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Neo freudians, Jung and Adler - a Seminar

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A seminar presentation I'd made for as part of my post-grad psych curriculum. Technically Jung and Alder being here is a problem for some, but it was what the faculty wanted added.

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Neo freudians, Jung and Adler - a Seminar

  1. 1. Neo-Freudians Dr (Maj) Ashutosh Ratnam Resident Psychiatry 1
  2. 2. OVERVIEW Introduction Definition Contentions within Freudian Psychoanalytical Theory Individual Neo-Freudians Karen Horney Erich Fromm Harry Stack Sullivan  Alfred Adler & Carl Jung 2
  3. 3. Neo-Freudians 3 “A somewhat imprecise term embracing those analysts who follow Freud but who depart in one or other way from classic analytic theory. Jung and Adler founded their own schools of psychoanalysis and may or may not be regarded as Neo-Freudians; in general Neo- Freudians are represented by Karen Horney, Erich Fromm and Harry Stack Sullivan together with their followers. They place great emphasis on  the reaction of the individual to his current environment,  anxiety  the patient doctor relationship . There is less emphasis on sexuality and the analysis of infantile sexual experiences” Campbell’s Psychiatric Dictionary, 2009
  4. 4. Neo-Freudianism 4 “….modifications, extension or revisions of Freud’s original psychoanalytic theory, most commonly to those that emphasise social, cultural and interpersonal elements rather than innate biological instincts such as sexuality or aggression. Major theorists include Erich Fromm Karen Horney Harry Stack Sullivan” Friedman H, Scharzer R Encyclopaedia of Mental Health, 1998
  5. 5. 5 Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory 1. Topographical Model 2. Structural Model 3. Instincts and Anxieties 4. Psychosexual Human Development 5. Assumptions on Human Nature
  6. 6. 6 Topographical & Structural Models Believed the really significant aspects of behaviour are shaped & directed by impulses and drives totally outside the realm of awareness  Id = original/oldest personality system Expresses the primary principle of life i.e. the immdt discharge of psychic energy produced by biologically rooted drives which if pent up produces tension throughout personality system (c/a PLEASURE PRINCIPLE)
  7. 7. Instincts & Anxieties  Law of Conservation of Energy  Psychic Energy source = Neurophysiological states of excitation  Goal of all human behaviour = reduction of tension created by unpleasant accumulation of energy over time  i.e. total amount of psychic energy deriving from tissue needs is invested in mental activities designed to reduce excitation created by body tissue needs  INSTINCT  Mental representation of bodily excitations reflected in the form of wishes  Innate bodily state of excitation which seeks expression / tension release  “Instincts are the ultimate cause of all activity” 1. Life Instincts – e.g. Libido 2. Death Instincts – e.g. aggression, suicide, murder  Follows ENTROPY  “The goal of all life is death” 7
  8. 8. Instincts & Anxieties (cont) DISPLACEMENT 8  Original object-choice of instinct cannot be reached Unable to obtain direct gratification → Displacement of instinctual energy onto persons/things/activities other than those permitting direct tension release Suggested entire fabric of civilisation can be understood by displacement of sex and aggression instinct “It is a shattering experience for anyone seriously committed to the Western tradition of morality and rationality to take a steadfast, unflinching look at what Freud had to say. It is humiliating to be compelled to admit the grossly seamy side of so many grand ideals” – N Brown, 1959
  9. 9. Psychosexual Stages The major factor underlying human development is sexual instinct as it passes through erogenous zones during early developmental years  Frustration  Overindulgance  Psychosexual development is  Biologically determined  Invariant in nature of unfolding  Characteristic of all persons regardless of cultural heritage  Social experiences leave some residue as attitudes/values/traits 9 OVERINVESTMENT of libido RESIDUAL BEHAVIOURS & PESONALITY assoc with each stage
  10. 10. • Every child has an incestuous, unconscious desire to MALES = OEDIPUS FEMALES = ELECTRA 10 Psychosexual Stages (contd)  Mother is initial love object  Attempts to seduce mother, etc  Father perceived as competition  Castration anxiety  Resolution  Repression of sexual desire  Identification with aggressor  Vicariously keeps mother as love object  Superego = heir to resolution of Oedipus complex  Mother is initial love object  Phallic Stage → Realises she has no penis  PENIS ENVY  Hostility towards mother  Desire to possess father due to presence of enviable organ  Resolution  Competitor (mother) is not as threatening a figure  Absence of penis → cannot develop as strong fear of castration • possess the opposite-sexed parent • dispose of the same sexed-parent
