Radiation is where heat is transferred from a heat source in the form of rays 
which travel quickly in straight lines. 
•Meat can be tenderised by physical action, enzymes or marinades containing an 
acid. 
•Meat changes colour during food preparation when the pigment myoglobin 
changes.
Thank you 
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

Meat & Poultry PowerPoint
Meat & Poultry PowerPointMeat & Poultry PowerPoint
Meat & Poultry PowerPointemurfield
 
Meat : Structure, Composition and Characteristics.
Meat : Structure, Composition and Characteristics.Meat : Structure, Composition and Characteristics.
Meat : Structure, Composition and Characteristics.Umesh Maskare
 
Meat Processing and Preservation with Packaging
Meat Processing and Preservation with Packaging Meat Processing and Preservation with Packaging
Meat Processing and Preservation with Packaging Ajjay Kumar Gupta
 
Grading and quality parameters of eggs
Grading and quality parameters of eggsGrading and quality parameters of eggs
Grading and quality parameters of eggsDebomitra Dey
 
Preservation of meat and its method
Preservation of meat  and its methodPreservation of meat  and its method
Preservation of meat and its methodvikramgodara5
 
Fish and meat processing
Fish and meat processingFish and meat processing
Fish and meat processingKarthik SK
 
Meat composition and nutrition
Meat composition and nutritionMeat composition and nutrition
Meat composition and nutritionAshirAzeem11
 
Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products
Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products
Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products Ajjay Kumar Gupta
 

What's hot (20)

Curing and Smoking
Curing and SmokingCuring and Smoking
Curing and Smoking
 
Meat 1
Meat 1Meat 1
Meat 1
 
Meat tenderization
Meat tenderizationMeat tenderization
Meat tenderization
 
Introduction To Food Processing
Introduction To Food ProcessingIntroduction To Food Processing
Introduction To Food Processing
 
Egg cookery
Egg cookeryEgg cookery
Egg cookery
 
Meat & Poultry PowerPoint
Meat & Poultry PowerPointMeat & Poultry PowerPoint
Meat & Poultry PowerPoint
 
Poultry
PoultryPoultry
Poultry
 
Meat : Structure, Composition and Characteristics.
Meat : Structure, Composition and Characteristics.Meat : Structure, Composition and Characteristics.
Meat : Structure, Composition and Characteristics.
 
Meat and poultry
Meat and poultry Meat and poultry
Meat and poultry
 
Meat Cuts
Meat CutsMeat Cuts
Meat Cuts
 
Pasta
PastaPasta
Pasta
 
Meat Processing and Preservation with Packaging
Meat Processing and Preservation with Packaging Meat Processing and Preservation with Packaging
Meat Processing and Preservation with Packaging
 
Rules In Buying Meat
Rules In Buying MeatRules In Buying Meat
Rules In Buying Meat
 
Grading and quality parameters of eggs
Grading and quality parameters of eggsGrading and quality parameters of eggs
Grading and quality parameters of eggs
 
Bakery products
Bakery productsBakery products
Bakery products
 
Preservation of meat and its method
Preservation of meat  and its methodPreservation of meat  and its method
Preservation of meat and its method
 
Fish and meat processing
Fish and meat processingFish and meat processing
Fish and meat processing
 
Meat composition and nutrition
Meat composition and nutritionMeat composition and nutrition
Meat composition and nutrition
 
Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products
Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products
Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products
 
The egg
The eggThe egg
The egg
 

Similar to Meat storage and preparation

1-Poultry Meat & Egggg Preservation.pptx
1-Poultry Meat & Egggg Preservation.pptx1-Poultry Meat & Egggg Preservation.pptx
1-Poultry Meat & Egggg Preservation.pptxDeepikeshJoshi1
 
Meat preservation techniques
Meat preservation techniquesMeat preservation techniques
Meat preservation techniquesAshiq Toor
 
cookery rules.pptx
cookery rules.pptxcookery rules.pptx
cookery rules.pptxbhavanibb
 
cooking rules and preservatives.pptx
cooking rules and preservatives.pptxcooking rules and preservatives.pptx
cooking rules and preservatives.pptxhemachandra59
 
cookery rules and preservation of nutrientsnagamani-210927112249.pptx
cookery rules and preservation of nutrientsnagamani-210927112249.pptxcookery rules and preservation of nutrientsnagamani-210927112249.pptx
cookery rules and preservation of nutrientsnagamani-210927112249.pptxhemachandra59
 
Food sara terribile ii c s.u.
Food   sara terribile ii c s.u.Food   sara terribile ii c s.u.
Food sara terribile ii c s.u.Valentina Mariano
 
