Topic : Survey on Mobile Processors and their ArchitecturesGroup Members :Ashutosh Singh Chirag Kothari Ashish BansalJaspreet Singh Pawan KumarB.Tech CSEIIT Roorkee
First 2G-digital hand-size mobiletelephone1992 :-MotorolaInternational 3200
Further Advancements1992-94 1993 1996 Nokia 1011 BellSouth/IBM Simon Motorola StarTAC First Ever Mass- Personal Communicator First clamshell cellular phone Produced GSM The IBM Simon was the Phone first PDA/Phone combo.
ARM – What is it?• ARM stands for Advanced RISC Machines• An ARM processor is basically any 16/32bit microprocessor designed and licensed by ARM Ltd, a microprocessor design company headquartered in England, founded in 1990 by Herman Hauser• A characteristic feature of ARM processors is their low electric power consumption, which makes them particularly suitable for use in portable devices.• It is one of the most used processors currently on the market
Arm Architectures :Early Architectures :V1 • Developed at Acorn, Cambridge, UK. Between October 1983 and April 1985. • Fewer than 25,000 transistors. • No multiply or coprocessor instructions. • 26-bit addressing.V2 • 30,000 transistors. • 32-bit multiplier instructions (MUL & MLA).
Continued …v2a • First ARM with an on-chip cache (ARM3).V3 • 32-bit addressing. • Undefined Instruction and Abort modes (allows virtual memory).v3M • Signed and unsigned long multiply and multiply-accumulate instructions: SMULL, SMLAL,UMULL, UMLAL.
Architecture 4 v4 • It is the first architecture to have a full formal definition. • the oldest supported architecture today. It added: • Load/store instructions for signed and unsigned halfwords and bytes. • LDRH, LDRSH, LDRSB. • System mode – privileged mode using user registers. • 26-bit addressing no longer supported. v4T added: • Thumb mode.
Architecture 5 v5T • Superset of ARMv4T. • New instructions: BLX, CLZ and BKPT. v5TE • New signal processing instructions. • New multiply Instructions for DSP (Digital Signal Processing ) : SMULxy , SMLAxy , SMULWy , SMLAWy , SMLALxy. • Saturated math support: Q flag -- QADD, QSUB, QDADD, QDSUB . • New PLD memory pre-load hint instruction. v5TE • Java acceleration.
Architecture 6 V6 : • Mixed endian data handling: SETEND, REV, REV16, REVSH. • 60+ new SIMD instructions: SMUSD, SMUADX, USAD8, USADA8 . • Unaligned data handling. • New multiprocessing instructions: LDREX, STREX. v6T2 : • Thumb-2 instruction set.
Architecture 7 v7A , v7R : • Dynamic Compiler Support. • Execution Environment (Thumb-2EE). • VFP v3 (Vector Floating Point). • NEON advanced SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data). • Thumb-2 mandated. v7M : • Minimalist variant for embedded uses. • Thumb-2 only. • Neon Technology is a 64/128 bit hybrid SIMD architecture developed by ARM to accelerate the performance of multimedia and signal processing applications. • The NEON architecture provides at least 3x the performance of ARMv5 and 2x the performance of ARMv6 SIMD on a range of media and DSP applications.
TIMELINE : • Week 1:-Introduction to Early Mobile phones, Introduction to ARM architecture, ARM architecture Features • Week 2:-Preference of ARM Processors over other architecture • Week 3 :- The Basic ARM Architecture • Week 4 :-Working of Classical ARM Processors and architecture (1) • Week 5:- Working of Classical ARM Processors and architecture (2) • Week 6:-Working of Embedded ARM Processors and architecture (1) • Week 7:-Working of Embedded ARM Processors and architecture (2) • Week 8-Working of Application ARM Processors and architecture (1) • Week 9-Working of Application ARM Processors and architecture (2) • Week 10:-Challenges for current Mobile Processors • Week 11:-Required features of Microprocessors in accordance with the need of mobile applications. • Week 12:-Details of processors other than ARM architecture. • Week 13:-Summary of project done.