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. Position on Human Nature  Illusion of freedom 12  All human events governed by powerful instinctual forces (sex + aggression)  Incapable of ‘choosing’ courses of action  Irrational  Motivated by uncontrollable forces outside sphere of conscious awareness  Constitutionalism (VS ENVIRONMENTALISM)  Concepts derived from Neuroanatomy + Neurophysiology  Id is inherited (oldest + primary basis of personality)  Psychosexual stages invariable regardless of culture  Unchangability  Indl is fixated on psychosexual stage  Basic character is formed early in life and remains unaltered into adult years
  13. 13. Strong Moderate Slight Midrange Slight Moderate Strong Freedom Determinism Rationality Irrationality Holism Elementalism Constitutionalism Environmentalism Changeability Unchangability Subjectivity Objectivity Proactivity Reactivity Homeostasis Heterostasis Knowability Unknowability
  14. 14. 14 Karen Horney 1. Biography 2. Childhood + Need for Safety 3. Basic Anxiety 4. Neurotic Needs + Trends 5. The Self Image 6. Feminism “I do not want to found a new school but to build on the foundations Freud has laid” – Horney, in Quinn, 1987 pg 318
  15. 15. Biography  Karen Danielsen, b near Hamburg, Germany 1885  2nd Born child, strongly envied Berndt (older brother) 15  “I know that as a child I wanted for a long time to be a boy, that I envied Berndt because he could stand near a tree and pee” – Horney, 1980 pg 252  Father 50yrs  Domineering, Religious, Imperious, Withheld Affection Mother 33yrs  Spirited, Freethinking, Affectionate  Upto 8 yrs → clinging + compliant  9 yrs onwards → Ambitious + rebellious  Realised later her hostility was secondary to perceived lack of affection  Numerous Romantic/Amorous relationships  Decided being in love temporarily eliminated anxiety and insecurity, offered an escape
  16. 16. Biography (contd)  Career choice of Medicine always clear  1906 joined University of Freiburg  Marriage + Career 16  m Oskar Horney → Cold, withdrawn, abused daughters  Numerous affairs → Did not achieve earlier escape from anxiety  Brother died of Pneumonia → Suicide Attempt → Psychoanalysis by Karl Abraham  Psychoanalysis  Not successful  Told of childhood Oedipal longings for powerful father  “Her readiness to abandon herself to such patriarchal figures was betrayed by her leaving her handbag (Freudian symbol of female genitals) in my office on her very first visit”  Convinced to take SELF-ANALYSIS
  17. 17. Importance of Childhood  Importance of early years of childhood in shaping personality  Social Forces, not biological forces  No universal developmental stages or inevitable childhood conflicts  Social relationship between parents and children  Safety need = “need for security and freedom from fear” (1973)  Eroded by withholding warmth and affection  Basic hostility is first response 1. If successful → Aggressive coping strategies 2. If unsucessful → Child represses hostility  Intimidation  Fear of losing (fake) expressed love  Guilt  Repressed hostility → Basic Anxiety 17
  18. 18. Basic Anxiety : Foundation of Neurosis  “An insidiously increasing, all-pervading feeling of being lonely and helpless in a hostile world” (Horney, 1973 pg 89)  Attempts to control basic anxiety 1. Securing love and affection 2. Being Submissive 3. Attaining Power  Achieve success through a sense of superiority 4. Withdrawing  Blunting/Minimising emotional needs Self-protective mechanisms  Defence against pain, not a pursuit of well-being  Powerful + Intense = more compelling than sexual/physiological needs  Reduce anxiety but personality is left deficient  Usually one mechanism overbears the other three
  19. 19. Neurotic Needs  Affection and Approval Self-sufficiency Power Exploitation of others Setting Narrow Limits to Life Perfection  Prestige or Social Recognition Achievement or Ambition Personal Admiration A Dominant or Powerful Partner • Abnormal in a neurotic as • Unrealistic/Unreasonable/Indiscriminate • Intense → Extreme Anxiety if not met • Intensive and compulsive pursuit of their satisfaction as the only way to resolve basic anxiety • Do not aid indl feel safe/secure • Aid the desire to escape discomfort caused by anxiety
  20. 20. Neurotic Trends Trend Moving TOWARDS others Moving AGAINST others 20 Moving AWAY FROM others Personality Compliant Aggressive Detached Basic source • Repressed of Neurotic Trend Hostility & Desire to Manipulate/ Exploit • Insecurity and Anxiety • Protection against hostile world • Need to Feel Superior • Desparate Desire for Privacy Neurotic Needs • Affection & Approval • Powerful Partner • Power • Exploitation • Social Prestige & Recognition • Personal Admiration • Personal Achievement • Self-sufficiency • Perfection • Narrow Limits to Life Normal analogue Friendly, loving Healthy competitiveness Serene Autonomy
