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A
Major Project Report on
Fabrication of a Drone
Submitted to
RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA
BHOPAL (M.P.)
In Pa...
ABSTRACT
A quadcopter can achieve vertical flight in a stable manner and be used to monitor or
collect data in a specific re...
Declaration
We hereby declare that the project entitled FABRICATION OF DRONE is the actual work
carried out by us in the d...
MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT,
UJJAIN (M.P)
2014-2015
RECOMMENDATION
This dissertation work entitled “FABRI...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First and foremost, we would like to express our highest appreciation to supportive
academic professor, Pr...
Contents
Chapter 1:- Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
Chapter 2:- Literature Review …………………………………………...
List of Tables
Serial No. Table No. Table Name Page No.
1 3.1 Parts & Material 8
List of Figures
Serial
No.
Figure No. Nam...
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
A Drone or Quadcopter is a Vehicles have large potential for performing tasks that are dangerous
or...
opposite directions (in order to balance the torques exerted upon the body of the helicopter).
Fig. 1.1 : Image of a Drone
Chapter 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 History
Oehmichen (1920)
Etienne Oehmichen experimented with rotorcraft designs in the 192...
Convertawings Model A Quadrotor (1956)
This unique helicopter was intended to be the prototype for a line of much larger c...
Military UAVs - from the Civil War to the Middle East conflicts:
The Oxford English Dictionary describes drones as 'a remo...
Fig. 2.3 : 1956 – Convert a wings Model A Quadcopter
Fig. 2.4 : 1958 - Curtis Wright VZ-
Chapter 3
MATERIALS & METHODS
3.1 Materials-
For someone new to the multirotor hobby, putting together our first quadcopte...
Fig. 3.2 Parts for Assembling of a Drone
We’ve heard from a lot of readers who are in similar positions and this post is d...
3.2 SPECIFICATIONS-
3.2.1 ELECTRONIC ASSISTANCE
Extreme precision control and automatic stabilization features.
 1GHz 32 ...
3.2.3 Technical Specification
MECHANICAL DESIGN:
3 cell 1,000 mAH LiPo rechargeable battery; High pitch propeller for grea...
.
Fig. 3.3 Sketch Design Of a Quadcopter
This chapter introduces some of the main concepts and background knowledge relate...
Fig.3.5 Axis Of a Drone
Fig.3.6 Take Off Motion
Fig.3.7 Landing Motion
3.4 METHODS OF USE
3.4.1 Operating the Drone
Fig. 3.8 operating of drone
Fig. 3.9 operating of drone
Fig. 3.10 operating of drone
3D Flip Flying
The pilot can control it to perform some breathtak...
Fig. 3.11 operating of drone
Fig. 3.12 operating of drone
When you want to fly your drone you must make sure that you are ...
3. Get permission. If you are on someone else’s property or in a public space, ask for
permission to avoid invasion of pri...
3.4.4 Battery disposal
Discarding batteries in your general household waste can be harmful to the environment. Damaged
or ...
Press and hold the joystick in the up / down position to make the AR.Drone continuously climb /
descend.
3.4.7 Landing
Mak...
3.5 Controlling of a Drone
3.5.1 Motion sensors
 The AR.Drone has many motions sensors. They are located below the centra...
Chapter 4
RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS
In this section of the document we will be discussing the verification and testing of each ...
4.2 Future of the Drones:
New applications are coming into picture as the work efficiency and tolerance capacity
of the dr...
Usage of Drone
1. A Drone is mostly used for surveillance by the police & Military purpose.
2. This Drone is also used for...
References
1. (MANITOBA University, Final Report Design, Implementations, and Testing of a UAV
Quadcopter DEPARTMENT OF EL...
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Drone (Quadcopter) full project report by Er. ASHWANI DIXIT

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This is a Fully completed Mechanical Engineering Final Year Project Report of Drone ( Quadcopter ) by Ashwani Dixit from MITM, Ujjain .
for word file of that report you can contact me - ashwanidixit49@gmail.com
Thankyou !!!!!!!!!

