ByShrikant AthavalePrathith ConsultantsPune India02 Jan 2013
GenerallyFor Manufacturing ,any kind of coatedProducts , like Adhesive Tapes, Flexiblelaminates, Paper products, RubberizedFabrics ,we have to useVarious kinds of coatings , Water based ,solvent based , solvent less etc.These coating generally in liquid form areapplied on various substrates , by differenttechniques.
These coatings , need to be dried or cured ,before rewinding. The drying or curing is done in a special drying chamber , by sprinkling / spraying / Impregnating Hot Air.
The Hot air is obtained fromHot Air Generators, Thermal Fluid Heaters ,Or Steam Boilers.
The required Heat Energy is obtained byburning fuel Such as High Speed Diesel ( HSD ) , Light Diesel Oil ( LDO ) , Furnace oil ( FO) or wood.
In this PresentationI am going discuss aboutThe Heat energy cost.The Fuel cost , for e.g. HSD , LDO , FO israising every day.The fuel is one of the major cost incurred intoday’s world.The raising fuel ( Oil based ) cost cannot becontrolled by us .
ButNow we are in a position not only to controlthe same but save / cut down to almost 50% ,by making a smart choice.
But How ?The answer isswitch over to Biomass BriquettesFuelandBio Mass Briquette Boilers
What is Biomass? • Biomass is any organic matter. • Including trees, plants, plant fiber, and animal wastes. • Biomass is a renewable energy source
What is Bioenergy?• The energy stored in biomass is called bioenergy.• Bioenergy is very versatile: It can be used to provide heat, make fuels, and generate electricity.• Many bioenergy sources are replenished through the cultivation of fast growing grasses, trees, and agricultural residues like vegetable oils, wheat straw, or corn.
Future Prospects of Bioenergy• Bioenergy is generally cost competitive with fossil fuel generated electricity when biomass residue prices are very low or negative.• Transportation costs are key to the price so biomass power plants must be sited near an ongoing, reliable biomass source.• Most analysts believe that the economics of bioenergy will improve with higher efficiencies.
Technical Matters1.What is a biomass boiler?Answer A biomass boiler is a boiler designed to burn solid fuels classed asbiomass. Such boilers can be supplied to burn every form of biomass fromwoodchips, wood pellets or logs to waste agricultural materials such as strawand grain husks, olive kernels, rice and the dust from any of these includingsawdust. Boilers need to be designed to burn specific materials, with any givenboiler able to burn a limited range of biomass.2. Can a biomass boiler be connected to my existing heating system?Answer Yes, in much the same manner as any other boiler. However, as manybiomass boilers operate at a higher temperature, and hence pressure, than fossilfuelled boilers, with some operating at above 100C, it may be necessary tointerpose a plate heat exchanger between the biomass boiler and the existingheating system.
Technical Matters3. How is a biomass boiler controlled?Answer In many respects biomass boilers can be controlled based on heatdemand just as with fossil fuelled boilers. However, the much slower response ofbiomass boilers to changes in load mean that up to three control loops are usedto control the fuel feed rate, the primary and secondary air fans, and thedelivery of energy to the load including the charging/discharging of the buffervessel.4. Do I need another boiler as a back-up?Answer A properly designed and installed biomass boiler will be as reliable as afossil fuelled boiler, and in this respect the usual rules for specifying back-upboilers should be applied.
Technical Matters5. What are the best applications for a biomass boiler?Answer Biomass boilers operate at their highest efficiency, and are mostreliable, when operating continuously. Biomass boilers cannot be switched onand off like fossil fuelled boilers and need to operate in conjunction with a buffertank if the boiler is to be able to handle modulating loads, particularly loads lessthan the minimum boiler output, whilst continuing to operate efficiently.6. What maintenance does a biomass boiler require?Answer While fossil fuelled boilers usually require an annual maintenance visitonly, biomass boilers require more attention. Biomass boilers burning even themost difficult of materials can operate unattended, but weekly inspection visitsare required to carry out a visual inspection of the boiler and fuel feed system,to check the lubrication of bearings and to empty the ashbin. If the boiler is notfitted with automatic flue cleaning, regular cleaning of the flue tubes is requiredusing a flue brush.
Technical Matters7. What are the main components of a biomass system?Answer In addition to the boiler itself, a biomass system will require a fuel store(silo) and a mechanism to extract fuel from the store and to feed it into theboiler. The flue gases may require treatment and a cyclone grit arrestor is themost common flue gas cleaning device. Where a cyclone or other flue filtrationsystem is fitted, an induced draught fan will be required on the flue. Finally, abuffer vessel will be required for the majority of boilers in the majority ofcircumstances.
Technical Matters8. Can a biomass boiler work fully automatically?Answer All but the smallest of biomass systems can be configured to work fullyautomatically. Typical automated features include time switch or optimumstart/stop, fuel feed, de-ashing and flue cleaning. The majority of boilers canoperate for up to 1 week at a time without manual intervention.9. Do I need a tall chimney?Answer The height of flue required depends on many factors including the boilerrating, whether an induced draught fan is installed and whether the boiler is tobe installed in a Smoke Control Area.
