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Expansive soils of india


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Expansive soils of india

  1. 1. BLACK COTTON SOILS OF INDIA A review of engineering properties and Construction Techniques U.G. Project report submitted by A.M. Patankar, D.M. Mukewar and S.L. Khankhoje Final Year B.E .Students of Vishveshvarayya Regional College of Engineering Nagpur Under the guidance of Dr. A.S. Nene 1974-1975
  2. 2. PROLOGUE A Civil Engineer has often to face some problematic soil such as expansive soils. Expansive soils of Central India, commonly known as Black Cotton soils, cover approximately one-sixth of the total area of our country. Such soils exhibit extreme stages of consistency from very hard to very soft when saturated. Literature on Black Cotton soils dates back to thousands of years ago. Sage Bhrugu in his scripture “Bhrugu Samhita” has classified all soils into four groups based on their color, taste, odor, sound and their performance. Six senses of perception: A site is to be selcted by using five senses of perception for its color,smell, shape, sound and touch. Soil Classification based on Color: The soil has four basic colors, white,red, yellow or black. The site with black soil should be rejected for construction. Classification based on Smell: The soil having smell of rotten fish should be rejected for construction. Classification based on Shape: shape of plot can be square, rectangular, hexagonal, octagonal or circular, but a square plot is most suitable. Classification based on Taste: The taste of soil can be sweet, sour, bitter. The site with soil of sweet taste is most suitable. Classification based on Sound: The ground when tamped with wooden rammer produces different sounds such as that produced by horse, flute, veena or drum. The ground which produces ringing sound should be selected. Classification based on Touch: The ideal site is one which is cold in summer and warm in winter. According to Sage Bhrugu, Soils, white in color, smelling like that of clarified butter and of good taste is the best. Soils black in color, smelling like blood and of sour taste is the worst.
  3. 3. World’s First Reference describing expansive soils: Bhrugu also mentioned that marshy land, cracking when exposed to sun rays, made porous by wind or insects, devoid of water, full of poisonous or thorny trees, used as cemetery, sloping towards south or land of saline soil was worst for construction purposes. In other words the sage has described the properties of expansive soils. Around 1950 the subject of expansive soils attracted attention of scientists and engineers. Since then innumerable of technical papers are published. This subject is also attaining more and more importance in our country. Many institutes of higher education have introduced this subject in their curriculum. Though the references on this subject are many, there is no single text book which presents update information on this subject. With this background it was thought of compiling the vast information and presenting in a report form. Mr. A.M. Patankar, D.M. Mukewar and S.L. Khankhoje have made an attempt to review the technical literature and append with information from bulletins and Indian standards. Apart from partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Civil Engineering of Nagpur University, if this report can arose some interest in the subject of expansive soils, the purpose of this edited review report, will be more than fulfilled. 14th May 1975 (Dr. A.S. Nene)
  4. 4. About this E-Book of 2015 “Diabetics cannot be cured, it can be only controlled”. Similarly problems posed by expansive soils can only be controlled by proper design of foundations. This project report was compiled in 1975 when no single reference book was available for undergraduate students on the subject of swelling soils. No computer or Internet facilities were available to student. Illustrations were prepared on tracing sheets and project report was typed using manual typewriter. But after 1980 the subject of “Expansive soils” was introduced in the postgraduate curriculum. Now hundreds of reference papers are available on Net and many text books are available on the subject of Expansive soils. Though the report was compiled 40 years ago, part of the information may be still useful for undergraduate students of Civil engineering. With this hope this project report is uploaded on Web. 1st May 2015 (Dr. A.S. Nene)
  5. 5. CONTENTS Chapter Title Page No Prologue by the guide 1 Introduction 1 2 Identification and Classification 6 3 Engineering Properties of Expansive Soils 22 4 Construction Techniques 34 5 Under-reamed Pile foundations 44 6 Stabilization of Expansive Soils 47 7 Conclusions and Suggestions 62 Bibliography 63
  6. 6. LIST OF TABLES No. Particulars Page 1.1 Morphology of a typical medium black soil 2.1 Swelling potential of soil 09 2.2 Identification criteria by U.S.B.R. 09 2.3 Characteristics of the B.C. soils 13 2.4 classification of swelling soils based on S.P. 17 2.5 Classification based on Shrinkage Index 19 2.6 Swelling Index Vs Plasticity Number 20 3.1 Locations of 16 soil samples 24 3.2 Notations used in tables 25 3.3 Properties of Black cotton soils S1-S8 26 3.4 Properties of Black cotton soils S9-S16 26 3.5 Ad.Properties of Black cotton soils S1-S8 27 3.6 Ad.Properties of Black cotton soils S9-S16 27 6.1 Permeability studies on stabilized soils (Wadgaon) 58 6.2 Permeability studies on stabilized soils (Nasik) 59 6.3 C .B. R. Test Value @ 5 mm Penetration 61 ***.***