Published in: Engineering
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Drone (Quadcopter) full project report by Er. ASHWANI DIXIT

  1. 1. A Major Project Report on Fabrication of a Drone Submitted to RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA BHOPAL (M.P.) In Partial fulfillment for the award of degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING By Ashwani Dixit, 0714CS111017 Ayush Awasthi, 0714ME111024 Vaseem Akram, 0714ME111010 Hemant kumar sharma, 0714ME111046 Deependra Ranawat, 0714ME111040 Manoj kelkar, 0714ME111065 Under the Guidance of Prof. Bharat Chede Head of Department MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, UJJAIN
  2. 2. ABSTRACT A quadcopter can achieve vertical flight in a stable manner and be used to monitor or collect data in a specific region such as Loading a mass. Technological advances have reduced the cost and increase the performance of the low power microcontrollers that allowed the general public to develop their own quadcopter. The goal of this project is to build, modify, and improve an existing quadcopter kit to obtain stable flight, gather and store GPS data, and perform autocommands, such as auto-landing. The project used an Aeroquad quadcopter kit that included a frame, motors, electronic speed controllers, Arduino Mega development board, and sensor boards and used with the provided Aeroquad software. Batteries, a transmitter, a receiver, a GPS module, and a micro SD card adaptor were interfaced with the kit. The aeroquad software was modified to properly interface the components with the quadcopter kit. Individual components were tested and verified to work properly. Calibration and tuning of the PID controller was done to obtain proper stabilization on each axis using custom PID test benches. Currently, the quadcopter can properly stabilize itself, determine its GPS location, and store and log data. Most of the goals in this project have been achieved, resulting in a stable and maneuverable quadcopter. KEYWORDS Drone/Quadcopter, Transmitter & Remote, Propellers, Electric Motors, Battery
  3. 3. Declaration We hereby declare that the project entitled FABRICATION OF DRONE is the actual work carried out by us in the department of MECHANICAL ENGINEERING under the guidance of Prof. BHARAT CHEDE, (Head of Department) Name Enrollment Number Signature Ashwani Dixit 0714CS111017 Ayush Awasthi 0714ME111024 Vaseem Akram 0714ME111010 Hemant Kumar Sharma 0714ME111046 Deependra Singh Ranawat 0714ME111040 Manoj Kelkar 0714ME111065
  4. 4. MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT, UJJAIN (M.P) 2014-2015 RECOMMENDATION This dissertation work entitled “FABRICATION OF A DRONE” is submitted by “Ashwani Dixit, Ayush Awasthi, Deependra Ranawat, Vaseem Akram & Manoj Kelkar” for the partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering. Project Guide HOD Director Prof. Bharat Chede (Department of Mechanical MITM, UJJAIN Department Of Mechanical Engineering) Engineering
  5. 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First and foremost, we would like to express our highest appreciation to supportive academic professor, Prof. Bharat Chede. His supervision and support that gave me truly helps during the period of conducting our project. His never-ending supply of valuable advice and guidance has enlightens me and deeply engraved in our mind. Next, I would like to dedicate our thankfulness to him, for his enthusiastic support and supervision of the thesis revision. I’m also happy to present my gratefully acknowledge to Machinery laboratory technicians, who has been so warmth and kind to provide sincere assistance and good cooperation during this period. Their co-operation is much indeed appreciated. In addition, I would like to convey thanks to lecturers, for their assistance, which really spends their time to teach us a lots of knowledge regarding to the design development. Last but not least, I would like to state my appreciation to the staff – Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, our team and colleagues for supporting us and administration department for their help in the project. Thank you!!!
