011.lable and labeling manufacture


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011.lable and labeling manufacture

  1. 1. Labels Labeling and Manufacturing Presented by Shrikant Athavale For PG Students , SIES Nerul On 30-10-2010
  2. 2. How the Labels are manufactured ? The Label manufacturing process involves preparing Label stock , printing and converting Label Stock Manufacture i.e. preparing a laminate of Facestock and Releaseliner Printing is the process of laying down the ink (graphics) Converting is the process of cutting the label to shape
  3. 3. What Is a Label?
  4. 4. Label Types Will sell all types of labels, but the majority will be PSA Label Types Non-adhesive Adhesive Glue Applied In-Mold Sleeving Pressure Sensitive Heat Sensitive Gummed Paper Conventional Cut & stack Film Blow Molded Injection Molded Thermo Formed Shrink Stretch Wraparound Film Permanent Removable Linerless Delayed Action Instantaneous
  5. 5. Printing Printing is the process of laying down the ink (graphics)
  6. 6. Must have a clear understanding of graphic arts In order to make a label with crisp clean image, the label manufactures must use HIGH RESOLUTION graphics. A vector image (right) is viewed with clean round corners. A raster image is pixilated and will ultimately print blurry. **When in doubt, zoom in the electronic file to 500%** RASTER (not good) VECTOR (good)
  7. 7. Barcodes Symbologies
  8. 8. Converting Converting is the process of cutting the label to shape
  9. 9. Die cut label Butt Cut Label Converting
  10. 10. Sheeting Marginal Punch Converting
  11. 11. Other Converting Techniques
  12. 12. How to Measure a Label? W x L PRINTING GRAPHICS PRINTING GRAPHICS PRINTING GRAPHICS PRINTING GRAPHICS Running Web Direction 1” 2” Label measures 2” x 1” Label measures 1” x 2” PRINTING GRAPHICS PRINTING GRAPHICS PRINTING GRAPHICS PRINTING GRAPHICS Label Width = 1” Label Length = 2” 2” 1” Label Width = 2” Label Length = 1” Width Length Width Length Running Web Direction                
  13. 13. Finishing What is your copy position (roll direction) preference? Directions 1 – 4 are Wound Out Copy position is determine by ‘how the printing unwinds off the roll’
  14. 14. Directions 5 – 8 are Wound In Copy position is determine by ‘how the printing unwinds off the roll’ Finishing What is your copy position (roll direction) preference? Finishing cont.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Number of labels per roll? E xample: 1,000 labels per roll </li></ul>Label Roll Size 2) Outside Diameter per roll? Example : 8” outside diameter (O.D.)
  16. 16. Materials Face Stocks and Laminations
  17. 17. Two Common Material Classifications <ul><li>Paper : Natural product made from wood or pulp. All papers used in the printing industry are measured by basis weight and grade. </li></ul><ul><li>Film : Synthetic or a plastics type of material. Films can be from one half thousandths, up to 10 – 20 thousandths thick. </li></ul><ul><li>(For example: 2 mil white polyester) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Grades <ul><li>Wide variety of paper grades have been established over the years to services different markets </li></ul><ul><li>EDP or uncoated paper is for dot matrix or impact printers </li></ul><ul><li>High Gloss paper is for prime label or high end process work labels </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: 50# EDP, 60# High Gloss, 70# Matte Litho </li></ul>
  19. 19. Films <ul><li>Usually higher cost and higher performance </li></ul><ul><li>Films can be used in harsh environments </li></ul><ul><li>Films can be hard, soft, thin, thick, rigid, and flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of use </li></ul><ul><li>Polyester – automotive underhood </li></ul><ul><li>Polyethylene – Shampoo or squeeze bottles </li></ul><ul><li>Polypropylene – Battery labels </li></ul>
  20. 20. Films <ul><li>Polyester (PET) = Mylar </li></ul><ul><li>Polypropylene (PP) = BOPP </li></ul><ul><li>Polyethylene (PE) </li></ul><ul><li>Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) = Vinyl </li></ul><ul><li>Polyolefin (PO) </li></ul><ul><li>Polycarbonate (PCN) = Lexan </li></ul><ul><li>Polystyrene (PS) </li></ul><ul><li>Polyimide = Kapton </li></ul><ul><li>Spunbonded Polyolefin = Tyvek </li></ul><ul><li>Polyurethane (PU) </li></ul><ul><li>Polyvinyl Fluoride = Tedlar </li></ul>
  21. 21. Label Material (Stocks) Aluminum foils used for harsh environments, very expensive Foil White, silver, or clear. Used for high performance and high temperature applications. Also used for harsh environments. Polyester Film Less durable film designed for indoor applications Polypropylene Lower durability, not good for high temperature applications, tends to shrink with age. Vinyl High strength films such as Valeron, V-Max, and Yupo Synthetic Paper Used on thermal transfer applications Transcode Non-tearing, good for curved surfaces Tyvek Shine or dull silver paper Metallized High gloss appearance Glossy Standard coated paper, used for 4-color process Semi-gloss Smooth finish and has a matte appearance. Coated Dull appearance. Good for handwriting, dot matrix, and laser imprinting. Uncoated Paper Description Type Family of Part