  21. 21. Neurotic Trends to Neurosis Aggressive 21 NEUROSIS Neurotics are • Rigid • Inflexible • Meet all situations with behaviours and attitudes characteristic of dominant trend • Regardless of suitability
  22. 22. 22 Safety Needs NORMAL UNMET BASIC HOSTILITY SN MET Aggressive Coping Strategies SN Unmet, Repressed BASIC ANXIETY Self Protective Mech 1. Securing love and affection 2. Being Submissive 3. Attaining Power 4. Withdrawing . Neurotic Needs NEUROSIS CONFLICT Neurotic Trends 1. Aggressive 2. Compliant 3. Detached
  23. 23. Normal Self-Image Neurotic Idealised Self-Image 1. Based on realistic appraisal of abilities, potential + working 2. Flexible, dynamic, adapts as the indl develops and changes 3. Functions as a goal + encourages growth 1. Based on unattainable ideal of absolute perfection 2. Static, inflexible and unyielding 3. Hinders growth by 1. demanding rigid adherence 2. Providing illusion of self which does not allow correction of cause of anxiety / insecurity
  24. 24. Self image in the Neurotic 24 • Splits self into • Despised self-image • Idealised self-image • Swings between hating self and pretending to be perfect Pretending Perfection Self-hatred • Neurotic Search for Glory • Need for perfection • Vindictive triumph • Neurotic Ambition • Neurotic Claim • Neurotic Pride • Self-accusation • Self-frustration • Self-torture • Self-destructive actions/impulses
  25. 25. Feminine Psychology Freud – Women suffered from: Penis envy  Incompletely developed morality (Electra conflicts inadequately resolved)  Inferior body images (believed they were castrated men) Womb Envy  Men envy women because of their capacity for motherhood  Based on pleasure she experienced during childbirth  Men overcompensate for womb envy by  Overachieving at work  Indulge in behaviour designed to disparage/belittle women  Form social dictums to reinforce inferior status 25
  26. 26. Feminine Psychology (Cont) Oedipus complex Conflict between parents and children did not have sexual origin Conflict between Dependence on Parents & Hostility towards them Conflict NOT Universal  Develop only when parents undermine child’s sense of security 26
  27. 27. FREUD HORNEY Personality governed by un-modifiable biological factors Personality governed by management of safety needs of child Conflict of childhood – sexual coveting of mother Conflict of childhood – basic hostility v/s dependence Conflict of childhood was universal Only present if upbringing compromised Inferiority of women a biological reality Reinforced by social trends stemming from male basic anxiety Penis envy Womb envy 27
  28. 28. 28 “We shall not be very greatly surprised if a woman analyst, who has not been sufficiently convinced of the intensity of her own wish for a penis, also fails to attach proper importance to that factor in her patients” – Freud, 1940
  29. 29. 29 Harry Stack Sullivan 1. Biography 2. Interpersonal Psychology Structure of Personality Dynamisms  Personifications  Cognitive Processes Dynamics of Personality Tensions – Needs & Anxieties Development of Personality  Stages of Development
  30. 30. Biography  Born on an isolated farm in Near Norwich, NY 21 Feb 1892  Irish-Catholic immigrants of modest financial means  Mother was 39yrs when he was born  Two older sons had both died before 1yr age  Extreme discomfort and awkwardness in social relationships  Exacerbated by own homosexuality (Perry, 1982) 30  Viewed homosexuality as pathological and impediment to full-adaptive functioning and integration to adult society  Suffered schizophrenic breakdown & hospitalised (Perry 1972, 1982)  Acquired unique insight into origins of problems + overcoming of difficulties  First to initiate therapeutic communities  Awareness of own deficits  Attribution to restricted exposure to interpersonal learning experiences during growing years
  31. 31. Structure of Personality Personality  Purely hypothetical entity  Cannot be observed or studied apart from interpersonal situations  Other person need not be present – can be illusory or non-existent figure  Perceiving, remembering, thinking, imaging and all other psychological processes are interpersonal in character.  “Psychiatry is the study of phenomena that occur in interpersonal situations, in configurations of two or more people all but one of whom may be more or less completely illusionary” 1964, pg 33  Unit of study is interpersonal situation and not the person  Though hypothetical, personality is at the dynamic centre of various processes that occur in a series of interpersonal fields  Dynamisms  Dynamism of Self / Self-system  Personifications  Cognitive processes 31
