Benchmarking/Performance Measuring

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Tech Session from the 2009 ASHRAE Region VI CRC in Des Moines, Iowa.
Presented by Paul Torcellini of NREL
May 8, 2009

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Benchmarking/Performance Measuring

  1. 1. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC ASHRAE Region VI CRC Paul A. Torcellini, Ph.D., PE May 8, 2009 www.highperformancebuildings.gov Tech Session 4: Benchmarking/ Performance Measuring
  2. 2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Case Study Buildings – Oberlin College Lewis Center • Oberlin, Ohio • goal: zero net site energy use (79%) – Zion Visitor Center • Springdale, UT • goal: 70% energy cost savings (65%) – Cambria Office Building • Ebensburg, PA • goal: 66% energy cost savings (43%) – Chesapeake Bay Foundation (CBF) • Annapolis, MD • goal: LEED 1.0 Platinum Rating (25%) – Thermal Test Facility (TTF) • Golden, CO • goal: 70% energy savings (51%) – BigHorn Home Improvement • Silverthorne, CO • goal: 60% energy cost savings (53%) – Science House, Science Museum of Minnesota • St. Paul, Minnesota • goal: zero net site energy use (139%)
  3. 3. Different Metrics-Different Results 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Oberlin BigHorn TTF Cambria Zion CBF PercentSavings Percent Net SourceEnergy Savings Percent Net SiteEnergy Savings Percent SiteEnergy Savings Percent Energy Cost Savings measureddatavs. simulatedbasecasesimulatedas-built vs. simulatedbasecase
  4. 4. BigHorn Home Improvement Center 18,400 sqft retail store and 24,000 sqft warehouse Daylighting Natural ventilation (no mechanical cooling) Radiant floors Transpired solar collector PV
  5. 5. Ventilation PreheatVentilation Preheat Over 70% efficientOver 70% efficient Acts as a building skinActs as a building skin 11¢¢/kWh heat production/kWh heat production Transpired Solar CollectorTranspired Solar Collector
  6. 6. Electric Lighting and DaylightingElectric Lighting and Daylighting
  7. 7. Daylighting System PerformanceDaylighting System Performance savings: daylighting = 65%; overall = 79% 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC Month EnergyConsumption(kWh) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 PercentReductionfrom Daylighting No Daylighting Daylighting % savings
  8. 8. Zion Visitor Center 7.2 kW PV system (UPS)7.2 kW PV system (UPS) Passive evaporative coolingPassive evaporative cooling Excellent thermal envelopeExcellent thermal envelope TrombeTrombe wallswalls OverhangsOverhangs DaylightingDaylighting
  9. 9. Zion Visitor Center Daylighting Operable Windows Overhangs
  10. 10. Downdraft Evaporative Cooltower Cool Air Hot Air
  11. 11. Trombe Wall Heating Radiant Ceiling Panels
  12. 12. Cooltowers
  13. 13. HVAC System Envelope is integral to the heating and cooling system – Cooltowers and Trombe wall – Natural ventilation Ceiling fans Bathroom/office exhaust fans No ductwork Electric radiant heat (propane expensive) Demand responsive EMS No fuel storage or mechanical rooms
  14. 14. PV System 7.2 kW (24 300-W modules) 2 single phase inverters (one with UPS) PV can meet loads of phone, security, POS, and cooltowers (UPS battery backup) Grid power out 40 times during monitoring year. PV provides about 8% of annual total.
  15. 15. Other Features Extensive daylighting Good thermal envelope Trombe wall heating Overhangs PV can meet loads of phone, security, POS, and cooltowers (UPS battery backup) Grid power out 40 times during monitoring year. PV provides about 8% of annual total. 70% energy savings (measured)
  16. 16. Peak Demand Plot of 15-minute data showing demand responsive controls -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 EndUse,Purchased,andPVProduction(kW) Net Used Total PV Total HVAC Total Equipment Total Lighting Hot Water Heaters
  17. 17. Measured Energy Performance $0.43/year to operate (including plug loads) 27.0 kBtu/ft2/year (including plug loads, but no PV) 7,860 kWh produced by PV or 8% of total (24.7 kBtu/ ft2/year net) Visitor Center Heating Fee Station Ceiling and Exhaust Fans Comfort Station Cooling Comfort Station Plug Loads Visitor Center Domestic Hot Water Comfort Station Domestic Hot Water Visitor Center Plug Loads Outdoor Comfort Station Visitor Center Switch Controlled Visitor Center Computer Controlled Visitor Center Cooling Comfort Station Heating Equipment/ Other 33% HVAC 36% Lighting 31%
  18. 18. Lewis Center for Environmental Studies 13,600 sqft classroom and offices 60 kW PV system on roof Daylighting Ground-source Heat Pumps Water Treatment Natural Ventilation
  19. 19. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Oberlin Lewis Center Monthly Energy Performance January 2000 - December 2002 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Jan-00 Feb-00 Mar-00 Apr-00 May-00 Jun-00 Jul-00 Aug-00 Sep-00 Oct-00 Nov-00 Dec-00 Jan-01 Feb-01 Mar-01 Apr-01 May-01 Jun-01 Jul-01 Aug-01 Sep-01 Oct-01 Nov-01 Dec-01 Jan-02 Feb-02 Mar-02 Apr-02 May-02 Jun-02 Jul-02 Aug-02 Sep-02 Oct-02 Nov-02 Dec-02 DailyAverageMonthlyConsumptionandProduction (kWh/day) Utility Bills Equipment Total Lights Total Cooling Total Heating PV Production The Value of Monitoring
  20. 20. Receptacles Emergency receptacles PV system consumption DHW Auditorium lights Indoor room lights Hydronic circulation pumps 3-6 VSD Hydronic circulation pumps 1-2 Room Heat Pumps Classroom energy recovery unit Auditorium energy recovery unit Emergency lights Sidewalk lights Parking lot lights Classroom ventilation heat pump Auditorium heat pump Hydronic system electric boiler Wastewater treatment Elevator Total Equipment 28% Total Lights 13% Total HVAC 59% End Loads
  21. 21. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future NREL Thermal Test Facility (TTF) 10,000 sqft Laboratory and Office Typical steel frame building Good insulation package Simple daylighting design
  22. 22. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Plug Loads 22.0% Exterior Lights 4.2% Hot Water 1.1% Heating 4.0% Cooling 1.6% Fans/Pumps 1.8% Lighting 12.1% Savings 52.9% Plug Loads 22.0% Exterior Lights 4.2% Hot Water 1.1% Heating 2.7% Cooling 8.3% Fans/Pumps 4.6% Lighting 57.0% Loads Example Code Building Final Design 72% savings excluding plug loads and exterior lights