Cookery rules and preservation of nutrients
Cookery rules and preservation of nutrientsCookery rules and preservation of nutrients
Cookery rules and preservation of nutrientsmanisaikoduri
 
FT 2110 Lecture Chap 3a - Food Preparation Basics _ Heating Foods.pptx
FT 2110 Lecture Chap 3a - Food Preparation Basics _ Heating Foods.pptxFT 2110 Lecture Chap 3a - Food Preparation Basics _ Heating Foods.pptx
FT 2110 Lecture Chap 3a - Food Preparation Basics _ Heating Foods.pptxjoandar
 
Chapter 1 Food Processing.pptx
Chapter 1 Food Processing.pptxChapter 1 Food Processing.pptx
Chapter 1 Food Processing.pptxSandreWaldenSCSC
 
Elementary Food Engineering
Elementary Food EngineeringElementary Food Engineering
Elementary Food EngineeringSukhveerSingh31
 
intro to food hygiene.ppt very good presentation
intro to food hygiene.ppt very good presentationintro to food hygiene.ppt very good presentation
intro to food hygiene.ppt very good presentationsudaisahmad16
 
Cookery rules and preservation of nutrients nagamani
Cookery rules and preservation of nutrients nagamaniCookery rules and preservation of nutrients nagamani
Cookery rules and preservation of nutrients nagamaniNagamani Manjunath
 
Quarter 4 tle week 1 meat.pptx
Quarter 4 tle week 1 meat.pptxQuarter 4 tle week 1 meat.pptx
Quarter 4 tle week 1 meat.pptxFlongYlanan1
 
Meat preservation techniques by Geeta Chauhan
Meat preservation techniques by Geeta ChauhanMeat preservation techniques by Geeta Chauhan
Meat preservation techniques by Geeta ChauhanGeeta12344
 
FOOD PRESERVATION BY HEAT TREATMENTS.pptx
FOOD PRESERVATION BY HEAT TREATMENTS.pptxFOOD PRESERVATION BY HEAT TREATMENTS.pptx
FOOD PRESERVATION BY HEAT TREATMENTS.pptxShouryaKhandelwal1
 

Similar to Meat storage and preparation (20)

1-Poultry Meat & Egggg Preservation.pptx
1-Poultry Meat & Egggg Preservation.pptx1-Poultry Meat & Egggg Preservation.pptx
1-Poultry Meat & Egggg Preservation.pptx
 
7 storing meat
7 storing meat7 storing meat
7 storing meat
 
Methods of cooking
Methods of cookingMethods of cooking
Methods of cooking
 
Meat preservation techniques
Meat preservation techniquesMeat preservation techniques
Meat preservation techniques
 
cookery rules.pptx
cookery rules.pptxcookery rules.pptx
cookery rules.pptx
 
cooking.pptx
cooking.pptxcooking.pptx
cooking.pptx
 
cooking rules and preservatives.pptx
cooking rules and preservatives.pptxcooking rules and preservatives.pptx
cooking rules and preservatives.pptx
 
cookery rules and preservation of nutrientsnagamani-210927112249.pptx
cookery rules and preservation of nutrientsnagamani-210927112249.pptxcookery rules and preservation of nutrientsnagamani-210927112249.pptx
cookery rules and preservation of nutrientsnagamani-210927112249.pptx
 
Food sara terribile ii c s.u.
Food   sara terribile ii c s.u.Food   sara terribile ii c s.u.
Food sara terribile ii c s.u.
 
Cooking Methods.pptx
Cooking Methods.pptxCooking Methods.pptx
Cooking Methods.pptx
 
Cookery rules and preservation of nutrients
Cookery rules and preservation of nutrientsCookery rules and preservation of nutrients
Cookery rules and preservation of nutrients
 
FT 2110 Lecture Chap 3a - Food Preparation Basics _ Heating Foods.pptx
FT 2110 Lecture Chap 3a - Food Preparation Basics _ Heating Foods.pptxFT 2110 Lecture Chap 3a - Food Preparation Basics _ Heating Foods.pptx
FT 2110 Lecture Chap 3a - Food Preparation Basics _ Heating Foods.pptx
 
cooking methods.pdf
cooking methods.pdfcooking methods.pdf
cooking methods.pdf
 
Chapter 1 Food Processing.pptx
Chapter 1 Food Processing.pptxChapter 1 Food Processing.pptx
Chapter 1 Food Processing.pptx
 
Elementary Food Engineering
Elementary Food EngineeringElementary Food Engineering
Elementary Food Engineering
 
intro to food hygiene.ppt very good presentation
intro to food hygiene.ppt very good presentationintro to food hygiene.ppt very good presentation
intro to food hygiene.ppt very good presentation
 