Survey On Mobile ProcessorsToday’s Topic : Fastest Mobile Processors And Future Presented by Group-5
Fastest Phones: Rank 1 Qualcomm MSM8260 Snapdragon CPU Instruction Set : ARMv7 CPU : 1.2-1.5 GHz Dual-core ScorpionHTC Velocity 4G Vodafone GPU : Adreno 220 Wireless Radio Technology : Samsung Galaxy S II Skyrocket GSM (GPRS, EDGE) More Devices Having Qualcomm MSM8260 Qualcomm MSM8660 SnapdragonSamsung Galaxy S Blaze 4G Snapdragon : Asus Eee Pad Memo, HTC Amaze 4G, HTC Evo 3D (GSM), HTC Sensation, HTC Sensation XE, LG Optimus LTE SU640 Sony Xperia Ion, HTC Velocity 4G Sony Xperia S, T-Mobile myTouch 4G Slide, HTC Sensation XE (Sensation XE) Samsung Galaxy S II HD LTE
Fastest Phones: Rank 1 Qualcomm MSM8260 Snapdragon CPU - Dual-core 1.5 GHz Scorpion GPU - Adreno 220 Samsung Galaxy S II LTE OS - Android OS, v2.3.4 (Gingerbread)HTC Amaze 4G Samsung Galaxy S II T-Mobile (Hercules, SGH-T989)
Qualcomm Snapdragon Snapdragon: family of mobile system on chips(SOCs) by Qualcomm. First with 1GHz speed. Adopted by HD2(Windows),Nexus one, evo 4G. Qualcomm designed its own CPU Scorpion similar to the famous ARM Cortex A8 and uses the ARM v7 ISA. Further One more CPU KRAIT that is even faster has been designed that can reach speeds even greter than 1.5 GHz. Had an advantage over standard ARM A8 in instruction per clock cycle.
Qualcomm Snapdragon Further Qualcomm divided its products into : S1 S2 S3 S4(latest) Next generation of snapdragon powers new device such as Desire Z , Thunderbolt , Desire HD using smaller 45nm technology. Allowed more transistors & performance enhancing tweaks.
Qualcomm Snapdragon• On the GPU side of SoC – Used AMD-sourced Adreno 200.• Outperforms Hummingbird in 3D performance.• Advantage- – Qualcomm combines GPU & cellular antenna to SoC. – Allowing phone design to be more compact and a much simpler choice then using multiple pieces.
Hummingbird• Samsung first introduced their Hummingbird SoC inside their Galaxy S lineup.• The Hummingbird uses ARM Cortex- A8 architecture with the ARMv7 instruction set.• Samsung used 45 nanometer (nm) manufacturing tech, which describes the amount of transistors they can fit onto a single chip.
Hummingbird• While the ARM A8 is the basis of the chip,Samsung made it their own by carrying out a large number of modifications with their partners Intrisity.• For example: Intrinsity changed the logic design of the standard A8 which helped in reducing the number of operations• Also, the speed of their design was upto 10% faster than the original ARM technology.
Performance• The upcoming Infuse will feature a 1.2 GHz Hummingbird.• Samsung features another advantage: ARM NEON multimedia extension.• It had far better hardware video encoding and decoding, high quality graphics, and better sound processing.• In Samsung’s unit the PowerVR SGX540 GPU was introduced and outclassed its ARM- based competitors.
Performance• In terms of 3D or anything GPU-intensive, the Snapdragon really could not compete.• The Intrinsity-branded Hummingbird was also what powered the Apple iPhone 4.
Motorola MOTO MT870 LG Optimus 2X SU660 Motorola Photon 4G MB855 CPU Dual-core 1 GHz Cortex-A9 GPU ULP GeForce Rank 4 Motorola MOTO XT882Motorola ATRIX 4G Motorola ATRIX Samsung I9103 Galaxy R LG Optimus 2X
Fastest Phones : Rank 4 Motorola ATRIX 2 CPU Dual-core 1 GHz Cortex-A9 GPU PowerVR SGX540 Apple iPhone 4 CPU 1 GHz Cortex-A8 GPU PowerVR SGX535
Fastest Phones : Rank 4 LG Optimus 3D P920 CPU Dual-core 1 GHz Cortex-A9 GPU PowerVR SGX540 Dell Venue CPU 1 GHz Scorpion GPU Adreno 200
Cortex A9• The Cortex-A9 processor is a high- performance, low-power, ARM macrocell with an L1 cache subsystem that provides full virtual memory capabilities.• It implements the ARMv7 architecture and runs 32-bit ARM instructions,16-bit and 32-bit Thumb instructions.• It also supports 8-bit Java bytecodes in Jazelle state.
Key Features• Speculative, Superscalar execution pipeline giving 2.50DMIPS/Mhz/core .• Neon SIMD instruction set extension performing up to 16 operations per instruction (optional).• High performance VFPv3 floating point unit doubling the performance of previous ARM FPUs
Key Features• Thumb-2 instruction set encoding.• Trustzone security extensions.• Jazelle DBX support for Java execution.• Program trace macrocell and coresight design kit for unobtrusive tracing of instruction execution.• L2 cache controller (0-4 MB).