  6. 6. Contents Chapter 1:- Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 Chapter 2:- Literature Review ………………………………………………………………………………………………..3 2.1 History ……………………………………………………………………………………..……………..…3 2.2 Current Development………………………………………………………………………………………4 Chapter 3:- Material and Methods …………………………………………………………………………………………..7 3.1 Materials …………………………………………………………………………………………………….7 3.2 Specifications ………………………………………………………………………………………………9 3.3.1 Electronic Assistance …..………………………………………………………………………..9 3.3.2 Motors ………………………..…………………………...…………………………………….…..9 3.3.3 Technical Specifications ………………………………………………...…………………......10 3.3 Methodology adopted for assembling of Drone…………………………………………………….13 3.4 Method of Use ………………………………………………………………..…….…………………….13 3.4.1 Operating of drone……. …………………………………………………………………………13 3.5.2 Battery ………………………………………………………………………..…………………….16 3.5.3 Charging …………………………………………………………………………….....................16 3.5.4 Battery Disposal……………………………………………………..…....................................17 3.5.5 Recharging the battery ………………………………………………………...………………..17 3.5.6 Taking off …………………………………………………………………………………………..17 3.5.7 Landing ……………………………………………………………………………………………..18 3.5.8 Warning ……………………………………………………………….…...……………………….18 3.5 Controlling of a Drone………………………………… …………………………………………..….…19 3.5.1 Motion sensors…………………………………………………………………………………...19 Chapter 4 :- Results and Discussions……………...………………………………………………………….……………20 4.1 System Verification & Testing …………………………………………………………………..……..20 4.2 Future of Drone…………………. ………………………………………………………………………..21 Usage of Drone………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….22 References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….23
  7. 7. List of Tables Serial No. Table No. Table Name Page No. 1 3.1 Parts & Material 8 List of Figures Serial No. Figure No. Name Page No. 1 1.1 Image of Drone 2 2 2.1 1920 – Oemichen 5 3 2.2 De Bothezat helicopter, 1923 photo 5 4 2.3 1956 – Convert a wings Model A Quadcopter 6 5 2.4 1958 - Curtis Wright VZ- 6 6 3.1 All Parts 7 7 3.2 Parts for Assembling of a Drone 8 8 3.3 Sketch Design Of a Quadcopter 14 9 3.4 Designing of all parts 11 10 3.5 Axis Of a Drone 12 11 3.6 Take Off Motion 12 12 3.7 Landing Motion 13 13 3.8 operating of drone 13 14 3.9 operating of drone 14 15 3.10 operating of drone 14 16 3.11 operating of drone 15 17 3.12 operating of drone 15 18 3.13 Charging 17 19 3.14 Take Off motion 17 20 3.15 Landing Motion 18 21 3.16 Schematic view of a Drone 19 22 4.1 Forward Looking Interface Camera 21
  8. 8. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION A Drone or Quadcopter is a Vehicles have large potential for performing tasks that are dangerous or very costly for humans. Examples are the inspection of high structures, humanitarian purposes or search-and-rescue missions. One specific type of Drone is becoming increasingly more popular lately: the quadcopter (Fig. 1.1). When visiting large events or parties, professional quadcopters can be seen that are used to capture video for promotional or surveillance purposes. Recreational use is increasing as well: for less than 50 Euros a small remote controlled quadcopter can be bought to fly around in your living room or garden. In these situations the quadcopter is usually in free flight. There is no physical contact between the surroundings and the quad copter and no cooperation between the quadcopters If would have the capabilities to collaborate the number of possibilities grows even further. For example, a group of Drone would be able to efficiently and autonomously search a missing person in a large area by sharing data between. Or, the combined load capacity of a group of quad copters can be used to deliver medicine in remote areas. This bachelor thesis focuses on the use of a commercially available quadcopter platform, the.Drone, to perform a task that requires physical collaboration and interaction: moving a mass. In this way a clear interaction between the quadcopters and their surroundings is present. As preliminary step towards the view of collaborating aerial robots the choice was made to perform this task in an indoor scenario where position feedback is present. Starting off with position control, additional controller logic can be implemented to counteract the forces imposed by a mass connected to the quadcopter. The choice is made for the Drone, a generalized approach is chosen where possible to encourage reuse of this research’s outcome and deliverables. (1) A helicopter is a flying vehicle which uses rapidly spinning rotors to push air downwards, thus creating a thrust force keeping the helicopter aloft. Conventional helicopters have two rotors. These can be arranged as two coplanar rotors both providing upwards thrust, but spinning in