Cookery rules and preservation of nutrients nagamani
Cookery rules and preservation of nutrients nagamaniCookery rules and preservation of nutrients nagamani
Cookery rules and preservation of nutrients nagamani
 
Quarter 4 tle week 1 meat.pptx
Quarter 4 tle week 1 meat.pptxQuarter 4 tle week 1 meat.pptx
Quarter 4 tle week 1 meat.pptx
 
Meat preservation techniques by Geeta Chauhan
Meat preservation techniques by Geeta ChauhanMeat preservation techniques by Geeta Chauhan
Meat preservation techniques by Geeta Chauhan
 
FOOD PRESERVATION BY HEAT TREATMENTS.pptx
FOOD PRESERVATION BY HEAT TREATMENTS.pptxFOOD PRESERVATION BY HEAT TREATMENTS.pptx
FOOD PRESERVATION BY HEAT TREATMENTS.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMr Bounab Samir
 
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfActive Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfPatidar M
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Developmentchesterberbo7
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptxmary850239
 
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptxmary850239
 
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvRicaMaeCastro1
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research DiscourseAnita GoswamiGiri
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSMae Pangan
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)lakshayb543
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptxDhatriParmar
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsMental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsPooky Knightsmith
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxkarenfajardo43
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
Expanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalExpanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalssuser3e220a
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfPrerana Jadhav
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxHumphrey A Beña
 

Recently uploaded (20)

MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
 
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfActive Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
 
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTAParadigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
Paradigm shift in nursing research by RS MEHTA
 
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptxINCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
 
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea DevelopmentUsing Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
Using Grammatical Signals Suitable to Patterns of Idea Development
 
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
4.11.24 Mass Incarceration and the New Jim Crow.pptx
 
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
4.16.24 Poverty and Precarity--Desmond.pptx
 
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
 
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHSTextual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS
 
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
Visit to a blind student's school🧑‍🦯🧑‍🦯(community medicine)
 
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptxUnraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing  Postmodern Elements in  Literature.pptx
Unraveling Hypertext_ Analyzing Postmodern Elements in Literature.pptx
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young mindsMental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
Mental Health Awareness - a toolkit for supporting young minds
 
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptxGrade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
Grade Three -ELLNA-REVIEWER-ENGLISH.pptx
 
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWMythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Mythology Quiz-4th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
Expanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operationalExpanded definition: technical and operational
Expanded definition: technical and operational
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
 
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptxINTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLIC CHRISTOLOGY.pptx
 

