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  1. 1. Pollution, Pollutants and their Effects Prof. S.N.Upadhyay Visiting Professor, RGIPT, Rae Bareli (Ex-Director & Professor, IIT BHU, Varanasi)
  2. 2. IntroductionIT-BHU
  3. 3. Our body is made of five elements (‘Panch Tatva’, ‘Panch Mahabhoot’). Our activities and life are controlled by these elements. All of us have equal rights over natural resources.IT-BHU
  4. 4. “All citizens have inherent right to the enjoyment of pure and uncontaminated air and water and soil; this right should be regarded as belonging to the whole community; no one should be allowed to trespass upon it by his carelessness or his avarice or even his ignorance.” - Massachusetts Board of Health (USA), 1869IT-BHU
  5. 5. Environmental pollution is the unfavorable alteration of our surroundings, through direct or indirect effects of changes in energy patterns, radiation levels, chemical and physical conditions and abundance of organisms. These changes may affect human directly or through their supplies of water and of agricultural and other biological products, their physical objects or possessions, or their opportunities for recreation and appreciation of nature. - President’s Science Advisory Community, USA, 1965IT-BHU
  6. 6. “Cradle to grave” pollution refers to the many ways that a single product, such as a car, can pollute during its lifetime. Each step, from mining through final disposal, often results in the release of dozens of toxic pollutants into the air, water, and land. Nearly all products, including food and other agricultural products, create such stepwise pollution. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) elucidates such processes.IT-BHU
  7. 7. Definition of PollutionIT-BHU
  8. 8. Pollution “Any waste discharges or even natural environmental changes that are directly detrimental to man”. “Environmental pollution is any disruption by man of natural system”. “Something out of place”.IT-BHU
  9. 9. Pollution “An undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of our air, land, and water, that may or will hostilely affect human life or that of other desirable species or industrial processes, living conditions, and cultural assets or that may or will waste or deteriorate our natural resources”.IT-BHU
  10. 10. Pollution • Any man made addition into the environment which is not ecologically compatible to the existing environment. • Any unreasonable interference with the beneficial uses of environment or its components. • An impairment of suitability of air, water or land mass for any of its beneficial uses, actual or potential, by man caused changes in quality.IT-BHU
  11. 11. Pollution “Acts of introduction by man of extraneous substances or energy into the environment that induce unfavorable changes affecting man directly or indirectly by endangering his health, harming his living, resources and ecosystem or by interfering with the legitimate use of the environment”.IT-BHU
  12. 12. Pollution All citizens have an inherent right to the enjoyment of pure and uncontaminated air and water and soil, this right should be regarded as belonging to the whole community, no one should be allowed to trespass upon it by his carelessness, or his avarice or even his ignorance. - Massachusetts Board of Health, 1869
  13. 13. Pollution Environmental pollution is the unfavorable alteration of our surroundings, through direct or indirect effects of changes in energy patterns, radiation levels, chemical and physical conditions and abundance of organisms. These changes may affect human directly or through their supplies of water and of agricultural and other biological products, their physical objects or possessions, or their opportunities for recreation and appreciation of nature. - President’s Science Advisory Community, USA, 1965
  14. 14. Air Pollution “Air pollution is the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more air contaminants in sufficient quantities, of such characteristics, and for such duration as to be or to threaten to be injurious to humans, plants, or animals or to property or which reasonably interferes with the comfortable use and enjoyment of life or property.”IT-BHU
  15. 15. Air Pollution The presence in outdoor atmosphere of one or more contaminants, such as dust, mist, fumes, gas, odor, smoke or vapor in quantities or characteristics and for duration such as to be injurious to human, plant or animal life or property, or which unreasonably interferes with the comfortable enjoyment of life.