  7. 7. LIST OF FIGURES No. Particulars Page 1.1 Extent of Swelling soils of India 01 1.2 failure of canal lining 02 1.3 Toe failure due to swelling soil 02 1.4 Cracking due to lifting of floor slab or partition wall 03 1.5 Damages to light weight building 03 2.1 Differential free swell test (DFS test) 08 2.2 Load expansion Curve 11 2.3 Typical dehydration curve for B.C. soil 12 2.4 Thermographs of clay minerals 13 2.5 Parameter for different n and CF 19 2.6 Shrinkage index Vs clay fraction 20 3.1 Site map of samples tested 24 3.2 Constant Pressure Method 28 3.3 Constant Volume method 29 3.4 Pressure Vs Volume Change curve 30 4.1 The pier and belled footing 37 4.2 Structural floor system 38 4.3 Flexible waterproof apron 42 5.1 Construction Stages 45 5.2 Measurement of bulb 45 5.3 Details of under-reamed pile 45 5.4 Boring in progress 46 5.5 Pullout of hand auger 46 5.6 Reinforcement details 46 5.7 Standard dimensions 46 **.**
  8. 8. SYNOPSIS In India the expansive soils cover approximately 20 percent of the total land area. These expansive soils are known by various local names such as Black cotton soils or Regur. An attempt has been made to compile information from various text books, technical papers, bulletins and codes of practices. Chapter II describes identification and classification of expansive soils. In addition to simple tests some specialized tests such as Differential thermal analysis (DTA) are discussed. Classification systems suggested by various agencies are also included in this chapter. Chapter III describes the physical and engineering properties of expansive soils. Various theories of swelling, measurement techniques and factors affecting swelling -shrinkage of soils are also described briefly. Chapter IV describes various construction techniques for sub-structures in expansive soils. Remedial measures for damaged structures are also discussed. Chapter V deals with under-reamed pile foundations in details. Various stabilization methods for pavements on expansive soils are discussed in chapter VI, Inorganic additives such as Lime, Cement fly-ash and also organic additives for sub-grade stabilization are discussed in this chapter. Based on the limited review of the available literature on expansive soils, suggestions for further studies are made. ***.***
  9. 9. 1- INTRODUCTION 1.0 The definition of expansive soil may be stated as follows. “Expansive soils are those soils which swell considerably on absorption of water and shrink on removal of water. The expansive soil has considerable strength in dry state, but the strength goes on reducing on absorption of water. The soil exerts considerable pressure on foundations during swelling. 1.1 Expansive soils are found in some regions of India and many other countries. These soils pose major foundation problems, causing damage to the super structure if proper precautions have not been taken. Fig.1.1-Extent of Swelling soils of India The expansive soils, with their expanding lattice structure and resulting capacity for wide ranges in water contents, can be particularly troublesome.
  10. 10. Settlement due to shrinkage and heave due to swelling causes structural instability. This problem is magnified in hydraulic structures. The amount of volume change in expansive soil is related to initial dry density and water content, amount of clay fraction and type of clay minerals. Fig.1.2 shows failure of concrete canal lining due to swelling of soil. Fig.1.2 -failure of canal lining due to swelling of soil Fig.1.3 shows a typical bank failure caused by deep shrinkage cracks at the top of the slope and loss of the strength at the slope toe from expansion under light loading with resulting increased water content. Fig.1.3- Toe failure due to swelling soil
  11. 11. Such heave and stability failures are not limited to hydraulic structures alone. For instance highway pavements and building footings may displace by seasonal or other moisture changes due to desiccation by tree roots. Radhakrishna, S. (41) has suggested that the presence of tree adjacent to a foundation located in clay soil subjects the foundation to undue stresses due absorption of subsoil moisture, resulting in shrinkage of the soil underneath the foundation. Many houses and other lightly buildings have been literally torn apart by sub soil volume changes. Cracking of a wall by uplift of the expanding clay is shown in Fig.1.4. Fig.1.4-Cracking due to lifting of floor slab or partition wall Fig. 1.5 –Damages to light weight building A type of damage common to light weight buildings on shallow continuous foundation is caused by tilting of footings and walls. The tilting is caused by
  12. 12. the clay under the inside edge of the footing gaining moisture and expands while the clay under the exterior edge remains dry and compressed. This tilting is sometimes aided, and sometimes caused by lateral swelling of compartmented clay fill. This tilting of the footing is shown in figure 1.5. 1.2 Soils are originated from rock due physical and chemical disintegration processes and deposited due to wind, ice, gravity and water. The black cotton soils are grouped under tropical black earths of the great soil group of the generic classification. The heavier black soils are called black cotton soils because of their suitability to grow cotton. The black color is variously assigned to the presence of humus, organic iron and aluminum compounds etc. Locally these soils are also known as Ragur soils. These soils cover the Deccan plateau covering entire Maharashtra state, South Gujarat, central and western Madhya Pradesh, Southern part of Andhra and Orissa states. Black soils also occur in a smaller area of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Tamilnadu. In western half of the Deccan plateau the black soils rests on trap or Basalt rock, while in the eastern part these soils rest on granite of gneisses. The Deccan Plateau is an undulating country with hills and dales. Accordingly depending upon the situation along the slopes, the black soils are shallow, medium or deep. They are brown chestnut and black in color, light, medium or heavy in texture respectively. Along the slopes of Ghats , the soils are coarse and gravelly. In the bases of hills and along the river valleys, the black soils are often 20 ft deep. The shallow black soils are light black in color, coarse in texture and often eroded. These are usually of low fertility. The deep and heavy black soils are highly clayey and unworkable during rainy season. The clayey soils in the lower layer do not admit any drainage and hence the very deep black soils are unfit for irrigation. They are workable during monsoon are therefore,
