Inserting Greenhouse Gases  into a Title V Permit<br />Andrew D. Shroads, QEP<br />Regional Director<br />S. Cohen & Assoc...
U.S. Air Pollution Law Timeline<br />1970<br />Clean Air Act<br /><ul><li>NAAQS
NSPS
SIP
NESHAP</li></ul>1977<br />Clean Air Act<br />Amended<br /><ul><li>PSD
NSR</li></ul>1990<br />Clean Air Act<br />Amended<br /><ul><li>Acid Rain
Title V
Ozone
MACT</li></ul>2010<br />Greenhouse Gas<br /><ul><li>Endangerment
Tailoring Rule
PSD
Title V
Vehicle Standards</li></li></ul><li>Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Regulations<br />2007 U.S. Supreme Court<br />Massachusetts v. EP...
Title V Tailoring Rule Overview<br />“Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule”<b...
Title V Applicability Thresholds<br />† All applicability thresholds actual or potential emissions<br />
GHG Title V Applicability Threshold<br />NOT Title V<br />Title V<br />
Three Affected Facility Categories<br />1.	Existing Title V (Major)<br />Facility with actual or potential emissions great...
Title V Requirements – Existing Title V<br />Applicability<br />Existing Title V applicants and permit holders<br />Actual...
Title V Requirements – Synthetic Minor<br />Applicability<br />Existing Synthetic Minor Title V permit holders<br />Actual...
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Greenhouse Gases &amp; Title V

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Presentation discussing the effects of the U.S. EPA Tailoring Rule: regulating greenhouse gases as a Title V pollutant

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Greenhouse Gases &amp; Title V