  16. 16. Types of Pollution and PollutantsIT-BHU
  17. 17. Types of Pollution  Water Pollution  Air Pollution  Solid Waste  Thermal Pollution  Noise Pollution  Land Degradation  Radiation Pollution (Electromagnetic & Radioactive)IT-BHU
  18. 18.  Pollutant Any solid, liquid or gaseous substance present in such concentrations as may be or tend to be injurious to environment. [EP Act, 1986]IT-BHU
  19. 19. Classification of Pollutants Source Natural Anthropogenic Activity Agricultural, Domestic, Industrial, Mining Stability Primary Secondary Physical Form Particulate, Gaseous, Liquid, Solid, Noise, Thermal, Biological Chemical Nature Inorganic Organic Biostability Biodegradable Non-biodegradable* Life Non-persistent Persistent Toxic Effect Non-threshold Threshold * BiomagnifiableIT-BHU
  20. 20.  Hazardous substances Any substance or preparation which by reason of its chemical or physical properties, or handling, is liable to cause harm to human- beings, other living creatures, plants, micro- organisms, property or the environment. [EP Act, 1986]IT-BHU
  21. 21. Chemicals- Hazardous, Toxic  Hazardous Chemicals: Acids, caustics, explosives, flammables, irritants, and sensitizers  Toxic Chemicals: These are poisonous, react with specific cellular components to kill cells. • General poisons • Target specific poisonsIT-BHU
  22. 22. Attributes of PollutantsIT-BHU
  23. 23. Attributes of Pollutants Threshold Levels Minimal level beyond which harmful effects become evident. Persistence Long stay in the environment in unchanged condition, Most of the persistent pollutants (except metals) are human made. Synergism Certain combinations of pollutants may be more harmful than individual pollutants. Uranium miners who smoke tobacco have unusually high incidence of lung cancer.IT-BHU
  24. 24. NON-THRESHOLD HARMFUL EFFECT NON-THRESHOLD DOSAGE Non-threshold and Threshold Persistent PollutantsIT-BHU
  25. 25. Non-Persistent Pollutants Such pollutants do not remain in the environment for long time. Most of these are biodegradable. Others decompose or get converted to inert products as a result of chemical reactions. Biodegradable Wastes- Garbage, food industry waste, sewage, animal waste, farm waste, etc. Non-biodegradable- These are essentially synthetic substances. Most of these break down as a result of chemical oxidation or hydrolysis. Organophosphates are typical examples.IT-BHU
  26. 26. Persistence  Some pollutants remain dangerous indefinitely-Beryllium, Lead, Mercury  Pesticides- persistence is defined as time needed for the pesticide level to reduce to less than 25% of the original. Chlordane 5 years DDT 4 years Dieldrin 3 years Picloram 1.5 years 2,4,5-T 5 months 2,4-D 1 month Inorganic-Hg Organic-Hg takes 10-100 yrs (Methyl-Hg)IT-BHU
  27. 27. Examples-DDT, PCBs, Metals DDT accumulates in food chain and causes death in high concentrations. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are highly stable compounds that resist changes from heat, acids, bases and oxidation. These are used in transformers and electrical capacitors, inks, plastics, tapes, paints, glue, waxes and polishes. PCBs are harmful to fish and other aquatic forms of life because they interfere with reproduction. In humans, PCBs produce liver ailments and skin lesions. In high concentrations they damage the nervous system and they are suspected carcinogens. Metals such as Hg, Be, Pb, Cd, etc are toxic. Some metals produce kidney and liver disorders, weaken bone structure, damage central nervous system, cause blindness and lead to death.IT-BHU
  28. 28. Organisms occurring higher on the food pyramid tend to have increasingly greater concentration of toxic substances in their tissue. (Note: ppm=parts per million)IT-BHU
  29. 29. Long-distance Movement of Pollutants  Radioactive fall out from atmospheric nuclear tests is detectable throughout the world within days or weeks.  DDT etc., developed for pesticidal use in 1930s for military application, and released for civilian use in 1945, have been detected up to 100 ppb in liver and other parts of animals that never go north of antarctic ice zone.IT-BHU
  30. 30. Synergism and Antagonism  Combined effects of two or more pollutants are more severe or even qualitatively different from the individual effects. This is synergism.  Increase in toxicity of a pollutant due to another pollutant is potentiation. Aerosols of soluble salts of Fe, Mn, and V increase the toxicity of sulfur dioxide.  Sometimes combined effect reduces the severity rather than increasing, this is known antagonism. Cyanide is toxic to aquatic life in presence of Zn or Cd, but is less toxic in presence of Ni due to a complex formation.IT-BHU
  31. 31. Three kinds of chemical interactions: antagonism (B cancels or subtracts from A), additivity (A and B have additive effects), and synergism (A and B multiply each other’s effects).IT-BHU
  32. 32. Hazardous & Toxic Chemicals 1. Ignitability 2. Corrosiveness 3. Reactivity 4. Toxicity First three characteristics produces acute effects likely to cause almost immediate damage. The fourth creates chronic effects most likely to appear over a longer time period.IT-BHU