Technical Matters10. Do biomass boilers produce any smoke or other emissions?Answer A well designed and operated biomass boiler burning fuel within thespecification of the boiler should not produce any smoke, but black smoke maybe produced if the fuel is too wet for the boiler. All biomass boilers producesome oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particularly nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While Noxemissions from gas boilers have been reduced significantly in recent yearsthrough the use of low Nox burners which burn at a temperature slightly belowthat at which NOx forms, the nature of biomasscombustion, and the need to ensure the complete combustion of wood gases,means that combustion takes place at a temperature where atmospheric oxygenand nitrogen can chemically combine. The better the quality of the combustioncontrol system on a biomass boiler, the lower the NOx emissions will be. Ingeneral, biomass boilers produce less NOx than oil boilers. Biomass boilers donot produce any oxides of sulphur (SOx).
Technical Matters11. How do I dispose of the ash which is produced?Answer The ash produced from biomass boilers is high is potash which makesthe ash valuable as a top dressing by farmers or as a component of composts byhorticulturalists. If ash cannot be disposed of in this way, or if the quantities aresmall, it can be disposed of to landfill with other wastes. On large boilers fittedwith flue gas cleaning equipment, and where the fly ash is collected separately,it may need to be treated as special waste if the concentration of any heavymetal in the fly ash exceeds a threshold value.
Technical Matters12. How do I ensure consistent fuel quality?Answer Operators of wood pellet boilers rarely need to concern themselves withfuel quality as pellets are manufactured to a consistent size, moisture contentand calorific value. Operators of woodchip boilers, however, need to be aware ofthe many fuel quality issues which can arise with the use of woodchips.
Technical Matters13. How reliable are biomass systems?Answer The reliability of a biomass system is closely allied to the quality of fuelbeing burned. Hence, wood pellet systems tend to be inherently more reliableand less prone to breakdown than woodchip systems for the reasons given inthe answer above.
Bio Mass BriquettesAdvantages of Using Biomass Briquettes for Renewable EnergyThere are many reasons for using biomass briquettes for renewable energy.These briquettes are made by using agricultural waste that would otherwise notbe used productively at all.There are several advantages to using them.Biomass briquettes for renewable energy can replace wood as a fuel. To say thatwood is a renewable energy source is stretching the truth a bit. Of course, woodwill renew itself faster than petroleum or coal.Biomass briquettes are made of grass, husks, corn stalks, hulls, leaves, food,and animal wastes. These are materials that usually fall to the ground and goback into the earth.
Bio Mass BriquettesThere is another advantage of using biomass briquettes for renewable energy.People who have been using firewood for heating and cooking will find that thebiomass briquettes are more efficient. In fact, they are 40% more efficient, aswell as hotter and longer lasting than firewood.The biomass briquettes used for renewable energy can also create local industryand jobs in developing countries. The materials for the presses can often beobtained in the location needed.Biomass briquettes may well be the energy source of the future for manycountries. They will reduce pollution, improve health, and provide a steadysource of fuel. They can preserve the forests of countries all over the globe. Atthe same time, they will help local industry to flourish. Using biomass briquettesfor renewable energy is a good choice for many.
Briquetting is a way to convert loose biomass residues, such assawdust, straw or rice husk, into high density solid blocks that can beused as a fuel.Biomass briquettes (including pellets, which are very small briquettes)replace fossil fuels or wood for cooking and industrial processes. Theyare cleaner and easier to handle, and cut greenhouse gas emissions.High pressure briquetting plant can produce over 200 tonnes ofbriquettes per day.
Briquette is an Ideal fuelbecause it isEco friendly and renewable energy fueleconomical than other solid fuels , i.e coal orwoodpollution free , being sulpur freelower ash content 2 to 5%consistent high burning efficiency due to lowmoisture contenteasy for transportation , feeding and combustioncombustion is more uniform than coaleconomical as compared to fossil oil
Classification of Biomass Woody Bio Non-Woody Process waste Processed Fuel Mass Bio Mass Tree Energy corps Cereal husks Charcoal Shrubs & like sugar cane Bagasses Briquette Scrub Cereal straw Waste from Methanol / Bushes like Cotton, pine apple / ethanol Coffee/ Tea Cassava, other fruits Plant oil from Sweepings Tobacco stem/ But shell palm/ sun from Forest roots Saw mill waste flower floor Grass Municipal Bio gas Bamboo Bananas , waste Palms plantains
Pros and consThe need for natural energy resources has increased manifold in the past fewyears. Natural energy resources like gasoline, diesel, natural gas, kerosene,coal, etc. are non-renewable resources. This means their supply is limited andoveruse will lead to loss of these resources. Also, these natural energyresources lead to a lot of air and to some extent water pollution. In order tolimit their use and supply, one has to look for alternative source of energy.These include solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, hydro energy,nuclear energy as well as biomass energy.What is Biomass Energy?Biomass is composed of organic material obtained mainly from plants andanimals. Carbon is the main constituent of biomass energy. Other thancarbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, heavy metals and alkaline earth are alsopresent in biomass energy. It can be generated from plants and animalwastes, wood, leaves of plants, agricultural wastes, organic wastes, wastepaper and wastes from food processing industries.