Cortex A9 MPCore• The ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore is a 32-bit multicore processor providing up to 4 cache coherent Cortex-A9 cores, each implementing the ARM.• There are only two recent ARM architectures that have multicore support: the ARM11 and the ARM Cortex A9.• The A8 doesnt come in a multicore variant
Implementations• Several SoC devices implement the Cortex-A9 core including: Altera SoC FPGA TRIDENT Microsystems Texas Instruments OMAP4 Processors ST-Ericsson Nova A9500 Sony play station Vita Xilinx Extensible Processing platform
Fastest Mobile SoC: Nvidia Tegra Its SoC used tweaked dual ARM Cortex- Tegra-2:-First A9 cores.Tegra-1:- Just dual core Clock short of SoC(System Frequency- Disaster on chip) in 1 GHz. market. Uses ARMv7 instruction set.
Performance Processor Support upto 12MP sensors,auto white Tegra 2 has an ARM7 balance, auto focus and processor that is used forgeneral video processing on chip management. either a still picture or a video stream. It handles dataflow, power management and other similar tasks.
Performance Just Difference is:-GPU in Tegra • Improved2 has same efficiency. • More Memoryarchitecture Bandwidth.as Tegra 1. • Higher clock rate.
What to Expect in 2012 ?The Answer is “Quad-Core Phones” o One of the big mobile buzzwords of 2011 was “Dual-Core”. o Dual-Core processors became the standard for high-end smartphones, starting with the LG Optimus 2X . o In 2012, however, it is all about quad-core. o But other than having double the cores of this year’s smart phones, what do quad-cores mean for the smart phones of 2012?
The State of Multicore Processorso Nvidia : • Was the first to bring dual-core processing to mobile with the LG Optimus 2X, which debuted at the beginning of 2011 with the Tegra 2 chip. • Is blazing the multicore trail again with the release of the Asus Eee Pad Transformer Prime TF201 tablet which is also the first device with 1.3 GHz Tegra 3 quad cores . For now, it’s the only quad-core device on the market. The Transformer earned high praise for its stunning graphics and zippy performance. • Future : It has said that Nvidia is working with a number of device makers on Tegra 3-powered phones, but can’t reveal who they are due to nondisclosure agreements. Quad-core phones are “on track”, however, for 2012. • The rumored HTC Edge will supposedly be the world’s first quad-core smartphone, running the Tegra 3 chip. Mobile news site “PocketNow” was first to claims to have exclusive images as well as a spec sheet.
The State of Multicore Processorso Qualcomm : • Stated that its quad-core Snapdragon chip, the APQ064, will join its S4 line of products. • Based on ARM architecture, the S4 chips will run at clock speeds upto 2.5GHz. • Qualcomm’s Vice President of Product Management Raj Talluri, confirmed that the first phones with quad-core Snapdragon chips will ship in 2012.o TI (Texas Instruments ): Raj Talluri • Unlike Nvidia and Qualcomm, chipset manufacturer TI isn’t putting a number on its OMAP processor. Rather than calling them dual- core or quad-core, TI refers to them as “Multicore”. • Latest system-on-a-chip is the OMAP 5 by TI. • The company didn’t give any exact benchmarks, but maintains that the OMAP 5 produces speeds competitive with Nvidia’s quad-core processor.
The State of Multicore Processorso Samsung: • Its phones and tablets have used both Snapdragon and Tegra chipsets, but the manufacturer’s semiconductor division is hard at work on the next generation of its own Exynos line of systems-on- a-chip. • The next one, the Exynos 5250, isn’t quad-core, however; it is a dual-core ARM Cortex-A15 processor. • Like TI, Samsung seems to be confident that the Exynos 5250 can produce benchmarks and performance competitive with a quad- core processor.
The More the Cores, the Better?o According to Nvidia : • quad-core processors improve performance during multitasking as well as the performance of multithreaded applications. • quad-core processor will bring to your phone a level of performance comparable to that of a desktop computer. • Nick Stam (Director of technical marketing at Nvidia) : “People are going to consider their phones as their primary computer” “Phones with a quad-core processor are really full computers that can replace many functions of laptops or desktop computers. It is a level of performance that truly does rival a desktop processor.”o According to Qualcomm : • It expects users will see the power of quad-core in the multitasking speed. The speed in which you switch between open applications will be much faster than that of a dual-core phone. • Gaming, of course, is the popular example. Quad-core processors support multithreaded applications, meaning an app that runs multiple processes at once, like a game. Therefore, Gameplay on a phone that can support these simultaneous processes is much more fluid and snappier with higher-quality graphics. • Imaging softwares can stitch together multiple photos much faster than a single or dual- core phone.