  32. 32. Structure of Personality - Dynamism Dynamism – “The relatively enduring pattern of energy transformations which recurrently characterise the organism in its duration as a living organism” Sullivan, 1953  Overt and Public – talking  Covert and Private – thinking, fantasizing  Dynamisms which are distinctly human in character are those which characterise one’s interpersonal relations  Habitually hostile behaviour twds person/group → Dynamism of Malevolence  Habitually seeking lascivious relations with women → Dynamism of lust  Habitually afraid of strangers → Dynamism of fear  Any habitual reaction towards one/more persons in the form of a feeling, an attitude or an overt action = Dynamism  Most dynamisms satisfy basic needs of organism  Dynamism of self / self-system guards against anxiety 32
  33. 33. Dynamics of Personality - Tensions  Organism is a tension system varying between absolute relaxation (euphoria) ↔ absolute tension (extreme terror)  Two main sources of tension are 1. Needs of the Organism a) Physiochemical Requirements – food, water b) Emotional Needs – human contact, expressing talent / ability 2. Anxiety – real / imaginary threats to security Tensions can be regarded as  Needs for particular  energy transformations which will Dissipate tension  With accompanying change of mental state c/a satisfaction NEED Creates TENSION provokes Energy Transfrmtn which dissipate Tension SATISFACTION
  34. 34. Dynamics of Personality - Anxiety  “Experience of tension resulting from real or imaginary threats to one’s existence” – Sullivan, 1950 Anxiety results from interpersonal relations  To avoid anxiety people adopt protective measures and supervisory controls over own behaviour  Anxiety in mother → Transmitted to infant → Surrounding objects become anxiety inducing → Infant Learns to avoid activities which induce anxiety  When cannot escape anxiety, tends to sleep c/a somnolent detachment Varies in intensity based upon  Seriousness of threat  Effectiveness of security operations person has
  35. 35. Self-System  Protective Measures + Supervisory Controls over behaviour = Self-System Self-System  Sanctions certain behaviour → Good-me self  Forbids other behaviour → Bad-me self  Excludes from consciousness → Not-me self  Self system  Isolates from remainder of personality  Excludes information selectively → Prevents profit from experience  Held in high esteem and protected from criticism  “is a product of the irrational aspects of society and would not exist in a more rational society”
  36. 36. Prototaxic Mode Parataxic Mode Syntactic Mode Infancy + Early childhood Early Childhood Development of Language + Consensual validation • Disconnected Momentary Experiences as totalities • No temporal relationship • Momentary Experiences recorded in sequence • Apparent connection present • Logical order between experiences • Temporal sequencing • No meaning for experiencing person • Symbolic / Co-incidental connections • Logic absent • Logical connections • External validity • Internal Consistency Mystical experiences, Schizophrenic fusions Transference, paranoid ideation Normal mature thinking
  37. 37. 37 Development Era Age Cognitive Mode Primary Need Effects of Anxiety Infancy Birth to onset of Language Prototaxic Bodily Contact Tenderness Apathy Somnolent detachment Childhood Onset of language to beginning school Parataxic Parents’ praise + acceptance Mod – chronic anxiety, insecurity Severe – Malevolent Transformation Juvenile 5-8yrs Parataxic Approval + acceptance outside family Too great need to control / dominate Restrictive / Prejudiced Preadolescence 8-12 yrs Syntactic Genuine intimacy with chum Inability to develop attachment, love Adolescence Puberty onwards Syntactic -do- + lust
  38. 38. Practical Applications  Psychopathology results from excessive anxiety during development of self system, limiting  Opportunities for interpersonal satisfaction  Development of adequate security operations  “struggling to maintain self-esteem with very limited means”  “a system or series of systems of interpersonal processes arising from participant observation in which the interviewer derives certain conclusions about the interviewee”  Elucidation of patient’s interpersonal patterns  Exploring their usefulness in servicing patient’s needs  Considering alternative, more favourable possibilities
  39. 39. Practical Applications 1. Inception  Contract / roles stipulated 2. Reconnaisance  10-15 sessions  Recurring patterns identified, adaptive / maladaptive qualities assessed 3. Detailed Inquiry  Parataxic distortions recognised, clarified and changed 4. Termination  Ultimate goal = experience as much in the syntactic mode  Broaden repertoire of self-system
