DNA computing

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  • IT USES ENZYMES AS A PROGRAM THAT PROCESSES ON THE DNA MOLECULE WHICH IS THE INPUT DATA .
  • DNA computing

    1. 1. PRESENTATION BY: ASHISH DIXIT PRESENTATION BY: ASHISH DIXIT E mail- dixitashis@gmail.com
    2. 2. OVERVIEW <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>NEED </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>DNA V/S SILICON COMPUTER </li></ul><ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>LIMITATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSION </li></ul>
    3. 3. WHAT IS A DNA? <ul><li>DNA IS WHAT MAKES UP YOUR GENES AND STORES ALL THE INFORMATION ABOUT YOU INSIDE YOUR CELLS. </li></ul><ul><li>SOURCE CODE TO LIFE </li></ul><ul><li>INSTRUCTIONS FOR BUILDING AND REGULATING CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>DATA STORE FOR GENETIC INHERITANCE </li></ul><ul><li>WE CAN THINK OF ENZYMES AS HARDWARE ,DNA AS SOFTWARE </li></ul>
    4. 4. WHAT IS THE COLOUR OF THE SHAPES
    5. 9. <ul><li>IF A BALL AND BAT TOGATHER COST 1.10 RS. </li></ul><ul><li>BAT COSTS 1 RS. MORE THAN BALL, </li></ul><ul><li>HOW MUCH DOES THE BALL COST ? </li></ul>
    6. 10. WHAT IS A DNA COMPUTER? INVENTOR:- Dr. Leonard Adleman <ul><li>IT USES ENZYMES </li></ul><ul><li>AS A PROGRAM THAT </li></ul><ul><li>PROCESSES ON THE </li></ul><ul><li>DNA MOLECULE WHICH </li></ul><ul><li>IS THE INPUT DATA . </li></ul>
    7. 11. NEED OF DNA COMPUTER? <ul><li>SILICON MICROPROCESSOR DOUBLE IN COMPLEXITY ROUGHLY EVERY TWO YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>REQUIRE A SUCCESSOR TO SILICON </li></ul>
    8. 12. DENSE INFORMATION STORAGE <ul><li>A CD CAN HOLD 700 MB OF DATA,WHEREAS 1 GRAM OF DNA CAN HOLD ABOUT 10 POWER14 MB OF DATA. </li></ul>
    9. 13. SPECIFICATION <ul><li>One pound of DNA has the capability to store more information than all the electronic computers ever built. </li></ul><ul><li>One cm 3 of DNA can hold approximately 10 terabytes of data </li></ul><ul><li>Would be more powerful than the worlds most powerful supercomputer </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike binary computers, which work with just two states, On and Off (0 and 1), DNA computers will use the basic building blocks of life, strings of DNA, molecules of type A (adenine) ,C (cytosine), G (guanine), and T (thymine) ,perform calculations at unimaginable speed. </li></ul>
    10. 14. FIRST DNA COMPUTER UNVEILED IN 2002 USED IN GENE ANALYSIS
    11. 15. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS <ul><li>DNA MOLECULES WERE APPLIED TO A SMALL GLASS PLATE OVERLAID WITH GOLD </li></ul><ul><li>EXPOSURE TO CERTAIN ENZYMES,DESTROY THE MOLECULES WITH WRONG ANSWERS LEAVING ONLY THE DNA WITH THE RIGHT ANSWER </li></ul>
    12. 16. DNA COMPUTERS MOVED FROM TEST TUBES ONTO GOLD PLATES
    13. 17. “ A LOGIC GAME-TIC-TAC-TOE USE DNA COMPUTING”
    14. 18. OTHER ADVANCEMENTS IN THIS AREA <ul><li>SELF POWERED DNA COMPUTER UNVEILED IN 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST PROGRAMMABLE AUTONOMOUS COMPUTING MACHINE WITH INPUT,OUTPUT,SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE ALL MADE OF DNA MOLOCULES. </li></ul><ul><li>CAN PERFORM A BILLION OPERATIONS PER SECOND WITH 99.8% ACCURACY </li></ul><ul><li>BIOLOGICAL COMPUTERS DEVELOPED USED TO FIGHT CANCERS </li></ul><ul><li>“ DESIGNER DNA”IDENTIFIES ABNORMAL AND IS ATTRACTED TO IT,RELEASES CHEMICALS TO INHIBIT GROWTH.SUCCESSFULY TESTED ON ANIMALS </li></ul>
    15. 19. DNA V/S SILICON COMPUTER <ul><li>DNA HAS UNLIMITED MINIATURIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>SPEED IS VERY FAST </li></ul><ul><li>PARALLEL PROCESSING USED </li></ul><ul><li>CHEAPER THAN THE SILICON </li></ul><ul><li>NON TOXIC MATERIAL USED </li></ul><ul><li>SIZE VERY SMALL </li></ul><ul><li>VERY LARGE DATA CAPACITY </li></ul>
    16. 20. ADVANTAGES OF DNA COMPUTERS <ul><li>THERE IS A PLENTIFUL SUPPLY OF DNA, SO ALSO A CHEAP RESOURCE. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA BIOCHIPS CAN BE MADE CLEANLY. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA COMPUTERS CAN BE MADE MANY TIMES SMALLER THAN THE EXISTING COMPUTERS. </li></ul><ul><li>EXCELLENT FOR HAMILTONIAN AND TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEMS. </li></ul>
    17. 21. DISADVANTAGES <ul><li>DNA has a half life. </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions could dissolve away before the end result is found. </li></ul><ul><li>During an operation, there is a 95% chance a particular DNA molecule will compute correctly. Would cause a problem with a large amount of operations </li></ul>
    18. 22. LIMITATIONS / CURRENT PROBLEMS <ul><li>IT INVOLVES A RELATIVELY LARGE AMOUNT OF ERROR. </li></ul><ul><li>REQUIRES HUMAN ASSISTANCE. </li></ul><ul><li>TIME CONSUMING LABORATORY PROCEDURES. </li></ul><ul><li>NO UNIVERSAL METHOD OF DATA REPRESENTATION . </li></ul>
    19. 23. APPLICATIONS OF DNA COMPUTING <ul><li>DNA CHIPS </li></ul><ul><li>GENETIC PROGRAMMING </li></ul><ul><li>PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>CRACKING OF CODED MESSAGES </li></ul><ul><li>DNA FINGERPRINTING </li></ul>
    20. 24. CONCLUSION <ul><li>DNA COMPUTERS SHOW ENORMOUS POTENTIAL,ESPECIALLY FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES AS WELL AS DATA PROCESSING APPLICATIONS. </li></ul><ul><li>MANY ISSUES TO OVERCOME TO PRODUCE A USEFUL DNA COMPUTERS </li></ul><ul><li>STILL A LOT OF WORK AND RESOURCES REQUIRED TO DEVELOP IT INTO A FULLY FLEDGED PRODUCT </li></ul><ul><li>MINIATURIZATION OF DATA STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>MASSIVE AMOUNT OF WORKING MEMORY </li></ul>
    21. 25. ANY QUESTIONS? <ul><li>THANK YOU!! ……………. </li></ul>

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