  33. 33. Ignitability, which identifies wastes that pose a fire hazard during routine management. Fires not only present immediate dangers of heat and smoke but also can spread harmful particles over wide areas. Corrosiveness, which identifies wastes requiring special containers because of their ability to corrode standard materials, or requiring segregation from other wastes because of their ability to dissolve toxic contaminants.IT-BHU
  34. 34. Reactivity (or explosiveness), which identifies wastes that, during routine management, tend to react spontaneously, to react vigorously with air or water, to be unstable to shock or heat, to generate toxic gases, or to explode. Toxicity, which identifies wastes that, when improperly managed, may release toxicants in sufficient quantities to pose a substantial hazard to human health or the environment.IT-BHU
  35. 35. Physically destructive- 1. Ignitable materials are easily ignited and burn rapidly. Examples: gasoline, paints, solvents. 2. Corrosive materials are highly acidic or alkaline. Examples: drain and oven cleaners, chlorine. 3. Reactive materials are very active chemicals that easily cause explosions and/or release harmful fumes. Examples: ammonia, chlorine, gasoline. Biologically destructive- 1. Toxic materials are harmful or fatal when consumed by organisms in relatively small amounts. Example: Many manufactured chemicals, pesticides, etc.IT-BHU
  36. 36. What is Hazardous ?IT-BHU
  37. 37. Measurement of PollutionIT-BHU
  38. 38. Measurement of Pollution A persistent problem- 1. Low concentration 2. Synergistic effects 3. Point to point variation 4. Variation with time 5. Secondary pollutantsIT-BHU
  39. 39. Fractional Concentrations Symbol Definition Fraction ppm Parts per million 10-6 pphm Parts per hundred 10-8 million ppb Parts per billion 10-9 ppt Parts per trillion 10-12 1 ppm ≡ 1 gram salt/tonne sugarIT-BHU
  40. 40.  1 ppm phenol in water : lethal to some species of fish  0.2 ppm SO2 in air : increase in human mortality rate  0.02 ppm peroxybenzoyl: severe eye irritation in humans nitrate in smog O C O O NO2  0.001 ppm HF in air : injury to certain sensitive plantsIT-BHU
  41. 41. Extent of PollutionIT-BHU
  42. 42. Extent of Pollution: Controlling Factors  Level of Production  Usage Pattern  Persistence  Toxicity  Biological ConcentrationIT-BHU
  43. 43. Abatement/Control of Pollution  Abate: Stresses the idea of progressive diminishing  Abatement: Derived from the word ‘abate’, means i) to reduce in degree or intensity, ii) to put an end to  Control: Skill in the use of a tool, instrument, technique, or artistic medium To exercise restraining or directing influence overIT-BHU
  44. 44. Options for Control of Pollution  Elimination of the source  Elimination of the waste  Treatment of the waste to reduce deleterious load on the environment  Augmentation of the environmental capacity to assimilation the waste - Feed modification – Equipment modification – Process modification (wasteless processing)IT-BHU
  45. 45. Waste Generation During Mineral ExploitationIT-BHU
  46. 46. IT-BHU
  47. 47. 1856 First human-made industrial dye 1895 First bladder cancer case associated with artificial dye 1957-1990 ACS recorded 10 million new chemicals Currently ACS records 70 new chemicals every hour. Only about 500 of the new chemicals invented every year reach a wide market. More than 70,000 chemicals are in everyday use worldwide and USA alone produces over 100 million tons (91 million metric tonnes) of SOCs per year. Less than 1% of these have been completely evaluated as potential health or ecological hazards.IT-BHU
  48. 48.  Quantity: 5 million chemicals 5300 are commercially important  Toxicity: Chemical Order of Production Toxicity Methanol 9th 1st PCB No rank 2nd  Persistence: Half life > 12 months  Biomagnifiable: Carbon compounds are lipophilicIT-BHU
  49. 49. Bioaccumulation/Bio-magnification: Bioaccumulation of Ca137 , a fission product, increases in the following order: Lichens < Reindeer < Humans (Laps, Eskimos- Body burden is 10 times greater than the people of temperate climates ) Cases of cancer after 15 to 20 years of exposure Induction of birth defects- Mutation, TeratogenesisIT-BHU
  50. 50. Water Pollution and Water Scarcity – Effect of PopulationIT-BHU
  51. 51. Stream Water Quality Requirements Stream water quality requirements are controlled by-  Stream Ecology: Toxicology, Solids, Oxygen Balance, Eutrophication  Beneficial Uses: Extractive uses, In Situ UsesIT-BHU
  52. 52. Urbanization World 1952 AD 29% 1975 AD 39% 2000 AD 50% India 2000 AD 33% 1975 2000 (in Lakh) (≡ 1 million) Kolkatta 85 129 Delhi 72 167 Chennai 78 117 Mumbai 93 170IT-BHU
  53. 53. A computer-enhanced image of pollution in the Mediterranean Sea. Red, yellow, and orange areas are concentrations of plankton growth promoted by discharge of raw sewage. (Blue indicates water). Many coastal cities lack sewage treatment.IT-BHU
  54. 54. Population Growth Birth 3,50,000 per day Death 1,50,000 per day Net Growth 2,00,000 per day 13 lakhs per week (approx) 8 crores per year (approx)
  55. 55. Trends of UrbanizationYear Urban Population1920 12% of total1960 25% of total2000 45% of total2050 ?
