Water resources engineering of ancient india


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Water resources engineering of ancient india

  1. 1. Prachin Bharatiya Jala Shastra Edited & Compiled By Dr.A.S.Nene 20 July 2010
  2. 2. Table of ContentsSN Title Pages1 Introduction 1-62 Ancient Indian References 7-133 Properties of water 14-154 Jala Shashtra 4.1 Storage of water 16-29 4.2 Supply or Distribution 4.3 Drainage of water5 Water divining 30-386 Pollution of water 39-417 Hydraulic Machines 42-448 Forecast of Rainfall & Measurement 45-519 References 52-57 Appendix 1- Libraries and Book Sellers i-ii Appendix 2- Maps of India iii-vii Appendix 3- 100 Sanskrit names viii-ix Appendix 4- Tank completion report x-xii
  3. 3. Read this book to know that;•King Bhagirath was the first irrigation engineer,who developed a network of rivers and canals innorth India.•Sage Kashypa reclaimed the water-logged land ofKashmir by dewatering and hence the land is knownas "Kashypa Mir" or Kashmir.•Varahmihir was the first hydrologist to develop ascience (Dakargal) to predict underground aquifers,based on surface indicators, such as trees, plants,creepers, grass, terrariums, hibernating animalsetc.•Ancient text "Kadambini" describes forecasting ofrains based on certain natural symptoms. (Insects,birds, animals, flora of trees etc.)
  4. 4. •Varahmihir developed method to predict rainfall, based on astronomy.•Sage Vashishtha and Sage Bhrugu were thefirst divine engineers to describe properties offlowing and steady water.•Vedic hymns praise the deity of water.Water mills were first developed in India andlater the technique was used by Persians(Persian well)•Kautilya gave guideline for construction ofdams, canal, wells, pollution prevention etc.•An ancient text "Nighantu" mentions onehundred meaningful names of water.
  5. 5. 2. Ancient Indian Literature 2.1 Vedic Period 3000 - 5000 BC Sources of water
  6. 6. 2.2 Post Vedic Period Rishi Narad asks Yudhishitira“Are the dams full of water and big enough and wellDistributed in different parts of the kingdom, and whetheragriculture depends only on rain water?" Naradniti
  7. 7. Ponds & TanksArch BridgesWater FortsRiver FortsChapters of Narad Shilpashashtra
  8. 8. 3. PROPERTIES OF WATER 3.1 Twelve properties of Flowing WaterWeight of a body suspended in water isEquivalent to weight of water of volume sameAs submerged portion. (Archimedes Principle).
  9. 9. 3.2 Static WaterThe water pressure is equivalent to its weight. The banks should be sloping to reduce the damage due to waves.
  10. 10. 4. JALASHSHASTRA TECHNIQUESThe three Vidya or Techniques of this Shastra are;ØStorage of water –StambhanØWater Supply/ Distribution – SanchetanØDrainage / Dewatering - Samharan
  11. 11. Ten types of tanks
  12. 12. 5. WATER DIVINING IN ANCIENT INDIA Varahmihir (505 C.E- 587 C.E),The indicators for aquifers areüSpecific trees, plants,üherbs and grassesüHibernating animals (Enjoying winter sleep- frogs, lizards, snakes, alligators and tortoises)üAnthills (Terrariums)
  13. 13. 84 Botanical names of trees mentioned in Brihat Samhita Chapter 54B01 Calamas rotang Rattan (Cane)B84 Dalbergia latifolia Sissoo tree
  14. 14. 6. POLLUTION OF WATER Maintenance of water bodies Treatment of Well water
  16. 16. 8 METHODS OF FORECASTING RAIN Normal rainy season Quantity of rainfall in different regions
  17. 17. 18 Ancient References67 Modern referencesAppendix 1 -List of Libraries Sources in IndiaAppendix 2- Glossary of Terms and AncientMeasures of LiquidsAppendix 3 -100 Sanskrit Names of waterAppendix 4- 18th Century report on Rajasagar tank
  18. 18. Contact For any suggestionsDr.A.S.NeneM4 Laxmi Nagar,Nagpur (India) 440022Email: nene_ashok@yahoo.com