  13. 13. mostly used for rabbi crops only. The medium black soils are only 1.5 to 3 feet deep and are rich in lime and lime nodules. The subsoil and partially disintegrated rock below, allow easy drainage because these medium black soils are highly retentive of moisture and swell during rainy season. In hot weather these shrink heavily and develop numerous cracks which may be several feet deep. With advent of rains, the loose top soil fills up these cracks. Black soils are usually deficient in nitrogen, organic matter and in many places, of phosphoric acid also. These are rich in lime while potash content varies widely. Their clay mineral consists of Montmorillonite type. In general black soils are considered more fertile than any other Indian soils. Owing to the undulating nature of undulating nature of Deccan plateau, the black soils show considerable variation in morphology of their profiles. Topography, rain fall and drainage seem to play an important role in soil formation. In general, black soil profiles possesses approximately all the three horizons, A, B and C. The A horizon can be divided into the darker A-1, rich in organic matter and A-2 which is lighter in color. The deeper black soils are highly clayey and top layer may extend to several feet. The transition from A to B is gradual. The B horizon is alluvial horizon rich in lime. Both calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate are found. The morphology of a typical medium black soil is given below. Table -1.1- Morphology of a typical medium black soil No Depth Description A1 0-30 cm Black, homogeneous, granular, porous, clay loam, low in lime, plenty of cracks in summer. A2 15 - 50 cm Lighter black, homogeneous, granular, less porous, clayey, few lime nodules, cracks
  14. 14. extend to this layer. B 30 - 100 cm Grey black , gradual transition, heterogeneous, slightly cloddy and compact, clayey with plenty of lime nodules C 50 - 100 cm Brownish, sharp transition, heterogeneous, mottled, porous, partially disintegrated rock. In the heavier black soils called Regur, the A and B horizons may extend up to 2-3 m. These are highly clayey and difficult to work. 1.3 The existence of expansive soils and the problems associated with such soils present worldwide is discussed in the next chapter. ***.***
  15. 15. 2-IDENTIFICATION & CLASSIFICATION 2.0 The expansivity or the capacity of a soil to swell depends upon the type, amount of clay minerals and exchangeable bases. There are three major mineral groups viz, Montmorillonite, Illite and Kaolinite. For the identification of expansive soil different field and laboratory method are available. The expansive soils in field can be identified by the cracking pattern of the soil in summer. The laboratory identification tests can be grouped under a) simple tests and b0 specialized tests. The test procedures of these tests are explained below. 2.1 Simple Laboratory Tests 2.1.1 Free swell test: This test is performed by slowly pouring 10 c.c. of oven dry soil passing 425 micron sieve, in a graduated 100 ml cylinder filled with distilled water. The volume of settled and swelled soil is read after 24 hours from the graduations of the cylinder. The percentage of free swell Sf is calculated as, Sf = (Vf-Vi) x 100/Vi % Where Vf and Vi are final and initial volumes respectively. 2.1.2 Shukla, K.P.(ref.1) suggested an alternative method for determining free swell value, which eliminates the probable errors due to initial placement of dry soil in the graduated cylinder. In this method an oven dried soil passing 425 micron sieve is weighed and placed in the sintered funnel. The soil is first allowed to absorb Benzene from the micro pipette attached to the lower end of the funnel. Next it is allowed to absorb distilled water in place of benzene. The difference between the respective volumes are water and benzene absorbed represents the swelling which may be expressed as a percentage of the initial weight of soil. The results obtained are independent
  16. 16. of pore volume because the absorbed benzene measures pore volume and the water measures absorption required to fill the pore volume and cause swelling. 2.1.3 Indian standard code of practice (I.S.2911-Part III, 1973 Appendix A) has modified the free swell test and the modified test is known as Differential free swell test (DFS test). In this method two samples of oven dried soil passing 425 micron sieve and weighing 10 gm each are used. One sample is poured slowly in 50 ml graduated glass cylinder filled with kerosene ( a non-polar liquid). The other sample is poured in another 50 ml graduated cylinder filled with distilled water. Both the cylinders are left for 24 hours and the respective volumes are noted. The DFS is calculated as below. Fig.2.1-Differential free swell test (DFS test) Sf = (Vw-Vk) x 100/Vk % where Vw and Vk are final volumes of Soil in water and kerosene respectively.