  56. 56. Requirement/Waste Production (Community of 10 lakh people) Water 565 tonnes Food 1800 tonnes Fuel 8600 tonnes Sewage 450 tonnes(110 tonnes solids) Refuse 1800 tonnes Air pollutants 860 tonnes
  57. 57. Growing PopulationIT-BHU
  58. 58. Growing PopulationIT-BHU
  59. 59. Growing PopulationIT-BHU
  60. 60. Growing PopulationIT-BHU
  61. 61. Water Available is Finite Population growth is causing stiff competition People per flow unit (106m3/year) Central Europe Japan 100 Eastern USA South West USA 600 Poland Taiwan 1000 Israel 2000 Jordan etc.IT-BHU Population growth
  62. 62. Factors Responsible for Increasing Water Scarcity • Reducing Discharge in Rivers • Increasing Pollution of Fresh Water Bodies • Receding Ground Water Strata • Rising TDS Level • Rising F and As LevelsIT-BHU
  63. 63. Factors Responsible for Increasing Water Scarcity • Lack of Awareness and Appreciation of the Problem at Administrative Levels • Typical Mindset and Lack of Scientific Temper • Poor Infrastructure at Local Level ( Financial, Technical) • Unconcerned Politicians and Bureaucracy • Lack of Political Will • Misguided Priorities at State and Central Levels • Lack of Awareness at the Grass-root LevelIT-BHU
  64. 64. IT-BHU
  65. 65. IT-BHU
  66. 66. IT-BHU
  67. 67. AGRICULTURE  Nitrogenous fertilizers Permissible level ≤ 45 ppm/ NO3¯ Haemoglobin  Methaemoglobin Fe(II) Fe(III) takes O2 cannot take O2 Methaemoglobinaemia in infants (blue baby disease) Gastro-intestinal part of adult humans and animals more favourable to NO3¯ reduction Amino acids + NO2¯  Nitrosamine (Carcinogenic)  Pesticides Persitent half life > 12 months BiomagnificationIT-BHU
  68. 68. Nitrate Level in Ground Water State Nitrate in ppm Bihar 21.0 Gujarat 55.1 Hills 9.0 Haryana 99.5 Maharashtra 52.0 M.P. 50.0 U.P. 23.0 – 37.0 ISI/WHO 45IT-BHU
  69. 69. Particulate Soluble organic-P organic-P Soluble ortho- phosphate, PO4¯ ¯ ¯ Inorganic-P in sedimentsIT-BHU
  70. 70. EutrophicationIT-BHU
  71. 71. Eutrophication Greek Words: Oligo Few Trophien To nourish Oligotrophic Few nutrients Meso Intermediate Eu Well Eutrophic Highly productiveIT-BHU
  72. 72. Persistence of Pesticides in SoilIT-BHU
  73. 73. Dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) H Cl C Cl Cl C Cl ClIT-BHU
  75. 75. Number of insect species resistant to pesticides: 1935 7 1955 50 1975 330 1981 462 Cost of development of new pesticides: 1935 - 1956 1.2 m.$ 1969 4.1 1977 20.0 1984 45.0IT-BHU
  76. 76. Industrial PollutionIT-BHU
  80. 80. Sulfur dioxide emissions and acid precipitation from the International Nickel Company copper smelter (background) killed all vegetation over a large area near Sudbury, Ontario (USA). Even the pink granite bedrock has burned black. The installation of scrubbers has dramatically reduced sulfur emissions. The ecosystem farther away from the smelter is slowly beginning toIT-BHU recover.
  81. 81. Pollution occurs when natural purification processes are overwhelmed, such as by large amounts of nutrients or poisons. Shown here is acid mine damage.IT-BHU
  82. 82. Transport of PollutantsIT-BHU
  83. 83. Receptors Water Pollution Sources WATER Water ENVIRONMENT exposure Effluents HYDROLOGY Water Environmental quality stress models quantitation Effluents (mass/time) Concentration Exposure (to (mass/volume of receiving water water over some concentration average time) over a period of time) Effluents Water Standards Quality Ingestion, Standards ContactIT-BHU Aesthetics, Materials
  84. 84. Receptors Air Meteorology Sun light Pollution Sources AIR ENVIRONMENT Air exposure Emissions Air Environmental quality stress models quantitation Emissions (mass/time) Concentration Exposure (to (mass/volume of receiving water air over some concentration average time) over a period of time) Emission Air Quality Standards Standards Inhalation, ContactIT-BHU Materials, Aesthetics
  86. 86. Toxic Substances Ingest Inhale Skin Absorption Blood cells Distribution & Metabolism Feces Fat Urine Excretion Tissue Storage Secretion Organs Exhaled Air ADMSE (Adsorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Storage and Excretion) of Toxic Substances through the BodyIT-BHU
  87. 87. IT-BHU
  88. 88. IT-BHU
  89. 89. Effects of Air/Water PollutantsIT-BHU
  90. 90. Effects of Pollution: – Physical – Chemical – BiologicalIT-BHU
  91. 91. Effects – Physical – Green house effect due to carbon dioxide, and other gases. Loss of visibility due to particulates Chemical – Acid rain, Photochemical Smog, Loss of ozone layer Biological – Health hazard to humans, Loss of leaves, Plague of marble SO2 – Affects mucus membrane, causes coughing, irritation of respiratory tract. NOx – NO2 affects lungs, causes irritation, affects respiratory tract Global effects on climate and / or local / regional effects due to toxicity of air pollutants.IT-BHU
  92. 92. Effects on Materials – Corrosion, deterioration of building materials Effects on Vegetation: – Leaf injury, growth retardation – Complex changes in plant ecosystem – Algal bloom, eutrophicationIT-BHU
  93. 93. Effects on Animals and Humans: – Eye and respiratory irritation, fluorosis – Large scale death, reduced reproduction – Carcinogenic – Mutagenic – TeratogenicIT-BHU
  94. 94. Global Effects: – Green-house effect, ozone hole, changes in biogeochemical cyclesIT-BHU
  95. 95. Effects of Wastewaters on Receiving Systems Receiving System Effects Natural Water Bodies O 2 depletion, danger to health and safety, damage to aquatic life, economic losses, recreational losses Municipal Sewerage System Explosion, toxic gas hazard, corrosion of sewer, deposition, decrease in treatment efficiency due to over-load, biological toxicity Ground Water Strata Contamination of potable water supplies by brine, metals, etc. Land Seepage to ground or surface waters, damage to vegetationIT-BHU
  96. 96. Air Pollution: Role of Climate (a) Normal pattern (b) Thermal inversion Temperature profiles: (a) During normal conditions, air temperature decreases with altitude; thus’ pollutants ascend and mix with atmospheric gases. (b) In a temperature inversion, however, warm air forms a lid over cooler air, thusIT-BHU trapping air pollution.