  23. 23. Available Roof Layouts
  24. 24. More Daylighting…
  25. 25. Education and Marketing
  26. 26. Image…
  27. 27. High Performance Building’s Database • Shared, on-line repository of in-depth descriptions and data on high-performance and green buildings • Commercial, residential, campus • Single database, multiple portals • Examples of low-energy buildings to motivate industry • Mechanism for others to report on building performance and lessons learned http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/database/
  28. 28. Case Study Database Objectives • Lack of comprehensive energy-based case studies • Provides feedback to both DOE and industry – Industry needs proof that low-energy is possible – DOE needs feedback to understand successes and failures in real world examples • Create a standardized reporting format for building energy performance
  29. 29. Pages for – Overview, Process, Finance, Land Use, Site/Water, Energy, Materials, Indoor Environment, Images, Ratings, Lessons Learned, and Learn More
  30. 30. Features Pages for – Overview, Process, Finance, Land Use, Site/Water, Energy, Materials, Indoor Environment, Images, Ratings, Lessons Learned, and Learn More
  31. 31. Energy Table Page • Multiple energy tables – Allows for comparisons/tracking with time • Basecase, simulated, utility data (by year) • Longer term reporting • Narratives • Data Sources and Reliability
  32. 32. Portals – DOE High-Performance Buildings Database (101 projects) – BuildingGreen, Inc. (230 projects) – American Institute of Architects (92 projects) • Top Ten Winners – U.S. Green Building Council (108 projects) • LEED Case Studies – Federal Energy Management Program (44 projects) • New Federal buildings must be entered by EPACT2005 – Efficiency Vermont (4 projects) – Cascadia Chapter USGBC (35 projects) – DOE Net Zero Energy Buildings (4 projects) • Buildings that have measured performance of ZERO – ASHRAE (5 projects) • AEDG Case Studies – DASH (New project) • Focus on financial/real estate/productivity metrics – International Energy Agency – Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 40 • International case studies for Zero and near Zero Commercial and Residential Project (new as of 11/15/08) – Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (20 projects) – There are others…
  33. 33. Distribution of Projects DASH
  34. 34. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future High-Performance Buildings Database Share successes and lessons learned about projects Public database Actual Energy Information FEMP, USGBC, AIA, DOE all have “front ends” A special section for ZEB’s. www.highperformancebuildings.gov
  35. 35. You can enter projects… • Go to www.highperformancebuildings.gov – enter the database – Create a login and submit a project
  36. 36. Lessons Learned from the HPBd • Getting energy data is hard – Even utility bills – This is the part that viewers want to see the most – This is one of the few real measures of success – it can be measured and quantified • The risk of sharing lessons learned – Need to be willing to share mistakes – Needed to advance the industry—or we will never get there. • Transparency is key.
  37. 37. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future
  38. 38. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future What are [Net] Zero Energy Buildings? Conceptually, a building that has no adverse energy [or environmental] impact [because of its operation] ZERO is not easy to define! – Disconnect all utility interfaces? – Net energy transfer across boundary? – Where is the boundary?
  39. 39. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Definitions of NZEB’s Net Zero Site Energy Net Zero Source Energy Net Zero Emissions Net Zero Energy Cost Boundaries and metrics
  40. 40. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Net Zero Site Energy Measured at the interface of the building to the utility (point of sale) Easy to measure/verify (vested interest in having the right number) Can favor electricity over on-site combustion Encourages energy efficient designs at the building level What is the “site?” Building footprint or property
  41. 41. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Net Zero Source Energy With current information, really just site with multipliers for different fuels Has a grid (more global) impact Depends on dispatch of power generation – Fuel source – Incremental dispatch Daily and seasonal dependencies Regional (non climatic) dependencies Not a strong focus on building efficiency
  42. 42. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Net Zero Energy Cost What the owner really sees (Also) based on site measurements Easy to verify Demand component High regional variations Highly dependent on rate structures (demand and fixed charges cannot be negated) Cost volatility Market driven comparisons Cannot do this on a large scale (Who would pay the utility?)
  43. 43. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Net Zero Emissions Also based on site numbers, typically with national or regional multipliers based on generation location Same issues as source If a building has zero source energy and therefore zero emissions, is it really a zero emissions building?
  44. 44. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Renewable Hierarchy • Energy efficiency • Renewable in/on building • Renewable in/on property • Import renewables (wood chip, other biofuels) • Purchase renewable credits
  45. 45. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Ending Thoughts… Zero takes a coordinated effort with the architect and the engineering The little things make the difference in getting to zero (as you get to zero, little is significant) The owner needs to set measurable goals and communicate these goals to the design team The solution is not bigger supplies
  46. 46. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Questions? www.highperformancebuildings.gov

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