  17. 17. The degree of expansiveness of soil and consequent damage to the structure with light loading may be qualitatively judged as described below. Table 2.1- Swelling potential of soil D.F.S. value Degree of expansiveness < 20 % low 20-35 % Moderate 35-50 % High >50 % Very high However the above test cannot be considered realistic as drying may change the soil characteristics considerably. 2.1.4 Colloid content, plasticity index and shrinkage limit The colloid content of soil is fraction finer than 0.001 mm to be determined from sedimentation analysis (Hydrometer or pipette method), and is the most active part of any soil, causing swelling. The expansiveness is proportional to colloid content present in soil. The high plasticity index (PI) is indicative of the capacity of soil to absorb higher amount of water when changing from plastic to liquid state. A low value of shrinkage limit (SL) indicates the soil will start swelling at low water content. Thus all the three Index properties are indicative of potential volume change. United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) has proposed identification criteria as mentioned in table 1.3 below. Table 2.2- Identification criteria by U.S.B.R. 1-Colliod content 2. Plasticity Index (PI) % 3.Shrinkage Limit (SL)% 4-Probable expansion # 5-Degree of Expansion <15 <18 <15 <10 Low
  18. 18. 15 -23 10-16 10-16 10-20 Medium 20- 31 25-41 7-12 20-30 High >28 >35 >11 >30 Very high # Probable expansion represents the percentage of total volume change of soil from dry to saturated condition under a surcharge of 0.07 kg/ (1 psi). Recent studies indicate that the plasticity index of a soil alone can be used to have an assessment of the capability of the soil for swelling accurate enough for practical purposes. 2.1.5. Load Expansion Test The purpose of this test is to measure total volume change from natural or remolded condition to the air dried and saturated conditions respectively. Two identical specimens (undisturbed or remolded) at desired density and water content, are taken in the ring of “fixed ring type consolidometer”. The specimen are allowed to dry in air to at least the shrinkage limit. Volume of one specimen is measured by immersion in mercury. The other specimen is loaded in consolidometer to a pressure intensity equivalent to that due to the anticipated structural load and the specimen is saturated. The change in volume is recorded. 2.1.6 Dehydration Test (Ref. 31) The test consists of recording the percentage loss in weight of clay upon heating to higher and higher temperatures and plotting volume vs temperature. Heating is continued till there is no loss in weight occurs. The position of the flexural point in temperature vs loss of weight curve gives an indication of the type of mineral percent. Ref. fig.2.1.
  19. 19. Fig.2.2-Load expansion Curve 2.2. Specialized Tests 2.2.1 Differential Thermal analysis (DTA): Since the presence of certain clay minerals is important to the engineering analysis of clayey soils, identification of such minerals is necessary to facilitate the engineering test results. When a material, such as soil, is heated chemical reaction take place at different temperatures depending upon characteristics of mineral present. These reactions may be due to structural or phase change or loss of water content during heating process. The chemical reactions may be endothermic or exothermic. 2.2.2 X -Ray Diffraction The absorption, reflection and scattering of electromagnetic radiation may be employed to yield information on the size of particles whose smallest size or spacing is greater than the wave length of radiation. The light rays whose wave length is in the range of 0.3 to 0.9 micron can be used to measure the
  20. 20. size of and spacing of suspended particles with sizes varying from 1 to 10 microns. Fig.2.3-Typical dehydration curve for B.C. soil Since the spacing of atoms in crystalline structure is of the order of 10 A , the diffraction of x-rays with wave length 1 A is employed to determine the inter- atomic distances and rearrangements of atoms in a crystal. The interference patterns which result from the X rays passing through a crystal are photographed, and distances between the resulting lines measured. Calculations based on these distances and angle of incident radiation yield the spacing between successive atomic layers in crystal. With crystalline powders, the various angles already occur in the different orientations of the grains so rotation of the specimen is necessary but may be carried out to improve lines.