If one thinks about use of solar or wind energy, the problem lies with costs.This means elaborate setups are required to capture and convert solarenergy into a usable form. Tidal energy tends to have very low potentialcommercially and nuclear as well as hydro plants may have many dangerousconsequences.In such a situation, the most economical as well as safe form of energy isbiomass energy. However, biomass energy has its pros and cons that oneshould weigh carefully before deciding if this is the most suitable and viableenergy resource.
Bio Mass Technology How does it work?Hot Drying TunnelAir The most popular way to make biomass into Hot air is to burn it to produce heat because it is chemical energy. The waste wood, tree branches and other scraps are converted into Briquettes The Briquettes are fed into a furnace where it is burned and the heat produced is used to heat Air / Oil in the boiler, and the energy is used for drying
Operating cost comparison 200 LDO LDO fired Agrowaste fired Thermal Fluid Thermal Fluid Sr. No. Parameter Unit Heater Heater 1 Heat output kcal/hr 200000 200000 2 Overall thermal efficiency % 88 75 3 Heat input kcal/hr 227273 266667 Agrowaste 4 Fuel LDO Briquettes 5 Calorific value (CV) of fuel kcal/kg 10100 3500 6 Fuel consumption kg/hr 23 76 7 Fuel consumption lit/hr 26 NA 8 Purchase cost of fuel Rs./kg NA 5 9 Purchase cost of fuel Rs./lit 55 NA 10 Cost of fuel for heat generation Rs./hr 1456 381
Operating cost comparison 200 LDO11 Electricity rate Rs./unit 6 612 Total connected electrical load kw 6.71 8.5813 Normal electrical consumption kw 5.368 6.86414 Electricity cost Rs./hr 32 4115 Working hours per day hours 24 2416 Number of working shifts 3 317 Number of firemen / helpers NA 418 Salary of 1 firemen / helper Rs./month NA 1000019 Salary of all firemen / helpers Rs./month NA 4000020 Salary of all firemen / helpers Rs./day NA 133321 Salary of all firemen / helpers Rs./hr 0 8322 Total running cost Rs./hr 1488 505
Operating cost comparison 200 LDO 23 Saving in running cost Rs./hr 983 24 % Saving in hourly running cost % 66 25 Total running cost Rs./day 35718 12131 26 Total running cost Rs./month 714353 242625 27 Total running cost Rs./annum 8572239 2911506 28 Net annual saving in running cost Rs./annum 5660734 29 % Net annual saving % 66
Operating cost comparison FO FO fired Thermal Agrowaste firedSr. No. Parameter Unit Fluid Heater Thermal Fluid Heater 1 Heat output kcal/hr 600000 600000 2 Overall thermal efficiency % 88 75 3 Heat input kcal/hr 681818 800000 4 Fuel FO Agrowaste Briquettes 5 Calorific value (CV) of fuel kcal/kg 9650 3500 6 Fuel consumption kg/hr 71 229 7 Fuel consumption lit/hr 79 NA 8 Purchase cost of fuel Rs./kg NA 5 9 Purchase cost of fuel Rs./lit 35 NA 10 Cost of fuel for heat generation Rs./hr 2748 1143
Operating cost comparison FO 11 Electricity rate Rs./unit 6 6 12 Total connected electrical load kw 21 18 13 Normal electrical consumption kw 16.8 14.4 14 Electricity cost Rs./hr 101 86 15 Working hours per day hours 24 24 16 Number of working shifts 3 3 17 Number of firemen / helpers NA 4 18 Salary of 1 firemen / helper Rs./month NA 10000 19 Salary of all firemen / helpers Rs./month NA 40000 20 Salary of all firemen / helpers Rs./day NA 1333 21 Salary of all firemen / helpers Rs./hr 0 83 22 Total running cost Rs./hr 2848 1313
Operating cost comparison FO 23 Saving in running cost Rs./hr 1536 24 % Saving in hourly running cost % 54 25 Total running cost Rs./day 68364 31502 26 Total running cost Rs./month 1367272 630043 27 Total running cost Rs./annum 16407268 7560521 28 Net annual saving in running cost Rs./annum 8846747 29 % Net annual saving % 54
Space requirements for Agrowaste FuelStorageheat o/p = 600000kcal/heff = 75%heat i/p = 800000kcal/hagro-waste fuel cal value = 3500kcal/kgAgro-waste fuel consumption = 229kg/h1 day = 24hrsdaily fuel consumption = 5486kg/daystorage area / shed height = 3m No. of days stock Area required for fuel storage (sq. ft.) 7 276 14 551 21 827 28 1102
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