  9. 9. opposite directions (in order to balance the torques exerted upon the body of the helicopter). Fig. 1.1 : Image of a Drone
  10. 10. Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 History Oehmichen (1920) Etienne Oehmichen experimented with rotorcraft designs in the 1920s. (Fig.2.1) among the six designs he tried, his helicopter No.2 had four rotors and eight propellers, all driven by a single engine. The Oehmichen No.2 used a steel-tube frame, with two-bladed rotors at the ends of the four arms. The angle of these blades could be varied by warping. Five of the propellers, spinning in the horizontal plane, stabilized the machine laterally. Another propeller was mounted at the nose for steering. The remaining pair of propellers were for forward propulsion. The aircraft exhibited a considerable degree of stability and controllability for its time, and made more than a thousand test flights during the middle 1920s. By 1923 it was able to remain airborne for several minutes at a time, and on April 14, 1924 it established the first-ever FAI distance record for helicopters of 360 m (390 yd). It demonstrated the ability to complete a circular course and later, it completed the first 1 kilometer (0.62 mi) closed-circuit flight by a rotorcraft. De Bothezat helicopter (1922) Dr. George de Bothezat and Ivan Jerome developed this aircraft, (Fig. 2.2 ) with six bladed rotors at the end of an X-shaped structure. Two small propellers with variable pitch were used for thrust and yaw control. The vehicle used collective pitch control. Built by the US Air Service, it made its first flight in October 1922. About 100 flights were made by the end of 1923. The highest it ever reached was about 5 m (16 ft 5 in). Although demonstrating feasibility, it was underpowered, unresponsive, mechanically complex and susceptible to reliability problems. Pilot workload was too high during hover to attempt lateral motion. (4)
  11. 11. Convertawings Model A Quadrotor (1956) This unique helicopter was intended to be the prototype for a line of much larger civil and military quadrotor helicopters. The design featured two engines driving four rotors through a system of v belts. (Fig. 2.3) No tail rotor was needed and control was obtained by varying the thrust between rotors.[5] Flown successfully many times in the mid-1950s, this helicopter proved the quadrotor design and it was also the first four-rotor helicopter to demonstrate successful forward flight. Due to a lack of orders for commercial or military versions however, the project was terminated. Convert a wings proposed a Model E that would have a maximum weight of 42,000 lb (19 t) with a payload of 10,900 lb (4.9 t) over 300 miles and at up to 173 mph (278 km/h). Curtiss-Wright VZ-7 (1958) The Curtiss-Wright VZ-7 was a VTOL aircraft designed by the Curtiss-Wright company for the US Army. The VZ-7 was controlled by changing the thrust of each of the four propellers. (Fig.2.4) AR.Drone is a small radio controlled quadcopter with cameras attached to it built by Parrot SA, designed to be controllable with by smartphones or tablet devices. Nixie is a small camera- equipped drone that can be worn as a wrist band.(6)  Had 4 rotors and 8 propellers all driven by one motor  Over 1000 Successful flights  First recorded FAI distance record of 360m in 1924 for a helicopter  Very Stable for the Time  Designed by Etienne Oemichen 2.2 Current Developments In the past 10 years many small quadcopters have entered the market that include the DJI Phantom and Parrot AR Drone. This new breed of quadcopters are cheap, lightweight. In the 20th Century, military research precipitated many widely used technological innovations. Surveillance satellites enabled the GPS-system, and defence researchers developed the information swapping protocols that are fundamental to the Internet. Drone fall into a similar category. Designed initially for reconnaissance purposes, their para-military and commercial development was often out of sight of the public. (7)
  12. 12. Military UAVs - from the Civil War to the Middle East conflicts: The Oxford English Dictionary describes drones as 'a remote-less controlled piloted aircraft or missile'. Understood in such sense, drones came into first use after World War II when unmanned jets, such as the Ryan Firebee (a documentary about the Firebee and the use of early drones in the Vietnam War), started field operation.(8) Since then, the number of drones in military use increased substantially enough that the New York Time decided to refer to it as a new paradigm for warfare. Fig. 2.1 : 1920 - Oemichen Fig. 2.2 : De Bothezat helicopter, 1923 photo