  21. 21. When an X ray diffraction pattern is obtained from a powdered mixture of unknown minerals, the constituents of the mixture can be determined from the comparison of the measure distances to various diffraction lines with tables of diffraction data on known minerals. The intensity of lines, while also indicative of the minerals present give a rough indication of the quantity of each constituent in the sample. Information may also be obtained on the thickness of molecular water layers on the particle surfaces. Fig.2.4 –Thermographs of clay minerals 2.3. Classification 2.3.1. The classification given by U.S.B.R. (1942) and U.S. Highway research board (1948) is not suitable for Black cotton soils of India. This soil is used for construction purposes also. Research was done in 1953 (Ref.15) on various soil samples from Deccan plateau. The characteristics of the soils are shown in a table 2.3 below. Table 2.3- characteristics of the B.C. soils Fine sand 3 -10 % Fraction smaller than 200 microns 70-100% Colloid content 40-50%
  22. 22. Liquid Limit 40-100% Plasticity Index 20-60% Shrinkage limit 9-14% Volumetric shrinkage (wet basis) 40-50% Hygroscopic moisture 12-13% Exchangeable Calcium 40-80 m.e./10gm Exchangeable Sodium+ Potassium 2-5 m.e./10gm Base exchange capacity 40-50 m.e./10gm pH 8-9 CaCO3 5-15% SiO3 50-56 % Fe2O3 8-12 % SiO2 / Al2O3 3 to 5% In all 210 soil samples were investigated, out of which some were subjected to chemical tests also. The chemical test results did not show any specific tendency for classification purpose. Systems of classification based on the physical properties were developed. Some of these are given below. 1. Textural classification-Grain size analysis and distribution. 2. Cassagrande‟s classification- Suitability for load carrying capacity. 3. U.S.P.R.A. classification-Based on L.L, P.I., mechanical analysis and group Index. 4. Civil Aeronautics Administration classification-Based of mechanical analysis, P.I., expansivity, C.B.R. and general description of soil based on field examination. 5. Compaction classification (Based on maximum compaction attained by soil.
  23. 23. 6. Burmister classification (Based on grain size classification and distribution. Out of the above six classification systems the U.S.P.R.A. was approved in 1952 by Indian Road Congress. Initially in this system all the different soils were divided in eight groups, ranging from A1 (well graded gravels or sands) to A8 (Peat).It was based on six properties. 1. Particle size distribution.(P.S.D.) 2. Liquid Limit.(L.L.) 3. Plasticity Index.(P.I.) 4. Shrinkage Limit.(S.L.) 5. Field moisture equivalent. 6. Centrifuge moisture equivalent. This system was revised in 1955. The number of groups was reduced from eight to seven, by considering only first three properties i.e. PSD, LL and PI. All black cotton soils of India fall under A-7 group of USPRA classification system. The subgroups are given by group index method. Group Index (GI) = 0.2 a+0.005 ac+ 0.01 bd. Where a= than portion of percentage passing 200 B.S. Sieve (I.S.8), greater than 35 and not exceeding 75 expressed as number (0<a<40). b= than portion of percentage passing 200 B.S. Sieve (I.S.8), greater than 15 and not exceeding 55 expressed as number (0<b<40). c=portion of numerical liquid limit greater than 40% and not exceeding 60, expressed as positive number (0<c<20)
  24. 24. d= portion of numerical Plasticity Index greater than 10% and not exceeding 30, expressed as positive number (0<d<20). Thus Group Index varies between 0 and 28. The soils collected from various states of India were found to have a Group Index of more than 20 which is the upper limit of A-7 group. So the extension of GI is done by fixing higher values of the fraction passing ASTM 200 sieve, L.L. and P.I. This was done by raising the values of a, b, c and d from the following expressions. a= than portion of percentage passing 200 B.S. Sieve (I.S.8), greater than 35 and not exceeding 100 expressed as number (0<a<65). b= than portion of percentage passing 200 B.S. Sieve (I.S.8), greater than 15 and not exceeding 80 expressed as number (0<b<65). c=portion of numerical liquid limit greater than 40% and not exceeding 85, expressed as positive number (0<c<45) d= portion of numerical Plasticity Index greater than 10% and not exceeding 44, expressed as positive number (0<d<34). “a”, “b”, “c”, “d” have the same meaning and thus the new maximum value of GI is 50.The group A-7 was subdivided as below. Group Index GI New Sub-Group Less than 20 A-7 20-30 A-7a 30-40 A-7b 40-50 A-7c
  25. 25. 2.3.2. Bolton Seed et al (1962) tried to classify the soil depending on the swelling potential. Because they found that if the three properties i.e. Plasticity Index (PI), Shrinkage Limit (SL) and clay content are considered at a time, it leads to a contradictory results. So they found a clear out relation between swelling potential and clay content. They arrived at an equation, S = (3.6 x 10-5 )x A2.44 x c3.44 Where S=Swelling potential A= Swell activity= (Plasticity Index)/(Clay fraction) c= % of clay fraction. A set of curves were given for computing S for different values of PI and c. A Table 2.4 gives the classification of swelling soils based on S.P. Table 2.4- classification of swelling soils based on S.P. Degree of expansion Swelling potential % Low 0 to 1.5 Medium 1.5 to 5 High 5 to 25 Very high greater than 25 2.3.3 Ranganathan B.V. and Sally N.B. (1965) suggested a rational method for the prediction of swelling potential. Swelling potential was defined as “the percentage of swell under a surcharge load of 1 psi. of a soil compacted at its optimum moisture content (OMC) to a dry density in standard AASHO compaction test. They also defined swell activity as ratio of (LL-SL)/clay content. Thus,
  26. 26. Swell activity = (S.I. %) / (Clay fraction %) With the help of swell activity they finally found out the relationship between swelling potential and Shrinkage Index, which is as follows, S.P. = (4.57x 10-5 ) (SI) 2.57 x N Where S.P. = swelling potential S.I. = Shrinkage Index (rational index for volume change of clays) N = c3.44 /(c-n) 2.67 Where c= clay fraction n=Intercept on the curve (SI Vs Clay fraction) Ref. Fig.4) it varies from 4 to 22. Values of N can be readily computed for different values of c and n. A set of curves are prepared for c, n and N, from which N could be read out Ref.Fig.2.4.