  1. 1. Inserting Greenhouse Gases into a Title V Permit<br />Andrew D. Shroads, QEP<br />Regional Director<br />S. Cohen & Associates<br />P.O. Box 1276 • Westerville, OH 43086<br />) (614) 887-7227 • 8 ashroads@scainc.com<br />
  2. 2. U.S. Air Pollution Law Timeline<br />1970<br />Clean Air Act<br /><ul><li>NAAQS
  3. 3. NSPS
  4. 4. SIP
  5. 5. NESHAP</li></ul>1977<br />Clean Air Act<br />Amended<br /><ul><li>PSD
  6. 6. NSR</li></ul>1990<br />Clean Air Act<br />Amended<br /><ul><li>Acid Rain
  7. 7. Title V
  8. 8. Ozone
  9. 9. MACT</li></ul>2010<br />Greenhouse Gas<br /><ul><li>Endangerment
  10. 10. Tailoring Rule
  11. 11. PSD
  12. 12. Title V
  13. 13. Vehicle Standards</li></li></ul><li>Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Regulations<br />2007 U.S. Supreme Court<br />Massachusetts v. EPA<br />Is GHG a pollutant?<br />2010 Endangerment Finding<br />Established GHG as a pollutant<br />2010 Light-Duty Vehicle GHG Standards<br />GHG is a pollutant subject to regulation<br />2010 Johnson Memo<br />Pollutants subject to regulation are subject to Clean Air Act<br />2010 Title V Tailoring Rule<br />Modify GHG Title V applicability threshold<br />
  14. 14. Title V Tailoring Rule Overview<br />“Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule”<br />Effective August 2, 2010<br />Provides for a dual Title v applicability threshold for GHG emissions<br />100 tpy GHG (by weight); AND<br />100,000 tpy as carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e)<br />CO2e = GHG tpy × global warming potential (GWP)<br />GWP from 40 CFR, Part 98, Table A-1<br />Provides a two tier deadline for submitting Title V permits<br />January 2, 2010 – Existing Title V facilities<br />July 1, 2010 – New Title V facilities<br />
  15. 15. Title V Applicability Thresholds<br />† All applicability thresholds actual or potential emissions<br />
  16. 16. GHG Title V Applicability Threshold<br />NOT Title V<br />Title V<br />
  17. 17. Three Affected Facility Categories<br />1. Existing Title V (Major)<br />Facility with actual or potential emissions greater than Title V applicability threshold (100 / 25 / 10 tpy)<br />2. Synthetic Minor (to Avoid Title V)<br />Facility with a permit limiting potential emissions to below Title V applicability threshold<br />3. Non-Title V (Minor)<br />Facility with actual and potential emissions below Title V applicability threshold<br />Title V is not applicable if actual or potential GHG emissions are <100,000 tpy CO2e or <100 tpy GHG<br />
  18. 18. Title V Requirements – Existing Title V<br />Applicability<br />Existing Title V applicants and permit holders<br />Actual or potential GHG emissions:<br />≥100 tpy GHG by weight; AND<br />≥100,000 tpy CO2e<br />Requirements<br />Include facility-wide GHG emissions in application<br />List all pollutants for which facility is major - §70.5(c)(3)(i)<br />No deadline for application with GHG emissions<br />Include GHG in renewal or modification application<br />Any application submitted after January 2, 2011<br />
  19. 19. Title V Requirements – Synthetic Minor<br />Applicability<br />Existing Synthetic Minor Title V permit holders<br />Actual or potential GHG emissions:<br />≥100 tpy GHG by weight; AND<br />≥100,000 tpy CO2e<br />Options<br />Submit a revised Synthetic Minor permit application with GHG emissions limitations (both weight GHG and CO2e)<br />Final Synthetic Minor Permit issued before 7/1/12<br />Submit permit application well before issue date<br />Submit a Title V permit application<br />Submit Title V permit application before 7/1/12<br />
  20. 20. Synthetic Minor Complications<br />A synthetic minor permit may limit potential to emit for:<br />Title V<br />New Source Review & Prevention of Significant Deterioration<br />National Emissions Standards For Hazardous Air Pollutants<br />Determine if actual GHG emissions are at or above Title V dual applicability threshold: 100,000 tpy CO2e & 100 tpy GHG<br />If you can limit actual emissions below either GHG applicability threshold, modify the synthetic minor permit to restrict GHG<br />If you must apply for a Title V permit, remove any synthetic minor restrictions for Title V only, (the Title V restrictions are no longer necessary)<br />Keep NSR, PSD, or NESHAP restrictions; these are necessary to ensure the facility is not subject to these requirements<br />
  21. 21. Title V Requirements – Non-Title V<br />Applicability<br />Facilities not subject to Title V<br />Actual or potential GHG emissions:<br />≥100 tpy GHG by weight; AND<br />≥100,000 tpy CO2e<br />Options<br />Submit a Synthetic Minor permit application with GHG emissions limitations (both weight GHG and CO2e)<br />Final Synthetic Minor Permit issued before 7/1/12<br />Submit permit application well before issue date<br />Submit a Title V permit application<br />Submit Title V permit application before 7/1/12<br />
  22. 22. Analysis: GHG in a Title V Permit<br />A Title V permit only includes existing regulations<br />There are no GHG emissions limitations, control requirements, record keeping requirements, etc.<br />The Mandatory GHG Reporting Rule should not be in a Title V permit; it is not an “applicable requirement”<br />For facilities submitting a new Title V permit, all of the other air regulations will be included<br />Pay Title V fees<br />Subject to Title V reporting requirements<br />Increased inspection frequency<br />More federal involvement and scrutiny<br />GHG made you Title V, but GHG is not in your permit<br />
  23. 23. Title V Fees<br />Fees for GHG emissions are not in the Tailoring Rule<br />Air programs will process more Title V permits under the Tailoring Rule, which requires more resources (money)<br />EPA can audit state / local Title V programs to demonstrate that the program has sufficient funding<br />EPA recommends that state / local air programs be “proactive” in raising fees to cover Title V costs<br />State / local air authorities may establish fees independent of EPA<br />New fees would go through a local and federal regulatory approval process<br />$<br />
  24. 24. Additional Title V / GHG Requirements<br />NSPS<br />EPA intends to issue new source performance standards (NSPS) to control GHG emissions from certain sources<br />Court case to include GHG in Electric Utilities NSPS<br />NSPS currently undergoing regulatory review (e.g. petroleum refineries, residential wood stoves)<br />The first NSPS with GHG limits or controls will affect GHG as a pollutant in Title V<br />
  25. 25. How NSPS Affects GHG & Title V<br />NSPS issued under the authority of Section 111 of the Clean Air Act<br />From §70.2, a “regulated air pollutant” includes any pollutant subject to a standard promulgated under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act<br />Thus, when an NSPS is issued citing GHG emissions reduction, GHG goes from being an air pollutant “subject to regulation” to being a “regulated air pollutant”<br />From §70.2, Emissions Unit: any activity that emits or has the potential to emit any regulated air pollutant<br />GHG emissions information must be added to every emissions unit in the Title V permit application<br />
  26. 26. Updating Title V Application Post-NSPS<br />Add new emissions units not already in the application:<br />Estimate actual & potential GHG emissions rates<br />Fuel and/or raw material usage<br />Production rate<br />Operating schedule<br />Air pollution control equipment<br />Compliance monitoring devices (see 40 CFR, Part 98)<br />Additional data required by state air program<br />Update existing emissions units to include GHG data<br />Review insignificant emissions units to determine if they still qualify as insignificant<br />Review trivial sources not in original application<br />
  27. 27. Insignificant Emissions Units, GHG & NSPS<br />There are two types of insignificant emissions units:<br />Low emissions rate (<5 tpy, <10 lbs./day)<br />Categorical definition (<10 mmBtu/hr, ink jet printers)<br />Low emissions rate may be affected by NSPS<br />OAC Rule 3745-77-01(V)(3): Insignificant means … any emissions unit with uncontrolled potential emissions ≤5 tpy of any regulated air pollutant (GHG)<br />OAC Rule 3745-15-05(B) (de minimis) unaffected, no mention of “regulated air pollutant”<br />Categorical definition unaffected by NSPS<br />Although boiler GHG emissions are higher than other pollutants, the category is defined as <10 mmBtu/hour<br />
  28. 28. Unanswered Questions<br />Potential-to-emit for a hermetically sealed electrical device containing SF6?<br />Are the exemption thresholds for insignificant emissions units for GHG emissions by total weight or CO2e emissions?<br />Assume all refrigerants are lost?<br />Emissions rate for leaking equipment?<br />Will state, non-Title V permit programs be affected by GHG emissions?<br />When will it end?<br />
  29. 29. Thank you.<br />The End.<br />Any Questions?<br />

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