  13. 13. Fig. 2.3 : 1956 – Convert a wings Model A Quadcopter Fig. 2.4 : 1958 - Curtis Wright VZ-
  14. 14. Chapter 3 MATERIALS & METHODS 3.1 Materials- For someone new to the multirotor hobby, putting together our first quadcopter parts list can be extremely daunting. Trying to figure out what to buy and what parts will work together is tough, especially for people who don’t come from a background in radio controlled planes or helicopters. Forums are packed with people who want to build a quadcopter but don’t know where to start. It can be frustrating trying to sort through the thousands of posts on forums and blogs and figure out what to do. Fig. 3.1 : All Parts
  15. 15. Fig. 3.2 Parts for Assembling of a Drone We’ve heard from a lot of readers who are in similar positions and this post is designed to spell out exactly what you need for your first quadcopter build. While we will recommend a complete list of specific parts that we have used and tested for a complete quadcopter build, the main purpose of this post is to provide a general overview of the parts needed to build a quadcopter. Here’s what you’ll need: Serial No. Parts Material 1 Frame Themacol Foam Frame 2 Motor x4 18,500 rpm. 4 Flight Control Board Circuit plate 5 Radio transmitter and receiver Electrical Remote 6 Propeller x4 (2 clockwise and 2 counter- clockwise) Flexible plastic material 7 Battery & Charger & Microcontroller. - Table no. 3.1 Parts & Materials
  16. 16. 3.2 SPECIFICATIONS- 3.2.1 ELECTRONIC ASSISTANCE Extreme precision control and automatic stabilization features.  1GHz 32 bit ARM Cortex A8 processor with 800MHz video DSP TMS320DMC64x  Linux 2.6.32  1Gbit DDR2 RAM at 200MHz  3 axis gyroscope 2000°/second precision  3 axis accelerometer +-50mg precision  3 axis magnetometer 6° precision  Pressure sensor +/- 10 Pa precision  Ultrasound sensors for ground altitude measurement  60 fps vertical QVGA camera for ground speed measurement 3.2.2 MOTORS Fly high. Fly fast. Far away from the ground.  4 brushless inrunner motors. 14.5W 28,500 RMP  Micro ball bearing  Low noise Nylatron gears for 1/8.75 propeller reductor  Tempered steel propeller shaft  Self-lubrificating bronze bearing  Specific high propelled drag for great maneuverability  8 MIPS AVR CPU per motor controller  3 elements 1000 mA/H LiPo rechargeable battery (Autonomy: 12 minutes)  Emergency stop controlled by software  Fully reprogrammable motor controller
  17. 17. 3.2.3 Technical Specification MECHANICAL DESIGN: 3 cell 1,000 mAH LiPo rechargeable battery; High pitch propeller for great manoeuvrability; 4 brushless inrunner motors with micro ball bearing and rare earth magnets, 14.5 watt & 28,500 rpm when hovering; Self-lubricating bronze bearings, tempered steel prop shafts; Low noise Nylatron gears for 8.625 propeller shafts; Emergency stop controlled by software; Fully reprogrammable motor controller; Water resistant electronic motor controller ; Foam to isolate the inertial center from the engine’s vibrations; EPP hull; Carbon fibre tubes, 380g with outdoor hull, 420g with indoor hull; High grade 30% fibre charged nylon plastic parts; 3.3 Methodology Adopted for Assembling of a Drone. Working Principle 1. First , we are making a frame of light weight material. 2. Quadcopter is a device with a intense mixture of Electronics, Mechanical and mainly on the principle of Aviation. 3. The Quadcopter has 4 motors whose speed of rotation and the direction of rotation changes according to the users desire to move the device in a particular direction (i.e Takeoff motion, Landing motion, Forward motion, Backward motion, Left motion, Right Motion.) 4. The rotation of Motors changes as per the transmitted signal send from the 6-Channel transmitter. 5. The signal from microcontroller goes to ESC’s which in turn control the speed of motor
  18. 18. . Fig. 3.3 Sketch Design Of a Quadcopter This chapter introduces some of the main concepts and background knowledge related to this project. A generic model of a quadcopter (Fig. 3.3) will be introduced, as well as methods of connecting masses to UAVs and an introduction to controller actions. Fig.3.4: Designing of all parts
  19. 19. Fig.3.5 Axis Of a Drone Fig.3.6 Take Off Motion
  20. 20. Fig.3.7 Landing Motion 3.4 METHODS OF USE 3.4.1 Operating the Drone Fig. 3.8 operating of drone
  21. 21. Fig. 3.9 operating of drone Fig. 3.10 operating of drone 3D Flip Flying The pilot can control it to perform some breathtaking operations (Fig. 43) when mastering the basics. First fly it to the height of 3m. Seconds click the flip key and push the right rudder to the end (in one direction) & push it the aerocraft turns over.