  27. 27. Fig.2.5-Parameter for different n and clay fraction The authors have given another classification system as shown in Table 2.5 below. Table 2.5 -Classification based on S.I. Classification Shrinkage Index Low 0 -20 Medium 20 -30 High 30 -60 Very High >60 .
  28. 28. Fig.2.6-Shrinkage index Vs clay fraction 2.3.4. E.A. Sorochan (1970) experimentally proved that swelling process is anisotropic. It is a result of textural and structural features as well as of the character of stratification of soils. So a new term “swelling index (π). Swelling index of soil is a ratio of porosities of soil in saturated and natural conditions. Swelling index (π) = E/E0 where E is porosity of swollen soil and E0 is porosity of natural soil. The swelling index (π) does not depend upon the type of structure, method of testing, kind of wetting liquid etc. It is, on the other hand a liner relationship with magnitude of relative expansion of soil. Table 2.6 -Swelling Index and P.I. Plasticity Number (P.I.)
  29. 29. 15-19.9 20-24.9 25-29.9 30-34.9 35-39.9 Type of soil swelling index (π) Non-Swelling 1.12 1.11 1.09 1.08 1.07 Slightly Swelling 1.12- 1.23 1.11- 1.21 1.09-1.19 1.08-1.17 1.07-1.15 Medium Swelling 1.23- 1.39 1.21- 1.30 1.19-1.28 1.17-1.25 1.15-1.22 Highly Swelling 1.39 1.30 1.28 1.25 1.22 ***.***
  30. 30. 3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF EXPANSIVE SOILS 3.1 Introduction: Experimental and theoretical studies on swelling soils have been going on since last century, in different parts of the world as the damages caused by these soils were catastrophic. In these studies it was found that swelling pressure plays an important role. There are number of properties of swelling soil which are responsible for swelling. A degree of expansion is more or less related to shrinkage index, plasticity index colloid content. The available literature on properties of expansive soils is presented in brief. 3.2 Theories of swelling: It is common observation that when swelling soil comes in contact with water, the volume of soil increases. This phenomenon is swelling. Many theories on swelling of expansive soils have been proposed by various research workers. Gupta et al (Ref.10) in his report “Physico- chemical properties of expansive soils” has summarized various theories. According to Canoy Chapmon‟s theory of double layer, the swelling should completely at large concentration of electrolytes. It has however observed from laboratory experiments that there is always a residual swelling; however large concentration of electrolytes is used. The theory of double layer as applied to behavior of soils is derived from the analogy colloid taken in membrane surrounded by an electrolyte. In this case mid-plane between soil particles is imagined to function as membrane. Such an assumption is not fully justified as soil is the mass of gel in which particles are in contact with each other having their double layers overlapping in a complicated manner and thus mid-plane cannot be precisely defined. Further there is hydration of ions as well as clay particles on account of which the hydrostatic repulsive forces are not wholly balanced by attractive forces as a result of introduction of electrolytes.