  97. 97. Effects on MaterialsIT-BHU
  98. 98. Effects of Air Pollutants on Materials Particulates - Soot, dust, and fumes soil painted surfaces, buildings, and fabrics Abrasion, in presence of moisture and sulphur dioxide accelerate corrosion of steel, copper, zinc and other metals. Sulphur dioxide – Corrosion of steel (0.02 ppm or 52 μm/m3), at 0.09 – 1 ppm affects fabrics, leather, paint, paper, Marble and limestone. Ozone – at 0.01 – 0.02 ppm (2.40 μm/m3) cracking of synthetic rubber, affects fabrics (cotton, acetate, nylon and polyester) Oxides of Nitrogen – At 0.6 – 2 ppm , over 2 – 3 months, fading of acetate, rayon and cotton fabrics. In presence of moisture and particulates attack nickel alloys and brass.IT-BHU
  99. 99. IT-BHU
  100. 100. IT-BHU
  101. 101. Damage Due to Acid Deposition : Sulphuric acid (H 2SO4), which is a major component of acid deposition, reacts with limestone (CaCO3) to form gypsum (CaSO4). Since gypsom is water soluble, it washes away with rain. The damage to this monument is theIT-BHU result of such acid reacting with the stone.
  102. 102. Effects on VegetationIT-BHU
  103. 103. Effects of Air Pollution on Vegetation _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Pollutant Level (ppm) and Effect Exposure Period ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Sulphur dioxide 0.3 – 0.5, several days Bleached spots, chlorosis, chronic injury to spinach and other leafy vegetables Oxides of nitrogen 0.25, 8 months Increased abscission and reduced yield in citrus plants 0.5 – 10.0, 2 days Suppressed growth of tomato 3 – 5, 21 hours Spots of mild necrosis on cotton and bean plants 25, 1 hour Acute leaf injury Ozone 0.03, 8 hour Fleck on upper surface, necrosis and bleaching Fluoride 0.001, 7 – 21 days Necrosis of leaf tip, grape is particularly susceptible Ethylene 0.1, several hours & Epinasty, leaf abscission, flower dropping 0.05, several days Photochemical smog 0.01 – 0.05, a few hours Glazing or bronzing of leaf underside, damage to (PAN) sensitive plants, young leaves more susceptible ______________________________________________________________________________________________IT-BHU
  104. 104. IT-BHU
  105. 105. IT-BHU
  106. 106. IT-BHU
  107. 107. Forest Decline : Many forests at high elevations in northeastern North America have shown significant decline, and dead trees are common.IT-BHU
  108. 108. Sulfur dioxide emissions and acid precipitation from the International Nickel Company copper smelter (background) killed all vegetation over a large area near Sudbury, Ontario (USA). Even the pink granite bedrock has burned black. The installation of scrubbers has dramatically reduced sulfur emissions. The ecosystem farther away from the smelter isIT-BHU slowly beginning to recover.
  109. 109. Health Effects of Pollutants (Animals and Humans)IT-BHU
  110. 110. Health Effect of Air Pollution  Air pollutants have a variety of health effect, ranging from immediate to delayed and from slight irritation to potentially life threatening conditions.  Air pollutants course many immediate effects such as shortness of breath, eye irritation. Few people are aware of the sources of these problems. In extreme cases, pollutants can become lethal.IT-BHU
  111. 111. Long-term exposure to our pollutants may result in a number of diseases, including bronchitis, emphysema, asthma and lung cancer. Three groups are generally most susceptible to air pollution, the young, the old, and the infirm (sick).IT-BHU
  112. 112. A Polish mother gives an oxygen treatment to her child who suffers from air pollution-related respiratory disease. In some parts of Eastern Europe and the former USSR, up to 90 percent of all children suffer from environmentally-linkedIT-BHU diseases.