  22. 22. Fig. 3.11 operating of drone Fig. 3.12 operating of drone When you want to fly your drone you must make sure that you are doing it properly. Here are 8 simple safety tips from Verizon Wireless that we also recommend: 1. Choose the right environment. First, try flying a drone in an open, preferably outdoor area instead of indoors. Make sure the day you’ve selected is relatively wind free and the location has few trees – because no one wants an emergency drone landing 15 feet up in a tree. 2. Be aware of your surroundings. Take note of where other people, objects, trees or roads are to assure a safe flight path and landing. Don’t fly near an airport or over a large group of people. Be aware of powerful antennas and power lines as well.
  23. 23. 3. Get permission. If you are on someone else’s property or in a public space, ask for permission to avoid invasion of privacy or other consequences. 4. Learn the modes and controls. Different flying modes and settings can affect your flight and ability to control the drone. Before flying, learn which setting is best for you in your selected environment. For example, AR Drone has an outdoor flight mode, left-handed mode or joypad mode. Watch our tutorial videos about the AR.Drone . 5. Check the battery. Make sure your battery is fully charged to avoid an emergency landing. You should also consider the season. If you’re flying in the cold winter, your battery will drain more quickly than it would in the summer. 6. Be in control. The emergency land button should be one of the first things you learn before flying the drone. It ensures the drone lands safely if you make a critical error while flying. However, you should only use the emergency land function in true emergencies because the motors will cut out and your drone will drop (which could cause serious harm to those below). Also, keep a direct line of sight on your drone and watch its altitude. 3.4.2 Battery Warnings concerning the use of the battery  Lithium Polymer batteries are extremely hazardous and liable to cause serious injuries to persons or property. The user accepts liability for the use of a Lithium Polymer battery. As the manufacturer and the distributor cannot ensure the battery is used correctly (charging, discharging, storage, etc.), they cannot be held liable for damages caused to persons or property. 3.4.3 Charging  Do not overcharge the battery. When the battery is fully charged, disconnect it from the charger. Do not put the device back in the charger once charging has finished. You risk causing overheating.  Do not cover your product or its charger while the battery is charging.  Recharge the battery at a temperature of between 0°C and 40°C.
  24. 24. 3.4.4 Battery disposal Discarding batteries in your general household waste can be harmful to the environment. Damaged or unusable batteries must be disposed of in a container specially reserved for this purpose. When disposing of the battery, follow appropriate local guidelines and regulations 3.4.5 Recharging the battery 1. Select the adapter corresponding to your country and place it on the transformer. It is essential that you hear the sound that confirms a firm connection. (Fig. 3.13) Fig. 3.13 Charging 2. Connect the battery to the charger. 3.4.6 Taking off Press the key. The motors will start and the AR.Drone will automatically position itself at an altitude of between 50 cm and 1 m.Slide the joystick (bottom right) up / down to make the AR.Drone climb / descend in increments of 10 cm. Fig 3.14 Take off Motion
  25. 25. Press and hold the joystick in the up / down position to make the AR.Drone continuously climb / descend. 3.4.7 Landing Make sure that the Drone is directly above a flat, dry and unobstructed surface and then press on the button . Fig. 3.15 Landing Motion 3.4.8 Warning You should use the AR.Drone safely and responsibly at all times, so as to avoid any damage or harm being caused to any person, animal or property next to which you are flying the Drone. In this respect you should ensure that you always operate the Drone in compliance with this Quick Start Guide and our Safe Use of the Drone instructions. Parrot also reminds you that you should not use the Drone for any unauthorised or unlawful purposes, as you will otherwise be fully liable for any loss or damage caused as a result of such unauthorized use
  26. 26. 3.5 Controlling of a Drone 3.5.1 Motion sensors  The AR.Drone has many motions sensors. They are located below the central hull.  The AR.Drone features a 6 DOF, MEMS-based, miniaturized inertial measurement unit. It provides the software with pitch, roll and yaw measurements.  Inertial measurements are used for automatic pitch, roll and yaw stabilization and assisted tilting control. They are needed for generating realistic augmented reality effects.  An ultrasound telemeter provides with altitude measures for automatic altitude stabilization and assisted vertical speed control. Fig. 3.16 : Schematic View of a Drone