  31. 31. The suction potential theory of Schcefield, also does not account for the entire swelling as it is observed that there is residual swelling even if soil suction is nil. There is further intake of moisture until the hydration of ions and soil particles is complete and particles of soil have reoriented with respect to forces which keep them together, viz the confining pressures and the attraction between clay particles. Both these concepts viz the theory of double layer depending entirely on physical chemical properties and suction potential based on capillary only, do not take into consideration the effect of elastic properties in relation to external forces. Terzaghi, K. has advanced hid concept of swelling based on elastic properties of soils. According to him, the swelling is wholly due to elastic properties of soils, the physic-chemical properties of soil do not play any role in the swelling phenomenon. This is true for two reasons. Firstly, the surface behavior of charged particles leading to Base Exchange and absorption of water molecules as dipoles, have profound influence on swelling. Secondly the interlayer spaces in which water molecules are retained influence swelling. The application of pressure brings the particles closer expelling pore water. Increase of pressure expels more water that has been absorbed. The process goes on till the inter particle spacing has been reduced to a distance of approximately 20A. At this stage all the water between particles is tightly held and the extraction of inter particle water by inter granular pressure alone is thus impossible though there might be isolated areas of mineral to mineral contact where water has been completely eliminated. Also the inter layer water which is responsible for swelling to a large degree is not removed by mechanical means. It is thus evident that for any theory to explain swelling phenomenon in soils completely, it should take into account the physic-chemical affects due
  32. 32. hydration of exchangeable ions and that of clay particles, the soil suction and elastic behavior of soils in relation to external forces. Further research of the subject should aim at combining the three concepts to obtain a more rational theory of swelling phenomenon. 3.3 Physical and engineering properties of black cotton soils varies from place to place. Out of various research papers available on this subject few papers contains properties of local soil. A compilation of various properties of black cotton soils, if made, will be very useful to engineers and research workers. Katti, R.K. and others (ref.21) collected soil samples from 16 different locations and conducted detailed laboratory investigations and have given physical and engineering properties of Black cotton soils a tabular form. The same table is reproduced here. The various locations are indicated in the soil map. Table 3.1-Locations of 16 soil samples S1-Solapur 2 S2-Poona1 Fig. 3.1 –Site map of samples tested S3- Siddheshwar S4-Nasik S5-Nagpur S6-Solapur 1 S7-Yeldhari S8-Amraoti S9-Baroda S10-Bezwada S11- Wadgaon1 S12-Wadgaon2 S13- Poona2 S14-Calcium Bentonite S15-Sodium Bentonite S16-Powai – Mumbai
  33. 33. Table 3.2- Notations used in tables L.L % Liquid Limit S.G. Specific Gravity P.I.% Plasticity Index Clay -5 Fraction < 5 μ S.L. % Shrinkage Limit Clay -1 Fraction < 1 μ S.R. Shrinkage ratio .. Density -SP Max. dry density as per light compaction OMC-SP Optimum moisture content as per light compaction Density-MP Max. dry density as per heavy compaction OMC-MP Optimum moisture content as per heavy compaction Sw.Pr. Swelling pressure pH Acidity/ Alkalinity Org. Mat. Organic material CO3 Carbonate contents B.E.C. -400 Base Exchange capacity for particles smaller than 400 μ B.E.C. -2 Base Exchange capacity for particles smaller than 2 μ SiO2 % Silica Content Al2O3 % Alumina content CaO % Calcium hydroxide MgO % Magnesium hydroxide FeO3 % Ferric Oxide TiO3 % Titanium Oxide SO3 % Sulphur oxide