  22. 22. Polyester Film (PET) Disadvantages Advantages Resistance to moisture Resistance to chemicals Resistance to heat Dispensability Dimensional stability Resistance to solvents Resistance to solvents Dimensional stability Resistance to abrasion Resistance to tearing Conformability ‘ No label’ look Resistance to stretch Higher Cost Range of products Resist to heat
  23. 23. Polypropylene Film (PP) Disadvantages Advantages For best dimensional stability and clarity, oriented PP films (OPP or BOPP) rather than ordinary cast or especially blow PP. UV Stability Conformability Low cost Clarity* Good film flatness Dimensional stability* Printability Resistance to moisture Die-cutting Yellowing over time Resistance to chemicals Dispensability of thin film Less resistance to heat Resistance to abrasion Resistance to tearing
  24. 24. Polyvinyl Chloride – PVC (Vinyl) Film Disadvantages Advantages Scuff resistance Dimensional stability UV stability Resistance to tearing Environmentally Unfriendly Flexibility / squeezability Registration control Waste disposal Weather resistance Die-cutting Low resistance to heat Chemical resistance Printability
  25. 25. Adhesives
  26. 26. <ul><li>What substrate (surface) is the label adhering to? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example: Painted metal, cast aluminum, powder coated paint, plastic (what type?), glass, corrugated, cloth, etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the surface smooth or textured? </li></ul></ul>Adhesive Painted Metal Plastic Aluminum Fabric
  27. 27. Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Pressure- Sensitive Adhesive (PSA) Permanent Adhesives Removable Adhesive Synthetic Rubber Acrylic Polymer Natural Rubber Acrylic Polymer Natural Rubber
  28. 28. <ul><li>Initial Tack </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimate Adhesion </li></ul><ul><li>U.V. Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Solvent Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum Application Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Service Temperature </li></ul>Adhesive Categories
  29. 29. Initial Tact The immediate holding power of the label with high initial tack will grab the substrate quickly. A label with low initial tack will exhibit a low level of adhesion when first applied Adhesive Categories
  30. 30. <ul><li>Ultimate Adhesion </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate or maximum holding power that a label will achieve as the adhesive penetrates into the surface of the substrate </li></ul><ul><li>The time required to obtain the ultimate adhesion will vary depending on the shear of the adhesive </li></ul>Adhesive Categories
  31. 31. U.V. Resistance The ability to resist prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light without losing adhesion or changing color Adhesive Categories
  32. 32. Solvent Resistance The ability to withstand exposure to solvent without losing adhesion Examples : Gasoline, motor oil, alcohols, brake fluid, water, and other liquids Adhesive Categories
  33. 33. <ul><li>Minimum Application Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>This is the lowest temperature a label may be applied </li></ul><ul><li>Material data sheet will indicate minimum and maximum application temperature </li></ul>Adhesive Categories
  34. 34. Service Temperature The maximum and minimum temperature a label will be exposed to after the label is applied Examples : Hot Melt: -40f to +220f Solvent: -65f to +350f Emulsion: - 40f to +275f Adhesive Categories
  35. 35. Adhesives Chemistry Adhesive Types (chemistry) Hot Melt Emulsion (water) Solvent Based Curable
  36. 36. Properties of main pressure-sensitive adhesive types
  37. 37. <ul><li>Hot Melt </li></ul><ul><li>Old technology </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul><ul><li>High initial tack </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum service temperature range </li></ul><ul><li>160f – 220f degrees </li></ul>Adhesive Chemistry
  38. 38. <ul><li>Emulsion </li></ul><ul><li>Water base technology </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum service temperature range </li></ul><ul><li>250f – 300f degrees </li></ul>Adhesive Chemistry
  39. 39. <ul><li>Solvent </li></ul><ul><li>Higher cost </li></ul><ul><li>Higher performance </li></ul><ul><li>Not environmentally friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum service temperature range about </li></ul><ul><li>350f – 400f degrees </li></ul>Adhesive Chemistry
  40. 40. <ul><ul><li>ISO standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trained quality professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product inspection centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplier quality program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance measures </li></ul></ul>Inspection and Testing Quality