  27. 27. Chapter 4 RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS In this section of the document we will be discussing the verification and testing of each hardware and software component. All problems will be described in detail and the solutions we made to solve these problems. In this section we will also discuss our overall results of the project and what we could have done to improve upon our project. Future work for this project will also be mentioned in this section of the document.(9) 4.1 System Verification and Testing In this section of the document we will be discussing the methods we used to test each component of our quadcopter, the problems we faced, and how we solved them. Verifying sensors board and Arduino Mega connection By using the blinking template from the Arduino IDE and looking at the corresponding LED on the Arduino board and shield, we verified that both the boards were connected properly by changing the delay of the blinking LED.(9) Testing on Aeroquad flight software library To modify the Aeroquad flight software, the user configuration header file had to be changed. Certain variables needed to be defined according what components our quadcopter had and what functions we wanted our quadcopter to perform. This was done by both commenting and un- commenting the necessary definition statements in the user configuration header file. If the software uploads successfully, then no mistakes were made in the user configuration header file.
  28. 28. 4.2 Future of the Drones: New applications are coming into picture as the work efficiency and tolerance capacity of the drones have surpassed all expectations. Recently India has also joined the picture by releasing its own drones. We can use our drone attached with camera for servieliance of MIT Campus. Developments and modifications are constantly being done on the structure and internal electronics. The new “helicopter drone” released by the US army carries a 1.8 giga pixel camera to provide clear ground images even from high altitudes. The sensors carried in the drones are also being made sharper to provide higher aerial surveillance. Programming software of the drone is being developed such that the drone can take its own decision in situations where human error is probable. The USA has constantly been utilizing their fleet of drones over Pakistan and Afghanistan in the fight against terrorism. Fig. 4.1 A forward looking infrared (FLIR) camera mounted on the side of an UAV (Image source: Wikipedia) Drones have always risen to the occasion whenever they were needed. They are truly an engineering spectacle, containing the best of mechanical, electronics and software technology. There just might be a day when today’s generation tells their grandchildren that aircrafts were manned by human pilots.
  29. 29. Usage of Drone 1. A Drone is mostly used for surveillance by the police & Military purpose. 2. This Drone is also used for watching the streets of the city. 3. Drone is used for medical helps on the spot area of the road accidents. 4. We can use the Drone in our college for surveillance purpose. 5. We can see any student in MIT Campus with help a drone in seconds. 6. The device has already been used by security agencies for counter-insurgency activities and search for survivors during the Uttarakhand flash floods that took place last year. 7. Drone is used for Arduino microchips with dynamite for blasting. 8. It is also used for lifting a weight approx. 400 gms. etc.
  30. 30. References 1. (MANITOBA University, Final Report Design, Implementations, and Testing of a UAV Quadcopter DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING 2. Laden Bin News, Wikipedia. 3. Warren R. (1982). The Helicopters. The Epic of Flight (Chicago: Time-Life Books). p. 28. ISBN 0-8094-3350-8 4. "A Successful French Helicopter" Flight 24 January 1924 p47 5. "Helicopters of the World" Flight 2 November 1956 p722] 6. The Quadrotor’s Coming of Age". Retrieved 29 December 2014. 7. The Quadrotor’s Coming of Age". Retrieved 29 December 2014 8. "Aeryon Scout Quadrotor Spies On Bad Guys From Above". Retrieved 29 December2014. 9. University of MANITOBA Final Report Testing of UAV. 10. By Acosta Jim, CNN Senior White House Correspondent, Updated 1818 GMT (0118 HKT) April 27, 2015 11. Dna , Thursday, 11 December 2014 - 8:40pm IST | Agency: PTI 12. Bussiness Standards, Press Trust of India | New Delhi , December 15, 2014 Last Updated at 00:35 IST 13. By MAIL TODAY BUREAU , PUBLISHED: 01:10 GMT, 4 November 2014 | UPDATED: 01:10 GMT, 4 November 2014

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