  40. 40. FREUD SULLIVAN Personality governed by un-modifiable biological factors 40 Personality governed by interpersonal interactions
  41. 41. 41 Erich Fromm 1. Biography 2. Personality Theory The Human Dilemma Escape from Freedom Human needs Mechanisms of Escape from Freedom Orientations
  42. 42. Biography 42  Studied Sociology, Psychology and Philosophy at University of Heidelberg PhD at 22yrs Trained in Psychoanalysis at Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute  Founded Frankfurt Psychoanalytic Institute  Integration of Freud’s theory of dynamic unconscious with Karl Marx’s theory of history + social criticism  c/a Humanistic Psychoanalyst, Marxian Personality Theorist  Pref Dialectic humanist
  43. 43. Human Dilemma Persons feel lonely and isolated because they have become separated from nature and each other  Minimised adaptive instincts  Acquired faculty to reason c/a human dilemma  Capable of conceptualising goal of self-realisation but aware life is too short to reach goal  Aware of dichotomy of life & death 1. Face Aloneness, chose individuation  Regain sense of unity on a new, higher level  Addressing basic human needs 2. Construct illusions which engender false feeling of safety / security  Escape from freedom 43
  44. 44. Human Needs 44 S.N Need Description 1. Relatedness Deep feeling of unity with self and others 2. Transcendence Need to rise above animal nature, and become a creative person 3. Rootedness Need to feel an integral part of the world, to feel one belongs 4. Identity Need to feel unique 5. Frame of Orientation Reference point to establish and maintain a meaningful and stable perception of the world 6. Excitation and Stimulation Distinct from simple stimuli, entail striving for goals
  45. 45. Methods of Escape from Freedom 1. Authoritarianism  Tendency to give up own independence and fuse the self with someone / something outside the self  To acquire strength which indl lacks  E.g. Sadism / Masochism 2. Destructiveness  Striving to remove all standards against which one may be compared 3. Automation Conformity  Escape from individual identity by becoming as like those around as possible  Lay aside own thoughts, actions, feelings  Eager to live up to expectations / wishes of others
  46. 46. Unproductive Character Orientations  A person’s relatively permanent way of relating to people and things Trait Receptive Exploitative Hoarding Marketing Qualities • Feel all good lies outside themselves • Hope for someone to solve their problems • Feel all good lies outside themselves • Aggressively act to take what they desire • Seek to save what they ALREADY have • Distant and remote • Feel empty and compensate by gaining material success • Regard personality as commodity • Adjust to fit others’ desires Negative Passivity Submissiveness Conceited Arrogant Seductive Rigidity Compulsivity Detachment Opportunism Positive Loyalty Friendliness Trust Pride Charm Self-confidence Orderliness Punctuality Cleanliness Malleability Generosity
  47. 47. Productive Character Orientation  Productive love – level at which people rise above  Egos  Separation from fellow humans  Basic loneliness 47 The only constructive resolution to the problem of basic human loneliness  Productive-hoarding type v/s Non-productive hoarding type
  48. 48. 48 ISOLATION HUMAN DILEMMA NATURE INDIVIDUALISATION PRODUCTIVE ORIENTATION ESCAPE FROM FREEDOM 1. Authoritarianism 2. Destructiveness 3. Automation conformity UNPRODUCTIVE ORIENTATION
  49. 49. FREUD FROMM Personality governed by un-modifiable biological factors 49 Personality governed by reaction to human dilemma of isolation
  50. 50. 50 Alfred Adler 1. Biography 2. Individual Psychology Basic Tenets Components of Theory
  51. 51. Biography Born in Vienna 07 Feb 1870 Age 4 – close to death from pneumonia  Decided to take up medicine as profession Suffered from Rickets – began walking at age 5  Brother Sigmund Adler served as a competitor Pampered by mother till age of 2 yrs → Dethroned by birth of younger brother  ?? Rejection at hands of mother  Father’s favourite child  Rejection of Oedipal Complex 51
  52. 52. Biography  Began as Opthalmologist → General Practitioner  Opp Prater – combination amusement park and circus  1907 invited to join Freud’s discussion group (Wednesday Psychological Society)  President of Vienna Psychoanalytic Society  Freud disapproved of value assigned to aggression instinct  Oct 1911 Adler Resigned → Society for Free Psychoanalytic Study → Society for Individual Psychology  Served in Austrian Army on Russian front + Children’s hospital  Thoughts turned towards social interest 52