  113. 113. Smoky cooking and heating fires may cause more ill health effects than any other source of indoor air pollution except tobacco smoking. Some 2.5 billion people, mainly women and children, spend hours each day in poorly ventilated kitchens and living spaces where carbon monoxide, particulates, and cancer-causingIT-BHU hydrocarbons often reach dangerous levels.
  114. 114. IT-BHU
  115. 115. Health effects of some typical fission products Radioisotope Half-life Environmental Effect Cesium-137 30 years Accumulates in soft tissues, affects whole body Iodine-131 8 days Accumulates in thyroid Krypton-85 10.4 years Chemically inert Strontium- 25 years Accumulates in bones, 90 may cause leukemiaIT-BHU
  117. 117. Toxic chemicals causing the greatest risk to human health Benzene Methyl ethyl ketone Cadmium Methyl isobutyl ketone Carbon tetrachloride Nickel Chloroform Tetrachloroethylene Chromium Toluene Cyanides Trichloroethane Dichloromethane Trichloroethylene Lead Xylene(s) MercuryIT-BHU
  118. 118. Effects of Hazardous and Toxic WastesIT-BHU
  119. 119. Hazardous & Toxic Wastes: Health Effects Irritants Corrosiveness, caustics and other substances that damage biological tissues on contact. Nitric acid, sulphuric acid, ammonia, sodium hydroxide, toxic metal (e.g. Be or Ni) fumes, ozone, chlorine, oxides of nitrogen or sulphur, formaldehyde, benzene hexachloride, dioxin, etc. Skin diseases caused by irritants (dermetoses) is the most common occupational diseases.IT-BHU
  120. 120. Respiratory Fibrotic Agents Special class of irritants that damage the lungs, causing scar tissue formation that lowers respiratory capacity. This group includes both chemical reagents and particulate matter. Silica dust – Silicosis Coal dust – Black lung (Miners disease) Cotton fibres – Brown lung Asbestos fibres – AsbestosisIT-BHU
  121. 121. Particulate Size and Respiratory Defense __________________________________________________________________________________________ Particle size, μm Description Mechanism __________________________________________________________________________________________ Greater than 10 Coarse dust, flyash Hairs at the front of the nose (visible to the naked eye) 2 – 10 Fumes, dust, smoke Movement of cilia sweeps mucus upwar carrying particles from wind pipe to mouth where they can be swallowed. Less than 2 Aerosols, fumes Lymphocytes and phagocytes in lungs __________________________________________________________________________________________ Aeroallergenes – Substances like lead accumulate in blood, nervous and renal systems and cause weakness, headache, lassitude, constipation, blue-line along gums.IT-BHU
  122. 122. IT-BHU
  123. 123. Health Effects of Particulate Matter Particulate matter of particle size 0.01 to 100 μm is the potential health hazard. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Conc., Accompanied by Exposure Time Effect μm/cu m _________________________________________________________________________________________ 750 715 μm SO2/ cu m 24 hr average Increased illness 300 630 μm SO2/ cu m 24 hr average Worsening of chronic bronchitis 200 250 μm SO2/ cu m 24 hr average Increased absence if industrial workers 100-130 120 μm SO2/ cu m Annual mean Respiratory disease in children 100 30 mg SO2/ cu m/month Annual geom. mean Increased death for those beyond 50 years 80-100 30 mg SO2/ cu m/month 2 year geom. mean Increased death for those beyond 50-70years _________________________________________________________________________________________IT-BHU
  124. 124. Health Effects of Carbon Monoxide at Various Levels in Blood __________________________________________________________________________________________ Level, % Effect __________________________________________________________________________________________ Less than 1 No apparent effect 1.0 – 2.0 Change in behavioral performance 2.0 – 5.0 Effects on central nervous system – impairment of time interval discriminations, visual acuity, brightness discrimination, other psychomotor functions 5.0 – 16.0 Damage to cardiac and pulmonary functions 16.0 – 20.0 Fatigue 20.0 – 30.0 Nausea, Headache 30.0 – 40.0 Severe headache, Nausea and Vomiting, Dizziness 40.0 – 50.0 Slurring of speech, Coma 50.0 – 60.0 Convulsions, Coma 60.0 – 80.0 Respiratory failure, Death __________________________________________________________________________________________IT-BHU
  125. 125. Health Effects of Sulphur Dioxide It affects mucus membrane, causes coughing and irritation of respiratory tract. It also affects plants by causing leaf injury. Buildings also get affected. __________________________________________________________________________________________ Concentration, ppm Exposure time Effects _____________________________________________________________________________ 0.06 No effect 0.15 – 0.25 1 – 4 days Cardio-respiratory response 1.0 – 2.0 3 – 10 months Cardio-respiratory response 2.0 – 5.0 Tightness in chest 5.0 1 hour Severe distress, nose-bleeding Greater than 20 Eye irritation, digestive tract damage 400 – 500 Dangerous __________________________________________________________________________________________IT-BHU