  41. 41. Receiving and Inspection <ul><li>Visual Inspection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensions (against initial sample or blueprint) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pantone Matching System (PMS) color book </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initial sample </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Equipment Inspection (if needed) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Micrometer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrophotometer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90 degree peel adhesion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewinding and Inspection </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Common Label Quality Issues <ul><li>Poor Print Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Signed proof was incorrect </li></ul><ul><li>Poor artwork (low resolution) </li></ul><ul><li>Plate wipe (smearing of ink) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor color matching </li></ul><ul><li>Print-to-print registration </li></ul><ul><li>Ink print not fully dried or cured </li></ul><ul><li>Unreadable barcode </li></ul><ul><li>Print drifting (poor registration) </li></ul><ul><li>Ghosting (shadow) </li></ul><ul><li>Picking (small dots) </li></ul><ul><li>Die-cutting Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Print-to-tooling registration </li></ul><ul><li>Die cut too deep </li></ul><ul><li>Poor die strike through facestock </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong size </li></ul><ul><li>Perforation, underscore, top score missing </li></ul>
  43. 43. Common Label Quality Issues <ul><li>Adhesive Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Poor adhesion to substrate (after 72 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>Blocking </li></ul><ul><li>Adhesive bleed </li></ul><ul><li>Edge lift (off substrate) </li></ul><ul><li>Other Common Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Missing lamination </li></ul><ul><li>Incorrect material facestock </li></ul><ul><li>Yellowing </li></ul>
  44. 44. Common Testing Procedures <ul><li>Color matching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>using Pantone PMS color book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macbeth light booth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrophotometer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caliper (micrometer) </li></ul><ul><li>Peel adhesion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90 degree peel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>180 degree peel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial tack </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Weathering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightfast (sun resistance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xenon exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental cycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat resistance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold resistance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative Humidity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Flame resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Gloss level </li></ul><ul><li>Ink Adhesion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape Test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crock meter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taber abrasion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IR Scanner (to detect chemical composition) </li></ul><ul><li>Shear resistance (cohesive strength) </li></ul><ul><li>Opacimeter (measuring opacity) </li></ul><ul><li>Material Shrinkage (after heat aging) </li></ul><ul><li>Smear Test </li></ul><ul><li>Tear Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Tensile Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Curl </li></ul><ul><li>Static Electricity </li></ul>All specifications ARE customer driven
  45. 45. TLMI Test Methods (North American Standards) <ul><li>Peel Adhesion Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Loop Tack Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Static Shear Test – TLMI </li></ul><ul><li>Thickness of a Pressure Sensitive Label – TLMI </li></ul><ul><li>Coating Weight Test – TLMI </li></ul><ul><li>Stiffness Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Die Cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Properties (Paper and Film) </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Color Evaluation and Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Proofing </li></ul><ul><li>Testing of Printed Labels </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Abrasion </li></ul><ul><li>Color/Appearance </li></ul>