  53. 53. Tenets of Individual Psychology 53 1. The one dynamic force behind people’s behaviour is the striving for success or superiority 2. People’s subjective perceptions shape their behaviour and personality 3. Personality is unified and self-consistent 4. The value of all human activity must be seen from the viewpoint of social interest 5. The self-consistent personality structure develops into a person’s style of life 6. Style of life is moulded by people’s creative power
  54. 54. Striving for Success/Superiority Basic Feelings of Inferiority or inadequacy  Organ inferiority  Social Disabilities  Psychological Disabilities 54 Striving for Success / Superiority (Normal feelings of incompletion) Inferiority Complex Superiority Complex • Indl grows, progresses and develops from the attempt to overcome the inferiority • Inferiority may be real or imagined 1. Failed efforts to overcome organ inferiority 2. Spoiling/Pampering 3. Neglect • Overcompensation for feelings of inferiority • Imp: So little self-acceptance that he/she can feel important only by putting others down
  55. 55. Striving for Success Aggression → Will to Power/ “Masculine Protest” Striving for success  “a great upward drive without which life would be unthinkable” Innate and Universal  “if this striving were not innate to the organism, no form of life could preserve itself” Existed as potentiality and needed to be properly developed  Actualisation begins at 5th year when child develops a life-goal  Calls for considerable expenditure of energy + effort Occurs both at indl and societal levels May take either negative or positive directions  Personal Superiority  Unselfish Goals 55
  56. 56. Final Goal  Final goal is of either  Personal Superiority  Success for all humankind  Each person has creative power to make a personalised fictional goal from  Heredity  Environment  Power to set final goal developed at 4-5 years of age  Unconscious/Conscious Fictionalism  The manner in which people strive to compensate is shaped  Not by reality  By subjective perceptions / fictions – ideas that have no real existence yet influence people as if they really existed  E.g. “Men are superior to women” “God rewards the good and punishes evil” 56
  57. 57. 57 Innate Striving Force Physical /Social / Personal Deficiencies Feelings of Inferiority Final goal dimly perceived Personal Gain /Superiority Exaggerated feelings of incompletion Final goal clearly perceived success of humankind Normal feelings of incompletion
  58. 58. Unity and Self-consistency of Personality  Each person is unique and indivisible  Inconsistent behaviour does not exist  All feelings, thoughts , actions are directed towards a single goal and serve a single purpose  Erratic behaviour when viewed from perspective of final goal will be unconsciously serving larger purpose 1. Organ dialect  “the body’s organs speak a language which is more expressive and discloses the indl’s opinions more clearly than words are able to do” (Adler, 1956)  E.g. deformity of RA – hands speak of desire for sympathy  Bedwetting – resistance to obeying parental wishes 2. Harmony between Conscious and Unconscious actions  Co-operating parts of the same unified goal system  Conscious – understood and regarded as helpful  Unconscious – not understood, not regarded as helpful (but helpful nonetheless) 58
  59. 59. Social Interest  Gemeinschafttsgefuhl – Community feeling / sense of solidarity  “Social interest means striving for a form of community…as it could be thought of if mankind had reached the goal of perfection. It is never a present-day community or society, nor a political or religious form. Rather the goal….would have to be a goal which signifies the ideal community of all humanity, the ultimate fulfilment of evolution” Adler, 1964  Rooted as innate potentiality in everyone  Needs to be developed before contributing to useful style of life  “Social interest is a “Barometer of Normality” 59 Normal Healthy Person Maladjusted / Psychologically unhealthy • Normal feelings of incompleteness • High levels of social interest • Exaggerated feelings of inadequacy • Low social interest
  60. 60. Role of Mother in Developing Social Interest Positive Behaviour Effect Negative Behaviour Effect • Have genuine deep-rooted love for child and not based on vanity of mother • Develop true caring for child, husband and others Broadening of child’s social interest Favours Child Child grows up pampered and spoilt Favours Husband Child grows up neglected
  61. 61. Role of Father in Developing Social Interest 61 Positive Behaviour Effect Negative Behaviour Effect • Demonstrate caring attitudes towards wife and others • Co-operate on equal footing in childrearing Broadening of child’s social interest Emotional detachment • Feeling of Neglect • ? Parasitic attachment to mother • Creates a goal of compensatory personal superiority Authoritarianism • Child learns to strive for power and personal superiority