  126. 126. Health Effects of Oxides of Nitrogen Out of all the oxides of nitrogen NO is less toxic. Nitrogen dioxide causes irritation in respiratory tract and affects lungs. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Concentration, ppm Exposure Effect ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 0.061 – 0.1 2 – 3 years Increase in acute respiratory disease Upto 0.1 6 months Increase in acute bronchitis in school children 0.12 <24 hours Human olfactory threshold 5 10 min Increase in air way resistance 90 30 min Pulmonary edema _____________________________________________________________________________IT-BHU
  127. 127. Health Effects of Ozone and Photochemical Smog __________________________________________________________________________________________ Concentration, ppm Exposure Effect __________________________________________________________________________________________ Ozone 0.1 – 1.0 1 hour Increased air way resistance 1.0 – 3.0 2 hours Fatigue, lack of coordination >2.0 2 hours Severe cough 9.0 - Pulmonary edema Total Oxidants 0.1 Instantaneous Eye irritation 0.05 – 0.06 1 hour Aggravation of asthma 0.03 – 0.3 1 hour Impaired performance of athletes __________________________________________________________________________________________IT-BHU
  128. 128. Cancer Cancer rates have been rising in most industrialized countries, and cancer is now the second leading killer in USA, killing about 500,000 people annually. According to American Cancer Society, 1 in 2 males and 1 in 3 females in USA will have some form of cancer in their lifetime.IT-BHU
  129. 129. Estimated Causes of Cancer Deaths Factor Percentage of Total Cancer Deaths Tobacco 30 Alcohol 3 Diet 35 Reproductive and sexual behavior 7 Occupation 4 Food additives <1 Pollution 2 Industrial products <1 Sunlight, ultraviolet light, other radiation 3 Medicines, medical procedures 1 Infections or inherited factors 13 TOTAL 100 (Source: Data from R.Doll and R.Peto, “Avoidable Risks of Cancer in the U.S., “Journal of the National Cancer Institute 66 [1981]: 1191-1308)IT-BHU
  130. 130. Carcinogens Substances that cause cancer- invasive, out of control cell growth that result in malignant tumors. Some experts blame synthetic chemicals in our food and environment for this problem. Where as some put the blame on lifestyle (smoking, sunbathing, alcohol).IT-BHU
  131. 131. Cigarette smoking is one of the most hazardous indoor air pollutants.IT-BHU
  132. 132. Common Carcinogenic Chemicals Benzene Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Trichloroethylene Chromium (VI) oxide Chromates and dichromates Benzidine Sec-butyl bromide (2-bromobutane) Tert-butyl bromide (2-bromo-2-methylpropane) Diazomethane Ethylene dibromide (1, 2-dibromoethane) Ethylene dibromide (1, 2-dibromoethane) Hydrazine Isobutyl bromide (1-bromo-1-methylpropane) Methyl iodide (iodomethane) Naphthylamine (1-aminonapthalene) Naphthylamine (2-aminonapthalene) Semicarbazide hydrochloride 1, 1, 2-trichloroethane Urethane (Ethyl carbamate)IT-BHU Vinyl chloride
  133. 133. Most Common Non-Carcinogenic Solvents Acetic Acid Formic acid Acetic anhydride Hexane Acetonitrile Methylene chloride (Dichloromethane) Acetone Petroleum ether Alcohols Pyridine Diethylether (Ether) Tetrahydrofuran Dymethylformamide Toluene Dimethyl sulfoxide Water Esters Xylenes Ethylene glycolIT-BHU
  134. 134. Chronic Health Effects Chromic bronchitis – a persistent inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which carry air into lungs. Symptoms- persistent cough, mucus buildup, and difficulty in breathing. Cause - • Cigarette smoking (active and passive) • Urban air pollutants (SO2 , NO2 , O3, are the causative agents)IT-BHU
  135. 135. Emphysema Continued exposure to air pollutants through breathing affects oxygenation capacity of lungs. When such people become older, the small air sacs, or alveoli, in their lungs break down. This reduces the surface area for the exchange of oxygen with blood. Breathing becomes more and more labored. When surface area is reduced by 40% victims suffer shortness of breath even when exercising lightly. Cause - • Cigarette smoking (80% cases) • Urban air pollutantsIT-BHU
  136. 136. Urban air pollution and emphysema: Incidence of emphysema in Winnipeg and St. Louis. Note the increased incidence of emphysema in all three age groups in the more polluted urbanIT-BHU environment of St. Louis.