Meat storage and preparation

  • 1. ASHWINI KUMAR 1MS11CH016 ANISH KUMAR 1MS11CH016 PRABHAT JHA 1MS11CH031 Meat storage and preparation
  • 2. Meat? • Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. • Humans are omnivorous and have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. • The advent of civilization allowed the domestication of animals such as chickens, sheep, fish, seafood, pigs and cattle, and eventually their use in meat production on an industrial scale.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 6. Module focus New developments in preservation and packaging of meat have lead to a greater variety and range of fresh meat and meat products. Preservation and packaging can help to prevent food deterioration and food poisoning. For wise consumers, this is economical and also reduces food wastage. A sound knowledge of different preparation and cooking techniques for meat will also improve the quality and flavour of products and meals. This module explains the different methods of food preservation, and how the different methods affect the colour, texture and flavour of meat meals.
  • 7. Meat pigments and colour changes • Meat color is impacted by the following factors: (1) Quantity of myoglobin (2) Chemical state of myoglobin (3) Metmyoglobin Reducing Activity (MRA) (4) Cooked color problems (5) Wrapping film
  • 8. Food spoilage Food becomes spoiled when it loses water and dries out. All food contains a quantity of water - the longer the food is exposed to air the more water it will lose due to evaporation. Covering and packaging foods with suitable materials slows down water loss. Preservation methods such as vacuum sealing or deep-freezing also prevents water loss.
  • 9. Preventing food spoilage If raw food is cooked for a sufficient length of time, enzymes and most micro-organisms are destroyed. However, if cooked food is stored for any length of time, it can become re-contaminated by micro-organisms which will then start to cause deterioration. To prevent this, all raw and cooked food needs to be handled hygienically and must be properly packaged. It must then be stored at the correct temperature to prevent the action and multiplication of micro-organisms. Raw and cooked meats should be stored in the refrigerator between 0-3°C. This should be covered and stored away from other fresh foods in the refrigerator. For extended shelf life meat needs to be frozen.
  • 10. The shelf life of meat If the carcase is hygienically prepared, the following carcase storage life can be expected: •Beef and veal up to 21 days •Lamb up to 15 days •Pigs up to 14 days •Offal up to 7 days For retail refrigerated display options, the shelf life of 1-2 days is normal. Overwrapped – shelf life 1-2 days Modified atmosphere packs – shelf life 7-10 days Vacuum packed – shelf life of up to 10 days
  • 11. The shelf life of meat The length of time that a food will maintain its quality and be safe to eat is called its ‘shelf life’. The shelf life of foods depends on: ● water ● acidity ● hygienic handling ● methods of preservation
  • 12. Water Food which contains a lot of water often has a shorter shelf life, e.g. milk. Food containing little water tend to have a longer shelf life, e.g. nuts. Acidity Food which is acidic (or have a low pH) tend to keep for longer, e.g. citrus fruit.
  • 13. Storage conditions Food which is correctly wrapped and kept at low temperatures will keep for longer. Hygienic handling Unhygienic food handling will reduce the shelf life of food. Food can be contaminated by micro-organisms in several ways: through contact with unhygienic equipment, surfaces, or transport, and through human contact. It is important for food handlers to wash their hands before, in between and after handling raw meat.
  • 14. Methods of preservation Foods can be preserved in several ways: a) the removal of oxygen or water; b) cooking to high temperatures; c) airtight sealing and freezing at low temperatures. d) freezing Foods which have been preserved have a longer or extended shelf-life. This includes canning, e.g. meat pies and hot dogs and salting or curing, e.g. bacon and ham.
  • 15. Cooking meat There are three main methods of heat transfer normally used for cooking meat . These are: • convection • conduction • radiation Do you know which cooking method is used in the meals below?
  • 16. Convection In this method of cooking, currents of hot air or hot liquid transfer the heat energy to the food. When gases (such as air) or liquids (such as water) are heated the molecules expand, become lighter in weight and so rise up. Cooler and heavier molecules in the gas or liquid fall to take their place – until they also become heated and rise up.
  • 17. Convection Because the molecules of gas or liquid are constantly being heated and keep moving, circular convection currents are created. Food which is placed in such a liquid or gas in an enclosed space becomes cooked. This happens because the heat from the convection currents is transferred from the air or liquid, firstly to the outside part of the food then gradually through to the centre. For efficient and quicker cooking, convection currents in air need to be kept in an enclosed space such as an oven. As hot air rises, cooler air falls – so the hottest part in an oven is at the top. Some ovens are fan assisted so that the hot air is driven around the oven to keep the temperature even from the bottom to the top. One example of convection in meat cookery is roasting.
  • 18. Conduction In this method of cooking, heat is transferred through solid objects by the vibration of heated molecules. Those molecules nearest to the heat source first become heated and vibrate. Molecules next to those already vibrating also start to vibrate – so that a chain reaction is set up.
  • 19. Conduction In this way the heat is transferred throughout the food until it becomes hot. Heat is transferred by conduction in cooking methods using hot fat, hot water or steam. The heat is firstly conducted from the fuel source to the cooking container (usually made of metal – a good conductor of heat). The container in turn heats the cooking medium (fat, water or steam) and finally the food. Cooking by conduction depends on good contact between the: • source of heat • cooking equipment • food to be cooked Examples of conduction in meat cookery include stir frying and shallow frying.
  • 20. Radiation In this method of cooking, heat is transferred from a heat source in the form of rays which travel quickly in straight lines. Food placed in the path of the rays quickly absorbs heat. The surface of the food nearest to the rays becomes quickly browned – and regular turning of the food is needed to ensure even cooking.