Battery Life: What’s at Stake?o Shortened battery life is the thorn in the side of smartphone innovation. Smartphone batteries can’t seem to hold up as processors get more powerful and networks become faster.o But Nvidia says that quad-core processors are actually easier on battery life than single or dual-core chips.o With the Tegra 3 : • The processes are distributed across the multiple cores, and therefore a quad-core phone consumes less power than a dual-core phone. • Have a fifth “companion core” that is built using a special lower-power- silicon process. This companion core handles tasks at a lower frequency for active standby mode, music playback, and video playback.o Qualcomm’s quad-core chips will be able to run simultaneously at different clock frequencies and at different voltages.
Main References :• www.phonegg.com/fastest-phones• www.theandroidphones.com• www.symbian-freak.com• www.pcworld.com• www.india-mobilewatch.blogspot.in• www.aceslab.org
Survey On Mobile Phone ProcessorsToday’s Topic: Fastest Graphics Processing Units (GPU)
What is a GPU?• A Graphics Processing Unit is a co- processor that takes on graphical calculations and transformations so that the main CPU does not have to be burdened by them.• The use of a GPU can greatly increase the performance of a device, especially when used for tasks such as 3D gaming.• A GPU can be a stand-alone chip or, as is more often the case, integrated into a complete chip design that includes one or more CPU cores.
For Game DevelopersGeForce GPU Architecture:-• The Tegra 2 system-on-a-chip (SoC) features an ultra-low power (ULP) GeForce GPU .• An Architecture similar to that of desktop GeForce GPUs.• Reduces power consumption.• Increases Graphics Quality.
Features…• The mobile GeForce GPU processing pipeline is similar to the one defined by the OpenGL 2.0 specifications.• Has unique optimizations that enable it to deliver performance of a pipelined GPU architecture while keeping the mobile power requirements in mind.• It included eight cores (four pixel shader cores and four vertex shader cores).• They also implemented a unique and proprietary Anisotropic Filtering (AF) algorithm for improved texture quality (up to 16x AF).
Additional Special Features• Early-Z support to filter out non-visible pixels.• Integrated Pixel Shader and Blend Unit for programming flexibility and higher performance.• Pixel Cache, Texture cache, Vertex, and Attribute Caches to reduce memory transactions.• Unique 5x Coverage Sampling Anti-aliasing (CSAA) technique that achieves higher image quality at lower memory bandwidth.• Advanced Anisotropic Filtering (AF) for high detail textures.• A custom Memory Controller developed in-house that improves GPU performance and reduces power consumption.• Numerous Power Management features for ultra low power consumptions.• Tegra 2 is well equipped to handle hardware accelerated, touch-based user interfaces when the Android OS adopts GPU-based UI rendering.
• Usually slower than PowerVR SGX Series 5.• But in several Game Scenarios it is found that GeForce GPU is 25-50% faster than PowerVR series 5.• Hardware accelerated Adobe Flash:-NVIDIA worked closely with Adobe to offload the Flash processing from the CPU core and do nearly all the rendering on the GPU core.• This reduces the amount of power consumed and greatly increases the overall performance because the CPU is freed up to handle other tasks.• In the popular Flash benchmark GUIMark2, NVIDIA found that hardware accelerated Flash improved performance 2x to 3x over competing devices that use the CPU to process Flash content.
GOFORCE 5500•Launched by Nvidia•Multimedia Graphic Processor•Decode Video and Audio Formats•Supports H.264•24-bit 64-voice Sound processor
FeaturesTrue, Fluid Digital TV Console-Class 3D Gaming High-Fidelty Surround SoundSharp, Vivid Photos Less Battery Usage
True, Fluid Digital TV• The industry’s first handheld GPU to playback H.264, WMV9 and MPEG-4 video up to D1 resolution at 30 frames per second (fps).• Compatible with major mobile TV standards including DVB-H, ISDB-T and DMB networks
Console-Class 3D Gaming• Experience console class games, like Quake III Arena, at unrivalled speeds on a handheld device.• 3X the performance of the previous generation 2.
High-Fidelty Surround Sound• The industry?s first handheld surround sound processor to deliver an immersive audio experience in the palm of your hand.• Crossfade and multistream technologies help to prevent annoying breaks between songs and music cut out when the ringtone is activated.
Sharp, Vivid Photos• Rapid multi-shot capabilities so you never miss that photo.• Support for up to 10 megapixel resolution.