  137. 137. Bronchial Asthma  A chromic disorder, marked by periodic episodes of wheezing and difficulty breathing.  Caused by allergic reaction to common stimulants such as dust, pollen, and skin cells (dander) from pets. In some individuals pollution may trigger asthma attacks.  During such attacks passage way that carry air to the lungs (bronchi and bronchioles) fill with mucus, making breathing difficult. Irritants also stimulate the contraction of smooth muscle cells in the walls of the smallest air carrying ducts, the bronchioles, making it even more difficult to breathe.IT-BHU
  138. 138. Asphyxiants Chemicals that exclude oxygen or interfere with the oxygen uptake and distribution. These are of two types- passive and active. Passive Asphyxiants – Nitrogen, methane, carbon dioxide. These are inert, exclude oxygen by filling enclosed spaces like- mines, unused wells, caves, farm soils. Active Asphyxiants – Carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulphide, aniline. These are active and react with blood or lung tissue to prevent oxygen uptake. These are toxic even in low concentrations and their effects are irreversible.IT-BHU
  139. 139. Sensitizers or Allergens These activate the immune system. Some act as direct antigens and some after binding to another molecule and changing their structure or chemistry. Formaldehyde is a good example. It is both directly and indirectly allergenic. People exposed to formaldehyde in plastics, wood products, glue, insulation, fabrics, etc. become hypersensitive to formaldehyde and several other materials. This is called “sick house” syndrome. Immune System Depressants These suppress the immune system. PCB’s and several other substances come under this category. Exact mechanism of their action is not known, probably they disrupt the endocrine hormone function and make the host susceptible to a variety of infections.IT-BHU
  140. 140. Neurotoxins These are special metabolic poisons, that specifically attack nerve cells (neurons). Heavy metals – Hg, Pb, kill nerve cells and cause permanent neurological damage. Anesthetics – Ether, chloroform, halothane, etc., and chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT, Dieldrin, Aldrin) disrupt cell membranes necessary for nerve action. Organophosphates (Malathion, Parathion), and carbamates (carbaryl, zeneb, maneb) inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that regulates signal transmission between nerve cells and the tissues and organs they innervate.IT-BHU
  141. 141. Mutagens These are chemicals and radiation that damage genetic material (DNA) in cells. This can lead to birth defects if the damage occurs during embryonic or fetal growth. Later in life, genetic damage may trigger neopalstic (tumor) growth. When damage occurs in reproductive cells, the defect can be passed on to future generations. Cells have repair mechanism to detect and repair damaged genetic material, but some changes may be hidden, and the repair process itself can be flawed. There is no threshold for exposure to mutagens. Any exposure has some possibilities of causing damage.IT-BHU
  142. 142. Teratogens These are chemicals or other factors that specially cause abnormalities during embryonic growth and development. Some compounds that are not otherwise harmful may cause tragic problems in these sensitive stages of life. Thalidomide caused birth defects and fetal alcohol syndrome are typical examples teratogenic problems.IT-BHU
  143. 143. Infant development occurs over three periods: pre-embryonic, embryonic and fetal. Each bar indicates when an organ system develops. The yellow portions indicate periods most sensitive to agents that can cause major birth defects.IT-BHU
  144. 144. Effects of Acid Deposition on Organisms: The low pH of the water in which this fish lived caused the abnormal bone development that ultimately resulted in the death of the fish.IT-BHU
  145. 145. A mother from Minamata, Japan, bathes her daughter, who suffered permanent brain damage and birth defects from mercury-contaminated seafood the mother ate while pregnant. This kind of poisoning is nowIT-BHU known as Minamata Disease.
  146. 146. The deformed beak of this young robin is thought to be due to dioxins, DDT, and other toxins in its mothers diet.IT-BHU
  147. 147. Thalidomide Thalidomide (marketed under trade name Cantergan) was the most popular sleeping pill in Europe during 1970s. It seemed to have no unwanted effect and was sold without prescription. When used by pregnant women, however, it caused abnormal fetal development resulting in phecomelia (seal-like-limbs), in which there is a hand or foot but no arm or leg. There is evidence that taking a single pill of thalidomide during the first week of pregnancy is sufficient to cause tragic birth defects. Altogether at least 12,000 children were affected before this drug was withdrawn from the market. Thalidomide is effective in treating leprosy. It is being tried for treating cancer, AIDS, retinal degeneration, and tissue rejection in organ transplant.IT-BHU
  148. 148. Development of this baby’s arms and legs was blocked when its mother took the sedative thalidomide early in her pregnancy. Although the drug has been banned in Europe and North America for the past twenty years, it is still used to treat leprosy in some tropical countries. Unfortunately, some of this potent teratogen is used byIT-BHU pregnant women who are unaware of its tragic side effects.
  149. 149. A colt born in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident has deformed legs andIT-BHU even extra legs and hooves.
  150. 150. IT-BHU
  151. 151. Acknowledgement  To all authors whose work has been freely used to compile the information contained in slides.  To my colleagues and students who provided critical suggestions for improvementIT-BHU
  152. 152. Thanks…..