  62. 62. Style of Life  “The unique pattern of traits, behaviours and habits which when taken together define the route an indl has charted to reach a life-goal”  It is a product of  Heredity  Environment  Creative Power INFERIORITY Behaviour to COMPENSATE STYLE OF LIFE Environ Experience Attitude towards / interpretation of
  63. 63. Parameter Ruling Type Getting Type Avoiding Type Socially Useful Type Social Interest Very Low Low Very Low High Degree of Activity High Low Lowest High Description • Assertive, aggressive • Active in an antisocial manner • “Parasitic” relationship with others • Not esp dangerous due to low activity • Fear failure more than desire success • Sidestep life’s problems See major tasks of life • Occupation • Friendship • Love as social problems
  64. 64. 64 FIRST BORN-CHILD Positive Traits Negative Traits Nurturing and Protective of others Good Organiser Highly anxious Exaggerated Feeling of Power Unconscious Hostility Must always be “right”, others are always “wrong” SECOND BORN-CHILD Positive Traits Negative Traits Highly motivated Co-operative Highly competitive Easily discouraged
  65. 65. 65 YOUNGEST CHILD Positive Traits Negative Traits Realistically Ambitious Pampered style of life Dependent on others Wants to excel at everything Unrealistically ambitious ONLY CHILD Positive Traits Negative Traits Socially Mature Exaggerated feelings of superiority Low feelings of co-operation Inflated Sense of Self Pampered style of life
  66. 66. Strong Moderate Slight Midrange Slight Moderate Strong Freedom Determinism Rationality Irrationality Holism Elementalism Constitutionalism Environmentalism Changeability Unchangability Subjectivity Objectivity Proactivity Reactivity Homeostasis Heterostasis Knowability Unknowability
  67. 67. 67 FREUD ADLER Personality governed by un-modifiable biological factors Personality governed by feelings of inferiority Indl driven by unconscious instincts Indl driven towards fictional / real goals Conflicts of childhood determine disposition Birth order instrumental in determining disposition
  68. 68. 68 “I made a pygmy great” Freud, 1940 “A pygmy standing on the shoulders of a giant can see farther than the giant can” Adler “That may be true of a pygmy, but not of a louse in the giant’s hair”
  69. 69. 69 Carl Jung 1. Biography 2. Structure of Personality 3. Dynamics of Personality
  70. 70. Biography 70 Born in 1875 in Switzerland  Occult background on mothers side, admitted to mental asylum  Identified separate personalities early on in his life (#1 & #2)  Jung earned his M.D. degree in 1900 & went on to study schizophrenia, consciousness, & hypnosis. He was influenced by Psychopathia Sexualis by Richard von Krafft-Ebing, professor in Vienna  Joined under Eugen Bleuler in Burghölzli Burghölzli is the psychiatric hospital of the University of Zürich, Switzerland.  Famous people associated with Burghölzli : Eugene Blueler, CG Jung, Adolf Meyer, Ludwig Binswanger
  71. 71. 71 Ego Structure of Personality Personal Unconscious  Complexes Collective Unconscious  Archetypes  Persona  Anima/Animus  Shadow  Attitudes  Introversion  Extraversion Functions  Thinking  Feeling  Sensing  Intuiting Self
  72. 72. Structure of Personality Ego  Conscious mind  Conscious perceptions, memories, thoughts, feelings  Responsible for feeling of identity and continuity Personal Unconscious  Experiences that were once conscious but have been suppressed, repressed, forgotten, too weak to make a conscious impression  Complex – organised group or constellation of feelings, thoughts, perceptions and memories 72
  73. 73. Collective Unconscious  Storehouse of latent memory traces inherited from one’s ancestral past  Includes pre-human animal ancestry  All humans have same collective unconscious  Similarity in brain structure due to similar evolution  The possibility of reviving experiences of past generations are inherited  Predispositions are projected on the world  E.g. infant is born with predisposition to react to mother  To manifest, predispositions require strengthening by specific experiences  Contents c/a Archetypes 73
  74. 74. Archetypes  A Universal thought form (idea)  With large emotional tone  That creates images / visions which correspond in normal waking life to some aspect of the conscious situation  Image is usually compatible as archetype is product of experiences of the human race with the world  Origin = permanent deposit of an experience which has been repeated for many generations  Archetype may be the nucleus of a complex  Will draw experiences towards it  Can thereby penetrate into consciousness  Examples : birth, rebirth, death, power, magic, unity, hero etc 74
  75. 75. 75 Archetypes Persona • Mask adopted by person in response to • Demands of social convention • Own inner Archetypal needs • Purpose – to make a definitive impression upon others • If ego identifies with persona • Indl “inflates the persona” • Origin – social interactions in which assumption of social role has been beneficial