GPU Details• Core Speed – 270MHz• Architecture – NV34B• Memory – 256 MB• Memory Bus – 128(64X2) bits• Memory Type – DDR• Open GL – 1.5• Resolution – 2048X1536
PowerVR• Develops hardware and software for 2D and 3D rendering, and for video encoding, decoding, associated image processing.• With introduction of OpenGL and Direct3D small players like PowerVR were pushed from market.• It responded by developing a series of designs that could be incorporated into system-on-a- chip architectures suitable for handheld device use. E.g. Smartphones, palmtops etc.
PowerVR SeriesFollowing chipsets were introduced underPowerVR series:• Series 1 (Micro)• Series 2 (Micro)• Series 3 (STMicro)• Series 4 (STMicro)• MBX• Series 5 (SGX)• Series 5XT(SGXMP)• Series 6 (Rogue)
Samsung Galaxy S Samsung Captivate These are some phones which use PowerVR SGX 540. Samsung Facinate Samsung Nexus S
Features of SGX Series 5• Most comprehensive IP core family in industry.• Shader driven-Tile bases deffered architecture (TBDR).• Fully programmable GPU using unique USSE architecture.• Supports all industries standard mobile and desktop graphics API and OS.• Fully backward compatible with PowerVR MBX
Benefits of SGX Series 5• Low risk solution for all embedded graphics applications.• Shader-based architecture enables near photo realistic image quality.• Lowest power consumption and silicon footprint.• Low host CPU and memory system bandwidth load.• Enables 2D, 3D and general purpose (GP-GPU) processing in a single core.
Supported APIs and OSAPIs• OpenGL ES 2.0• OpenVG 1.1• OpenCL 1.1• OpenWFOS support• Symbian,android and linux
Adreno Graphics Processing Units• All the phones from HTC, Samsung, LG that have Qualcomm Snapdragon processors include the integrated, custom-built Adreno GPU.• The power of the Adreno GPU allows developers to bring console and PC quality 3D games to mobile devices.• Qualcomms Adreno graphics solution helps put the power in your hands, allowing you to make the most of your 2D and 3D games across wide array of devices from high-end smartphones and tablets to feature phones.
Adreno Graphics Processing Units• Optimized for faster frame rates, smoother rendering and longer battery life.• Designed for everything from 3D rendering to high- end effects, Adreno GPUs deliver the graphics power needed for the next generation of games and user experiences• Adreno has many versions : Adreno 130, Adreno 200, Adreno 205, Adreno 220.
Adreno 130 GPU• Included in certain Snapdragon S1 chipsets, the Adreno 130 GPU features complete hardware support for 3D graphics and the APIs needed to deliver industry leading games and engaging UIs on feature phones.• Fixed function graphics pipeline.• Enables concurrent CPU, DSP, graphics, and MDP.• Supported APIs: OpenGL ES 1.1 OpenVG 1.1 EGL 1.3 Direct3D Mobile
Adreno 200 GPU• Available in certain Snapdragon S1 chipsets, the Adreno 200 GPU features a flexible, unified shader architecture that allocates only the units necessary for enhanced processing.• First OpenGL ES 2.0 graphics processing unit with programmable Function Pipeline• Concurrent CPU, DSP, graphics, and MDP• Streaming textures that can combine video, camera, SVG and other image surfaces with 3D graphics• Awailable in S1 chipsets like QSD8x50 with 1GHz CPU and MSM7x27 with 600MHz A11
Adreno 200 GPU• Supported APIs: OpenGL ES 2.0 OpenVG 1.1 EGL 1.3 DirectDraw Direct3D Mobile
Adreno 205 GPU• Available in the Snapdragon S2 chipset, the Adreno 205 GPU features dedicated 2D OpenVG graphics hardware, 3D hardware for faster, smoother and more efficient 2D rendering, greatly enhanced 2D plus 3D concurrency – all while providing lower power utilization.• More than twice the graphics performance of the Adreno 200 GPU• Streaming textures that can combine video, camera, SVG and other image surfaces with 3D graphics• Supported APIs(extra): GDI SVGT 1.2
Adreno 220 GPU• Available in the Snapdragon S3 chipset, the Adreno 220 GPU features an enhanced level of 3D graphics performance, allowing for high-end, immersive gaming experiences previously limited to PCs and game consoles.• More than five times the graphics performance of the Adreno 200 GPU• Concurrent CPU, DSP, graphics, and MDP• Streaming textures that can combine video, camera, SVG and other image surfaces with 3D graphics• Supported APIs: (Same as Adreno 200)
HTC Desire HD HTC G2 LG Optimus LTE LU6200 HTC Desire Z Galaxy S II Skyrocket