  • 21. Radiation – heat rays Heat rays from gas or electric grills travel down onto the food below. The further away the food, the further the heat rays have to travel – so foods cook more slowly. The grill can be controlled by turning down the heat source, so that food cooks more slowly. Heat rays from a charcoal grill or barbeque travel upwards to cook the food placed above on a grid or spit.
  • 22. Radiation Radiant heat is fierce and food can be come dry and overcooked. So the heat must be carefully controlled and the food regularly turned. Without careful control of radiant heat thicker pieces of food can burn on the outside before the inside is cooked. This method is most suitable for thinner, flatter, tender meat cuts. Examples of radiant heat in meat cookery include barbequing and grilling.
  • 23. Freezing • Optimum temperature (0°F or lower) • Works by completely stopping enzyme activity & inhibiting spoilage microorganisms Bacteria Yeasts Molds
  • 24. Freezing • REMEMBER: Thaw meat at refrigeration temps or in the microwave • DO NOT THAW AT ROOM TEMPS
  • 25. How long with frozen meat last? Beef – 12 months Pork - 6 months Poultry – 3-6 months Lamb – 6-9 months
  • 26. Preparing and cooking meat to improve tenderness The tenderness of meat depends on the: • structure of the meat muscle • age of the animal before slaughter • part of the animal meat muscle comes from • the method of preparation and choice of cooking method
  • 27. Tenderising meat with physical force It is possible to increase the tenderness of meat by using special food preparation techniques before and during cooking. The muscle fibres can be physically broken down by mincing and chopping. The muscle fibres can be physically separated by using a meat hammer with a spiked edge. Butchers use this method to prepare quick-frying steaks.
  • 28. Tenderising meat with enzymes Certain enzymes contained in plants can be used to tenderise tougher cuts of meat. These enzymes work by partly breaking down protein and connective tissue. Natural plant sources of enzymes can be used as tenderisers: • Bromelin in fresh pineapple • Papin in paw-paw • Ficin in fresh figs Commercially prepared tenderisers are usually in the form of powders for easy sprinkling.
  • 29. Tenderising meat with a marinade Tougher cuts of meat can be placed in a marinade, covered and stored in a refrigerator for several hours, or overnight. This helps to hydrate (keep water in) the muscle fibres and to convert collagen to gelatine. Marinades usually contain an acid such as lemon juice, tomato , vinegar or wine.
  • 30. Tenderness during cooking One important reason for cooking meat is to make the muscle fibres more tender. The method by which meat is cooked will affect its tenderness and texture. During cooking muscle fibres coagulate ( shrink and harden). When this happens water is squeezed out of the meat and shrinks in size.
  • 31. Cooking meat in liquid To prevent toughening and the loss of liquid from meat, it can be cooked slowly in liquid. When meat is cooked with liquid, known as a moist cooking method (such as stewing, braising and casseroling) the shrinkage and toughening of meat muscle happens more slowly. Long, slow methods of cooking using liquids converts collagen in connective tissue to gelatine, making the meat tender. Moist cooking methods are especially suitable for less tender meat which contains more connective tissue.
  • 32. What happens during cooking? Long cooking – on a low heat, in a liquid - will help make tougher meats tender. At temperatures of 80ºC and above the collagen is softened and converted to gelatine (which is soluble). Muscle fibres cooked in this way fall apart easily and are easier to chew. Acid ingredients (such as wine, lemon juice and tomatoes) added to the liquid during cooking aid the conversion of collagen to gelatine and add flavour.
  • 33. Reducing the fat content of meat dishes During cooking the fat present in meat starts to melt. For healthy meat meals a grid or trivet used in dry cooking methods helps the fat to drip away into the cooking container. The melted fat also helps to stop the surface of the meat from getting too dry. In moist methods of cookery, the fat melts into the cooking liquid and eventually rises to the top. For healthy meat dishes this fat can be skimmed off with a spoon.
  • 34. Preparing dishes with improved flavour Cooking meat increases the flavour by developing meat extractives and melting the fat. In dry methods of cooking the meat extractives cling to the meat surface. In moist methods of cooking they are absorbed into the cooking liquid. Extractives contain soluble flavour compounds, which are stronger in meat muscle from older animals and from muscle areas used the most. This can provide a depth of flavour to the dish or meal.
  • 35. Preparing dishes with improved flavour Fat contains flavouring compounds which release characteristic smells associated with lamb, beef and pork during cooking. The melted fat also helps to crisp the surface of cooked meat which increases the flavour. Apart from the development of natural meat flavours, cooking helps the absorption of any flavourings such as herbs and spices added during cooking. meatandeducation.com 2011
  • 36. Colour changes during food preparation When meat is cooked the colour changes from red to brown. Meat muscle contains a protein called myoglobin (similar to haemoglobin) which gives meat its red colour. Immediately after cutting, meat is a purple colour, which turns to bright red after about thirty minutes as myoglobin takes on oxygen to form oxymyoglobin. After several days of exposure to air the surface of meat turns a brownish colour as the myoglobin oxidises to become metmyoglobin. During cooking all these pigments are denatured and the meat will take on a brownish colour throughout. meatandeducation.com 2011
  • 37. Summary •Food preservation is important to increase the shelf life of products. •Shelf life depends on: water; acidity; hygienic handling; methods of preservation. •Convection is where currents of hot air or hot liquid transfer the heat energy to the food. •Conduction is where heat is transferred through solid objects by the vibration of heated molecules. •Radiation is where heat is transferred from a heat source in the form of rays which travel quickly in straight lines. •Meat can be tenderised by physical action, enzymes or marinades containing an acid. •Meat changes colour during food preparation when the pigment myoglobin changes.