  76. 76. Archetypes Anima & Animus  Anima = Feminine Archetype in Male  Animus = Masculine Archetype in Female • Origin – racial experiences of man with woman and woman with man • Purpose – act as collective images to motivate each sex to respond to and understand members of opposite sex • Discord possible if Archetype is projected without regard for real character of partner  Shadow  Animal instincts  Qualities we do not wish to acknowledge & hide from ourselves + others  Projected outwards becomes devil / enemy  Facing the shadow – first test of courage 76
  77. 77. 77 Archetypes The Self  Archetype manifesting innate human striving for unity, perfection and completion  Mid-point of personality  Holds all other systems together and provides equilibrium and stability  When center of personality migrates from ego to “focal point between conscious and unconscious” (self) personality gets a “new and solid foundation”  Prerequisite is development of various components of personality to be fully developed and individuated  Usually self becomes evident in middle age
  78. 78. Psychological Types – Attitudes & Functions  Attitudes  Introversion – turning inward of psychic energy with orientation towards subjective  Extroversion – turning outward of psychic energy with orientation towards objective (2)  Psychological Functions  Superior function – highly differentiated (4)  Inferior function – least differentiated (other member of pair)  Auxillary function – one of the other pair (2) 78 Thinking Comprehending the nature of the world and oneself Rational Feeling Assigning value to things Rational Sensing Perceptual / reality function to gain concrete facts / representations of the world Irrational Intuition Perception by way of unconscious processes and subliminal content Irrational
  79. 79. Psychic Energy  “The energy by which the work of the personality is performed”  Originates from the metabolic processes of the body  c/a libido  Finds expression in 79  Actual forces – wishing, willing, feeling, attending, striving  Potential forces – Dispositions, aptitudes, tendencies, inclinations, attitudes  Follows principles of  Equivalence – Energy expended to bring about a condition will appear elsewhere in the system  Entropy – Distribution of psychic energy seeks an equilibrium or balance (final Self)  Use of Psychic energy  Performing work necessary to maintain life and propagate species  Instinctual functions  Excess diverted to cultural and spiritual activities (highly developed purposes of life)
  80. 80. Stages of Development 80 Childhood Young Adulthood Middle Age • Behaviour governed by parental demands • Sexuality emerges • Child becomes differentiated from parents • Extraversion is primary attitude • Consciousness dominates mental life • Need for meaning • Change from Extraverted to Introverted attitude
  81. 81. Dreams & Interpretation 81  Dreams “compensable for aspects of a dreamer’s personality which have been neglected in waking life”  Big dreams – archetypal imagery  Little dreams – related to dreamer’s conscious preoccupations  Amplification of dreams  To explicate elements of rich symbolic significance  Dreamer gives multiple associations and stands by dream element  Responses form a constellation around dream element  Constitute many-faceted meanings of dream element for dreamer  Dream series  Interpretation of a series of dreams  “Dreams form a coherent series in the course of which the meaning gradually unfolds of its own accord”
  82. 82. 82 FREUD JUNG Personality governed by un-modifiable biological factors Personality governed by cultural and racial influences Single unconscious Personal and Collective Unconscious General negative view of human condition Humans had positive and negative aspects both
  83. 83. REFERENCES 83  Hjelle LA, Zeigler DJ (1985) Personality Theories: Basic Assumptions, Research and Applications McGraw-Hill  Theories of Personality Halle and Lindzey  Boeree CG (1997) Harry Stack Sullivan Personality Theories, Shippensburg University  Gold SN, Bacigalupe G (1998) Interpersonal and Systematic Theories of Personality  Adler: Individual Psychology in Psychodynamic Theories
  84. 84. REFERENCES 84  Hjelle LA, Zeigler DJ (1985) Personality Theories: Basic Assumptions, Research and Applications McGraw-Hill  Patterson RH (2008) The Neopsychoanalytic Approach, Ch 4 Karen Horney: Neurotic Needs and Trends 159-180  Gilman SL (2001) Karen Horney MD 1885-1952. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1205  Boeree CG (1997) Karen Horney Personality Theories, Shippensburg University
  85. 85. THANK YOU 85

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