  46. 46. FINAT Test Methods (European Standards) FTM 1: Peel adhesion test at 180 degree angle at a removal rate of 300 mm/min. FTM 2: Peel adhesion test at 90 degree angle at a removal rate of 300 mm/min. FTM 3: Slow speed release test FTM 4: High speed release test FTM 5: Resistance to high temperatures FTM 6: Resistance to UV light FTM 7: Resistance to shear (cohesive strength of the adhesive mass) FTM 8: Resistance to shear from a standard surface FTM 9: ‘Quick-Stick’ initial tack measurement FTM 10: Silicone coatings for self-adhesive materials: release FTM 11: Silicone coatings for self-adhesive materials: residual adhesion FTM 12: Coating weight of adhesive FTM 13: Adhesive strength at low temperatures FTM 14: Dimensional stability of self-adhesive films FTM 15: Surface tension of plastic films FTM 16: Resistance to chemicals: stain test FTM 17: Resistance to chemicals: immersion test FTM 18: Dynamic shear strength FTM 19: Recyclability of self-adhesive labels
  47. 48. Miscellaneous
  48. 49. Note: Critical Step Label Manufacturing Process Flow 1-7 Varies Domestic (1–3 days) International (3-7 days) Ships to ILS location 10 10 - 20 15 Total Lead Time (business days): 1 1 Rewinding, packaging, labeling and inspection Finishing 9 1 1 Making of product Production 8 1 - 3 1 Schedule product manufacturing 7 1 - 2 1 Makes printing plates 6 1 - 5 3 ILS sends customer electronic or hard copy art proof Art proof is sent to ILS then to customer for approval (if art needs modification, then back to step 4) 5 1 - 5 2 Develops artwork, generates art proof Art department develops artwork 4 0.5 - 1 .5 Tooling, raw material, ink Purchases supplies and tooling 3 1 - 2 1 Qty, shipping locations, standard pack If ILS awards opportunity, then writes up sales order 2 1 - 3 1 Specify materials, die size, colors, run direction, roll size, and process Supplier engineers and estimates label RFQ 1 Range (in days) Lead Time (in days) Examples Description Step
  49. 50. Label Cost Structure OTHER COST DRIVERS Digital Flexographic Offset Silk Screen Gravure Types of Printing Chemical Resistance Temperature Resistance Application surface Indoors Outdoors Label Performance Permanent Removable Adhesive Type 2 5 10 25 50 Number of Copies 5,000 2,500 1,000 500 250 Roll Size Paper Polypropylene (PP) Polyester (PET) Vinyl (PVC) Polyimid Types of Material 1 2 3 4 5 # of Cutting Tools 1 3 5 7 10 # of Colors 2 x 1 4 x 2 4 x 6 8.5 x 11 13 x 12 Label Size (sq. inches) 50,000 25,000 10,000 5,000 1,000 Quantity - Volume (highest) MAIN COST DRIVERS (lowest)
  50. 51. Terms and Definitions
  51. 52. Converting : A process to manufacture a label from a raw material through a slitting or die-cutting procedure. Cold foiling : A metallic foil is bonded to the substrate by adhesive. Digital combination printing : A label printing press which uses both traditional printing methods (such as flexo or silk-screen) along with ink jet digital printing. Die-cutting : The process of cutting a label shape with a die. Most self-adhesive labels have to be die-cut to shape as part of the manufacturing and finishing procedure. Facestock : Any paper, film, foil, synthetic, or other material that can be converted into labels. Definition of Terms
  52. 53. Flexography (flexographic / flexo) : A rotary printing process in which ink is applied to the raised surface of an image on a flexible printing plate and, from there, to the surface of a label or flexible packaging substrate. Four-color process : The process in printing which involves the use of four screen and four inks (cyan, magenta, yellow, black). Gravure printing : The printing surface primarily consist of steel cylinders with an outer shell of copper onto which images – consisting of millions of tiny cells of varying depth. Letterpress : Uses photo-sensitive polymer plates onto which an image (ink carrying area) is produced by photographic or direct imaging plate-making technique. Definition of Terms
  53. 54. MSI (thousand square inches) : Calculation used to measure raw material usage. Narrow web : Printing presses in which the web width may be as narrow as six inches and ranges up to twenty inches. Offset digital printing : A process to a printed images in a digital format without printing plates (such as HP Indigo or Xeikon). Offset litho (lithography) : A high-quality printing process in which the image and non-image areas of the printing plates are on the same plane (flat) surface, but are differentiated by an ink receptive image area. Definition of Terms
  54. 55. Silk-screen : A screen image (made from either nylon, polyester or fine wire mesh) to trap the ink into a reservoir. Topcoat : A surface finish applied to label face stock that aids print anchorage and/or durability. May also be used to provide a protective coating. Web : A continuous roll of flexible material, usually paper, plastic film, foil, or laminate in a roll form. Continuously wound rolls or reels are used on web-fed printing presses, coating and laminating lines, and converting machines. Definition of Terms
  55. 56. Labels for Household Products Self Adhesive and Removable Tyre Labels Sign Material Thermal transfer