  34. 34. LOI % Loss on ignition Table 3.3- Properties of Black cotton soils Property Sample No. (See legend in Fig. 11 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 L.L % 69.2 67.2 70.3 72.3 59.2 65.7 68.0 81.0 P.I.% 27.3 18.3 28.4 24.6 15.9 25.0 21.8 34.0 S.L. % 12.4 8.2 13.5 7.4 10.3 11.9 14.1 10.0 S.R. 2.07 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.1 S.G. 2.74 2.72 2.71 2.7 2.7 2.67 2.72 2.72 Gravel % 21.0 0.0 3.0 2.4 8.5 3.0 3.5 0.0 Sand% 18.0 17.5 21.0 16.6 12.5 18.0 10.0 13.5 Silt % 28.2 48.5 34.5 32.5 28.2 26.5 32.5 32.5 Clay -5 32.8 39.0 41.5 48.5 50.8 52.5 54.0 54.0 Clay -1 - - - - - - - - IS classi- fication M.H. M.H. M.H. M.H. M.H. M.H. M.H. M.H. .. Table 3.4- Properties of Black cotton soils Property Sample No. (See legend in Fig. 11 S9 S10 S11 S12 S12 S14 S15 S16 L.L % 56.5 91.8 52.9 73.3 67.0 300.0 325.0 65.0 P.I.% 30.5 53.5 21.3 31.6 18.0 250.0 265.0 44.0 S.L. % 8.2 9.8 17.8 12.7 8.0 - - 20.0 S.R. 2.2 2.2 1.8 1.9 2.1 - - - S.G. 2.73 2.81 2.79 2.76 2.8 - - 2.9 Gravel % 0.0 1.5 4.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Sand% 17.0 20.5 26.0 12.0 15.2 0.0 0.0 28.0 Silt % 27.0 17.2 18.0 25.0 15.8 0.0 0.0 27.1 Clay -5 56.0 60.8 62.0 68.0 69.5 0.0 0.0 11.2 Clay -1 - - - - 42.5 100.0 100.0 27.2 IS classi- fication MH MH MH MH MH - - CH .. Table 3.5- Properties of Black cotton soils
  35. 35. Property Sample No. (See legend in Fig. 11 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 Density -SP 1.40 1.33 1.46 1.42 1.57 1.43 1.46 1.33 OMC-SP 29.5 29.4 28.0 29.5 23.0 28.5 29.2 33.0 Density-MP 1.67 1.66 1.63 1.68 1.80 1.63 1.64 1.43 OMC-MP 23.0 24.0 24.5 20.0 17.0 20.0 22.0 24.5 Sw.Pr. - 3.9 - - 0.95 3.0 - - pH 8.75 8.45 8.9 8.5 8.2 8.5 8.7 7.4 Org.Mat. 0.55 1.42 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.8 0.8 0.6 CO3 2.42 6.65 4.4 3.3 0.5 2.6 1.9 0.2 B.E.C. -400 57.6 60.0 57.9 65.3 51.1 59.1 58.5 72.4 B.E.C. -2 109.2 - 84.4 124.6 99.4 111.0 160.6 132.4 SiO2 % 49.3 50.3 45.6 47.1 58.1 48.6 47.7 53.2 Al2O3 % 13.7 21.9 14.5 16.7 15.6 13.8 15.5 15.7 CaO % 6.9 8.0 7.4 6.2 2.7 7.2 4.4 2.8 MgO % 4.8 4.4 4.1 3.2 2.5 5.0 3.7 2.7 FeO3 % 14.8 1.4 12.6 12.6 10.3 13.4 15.1 14.0 TiO3 % 1.9 0.3 2.0 1.5 1.3 2.2 2.4 2.0 SO3 % 1.6 - 1.1 1.9 1.8 2.0 1.4 1.2 LOI % 16.5 13.6 13.9 13.0 8.6 4.8 10.7 9.2 .. Table 3.6- Properties of Black cotton soils Property Sample No. (See legend in Fig. 11 S9 S10 S11 S12 S13 S14 S15 S16 Density -SP 1.57 1.41 1.52 1.40 1.33 0.0 0.0 1.29 OMC-SP 24.5 30.4 26.0 30.0 29.4 - - 36.0 Density-MP 1.84 1.63 - 1.59 - - - 1.61 OMC-MP 19.6 28.5 - 25.0 - - - 30.5 Sw.Pr. 0.95 - - - - - - pH 8.5 8.8 6.7 7.5 8.5 - - - Org.Mat. 0.6 0.4 3.6 1.0 1.4 - - - CO3 0.2 0.4 - 0.3 6.7 - - - B.E.C. -400 38.2 47.4 - 70.8 57.0 - - 44.5 B.E.C. -2 83.2 97.8 69.4 110.8 108.0 - 140.0 - SiO2 % 61.3 57.0 48.3 47.5 50.3 - - 42.5 Al2O3 % 13.6 17.5 22.0 17.8 21.9 - - 21.2 CaO % 2.7 1.6 1.0 4.5 8.0 - - 0.62 MgO % 1.8 2.6 1.9 3.9 4.4 - - 1.51 FeO3 % 11.3 10.3 7.5 13.7 1.5 - - 9.45 TiO3 % 2.0 1.1 1.0 1.3 0.3 - - 0.52 SO3 % 0.9 1.3 0.01 1.2 - - - - LOI % 9.4 8.2 - 8.8 13.7 - - -
  36. 36. 3.3.1 Measurement of swelling pressures: When an expansive soil attracts and accumulates water, a pressure known as swelling or expansion pressure builds up in the soil and it is exerted on the overlying material and structure if there are any. Swelling pressure is defined as “If a swelling substance is tightly enclosed in a vessel with a wall permeable to a swelling solvent and latter is allowed to diffuse into the vessel, the dilation tendency of the soil solvent gel give rise to a pressure called “Swelling pressure”. The two commonly used methods for measurement of swelling pressure are, 1Constant Volume method or Constant Pressure method 3.3.2 Constant Volume method: In this the soil is mixed with appropriate quantity of water. After maturing period the soil is placed in a mould. The bulk density and water content of the specimen is determined by standard methods. The specimen is covered with porous stones and filter paper. The entire mould in placed in a water trough under loading machine with proving ring and dial gauge to measure force and swelling of soil. The expansion of soil specimen is nullified by applying force gradually and proving ring reading is recorded at different time intervals till there is no further swelling of soil.
  37. 37. Fig.3.2 -Constant Pressure Method Pressure intensity is calculated from proving ring reading and specimen area. A pressure Vs time graph is plotted. The maximum pressure intensity gives the swelling pressure of soil for a specific dry density and water content. Fig.3.3 -Constant Volume method 3.3. Constant Pressure Method: In this method minimum three identical soil specimen are subjected to three different load intensities and allowed to saturate and swell or consolidate. The load intensities are so selected that soil swells under lowest load intensity and consolidate under maximum load intensity. After the equilibrium is achieved the changes in the volume of specimen are recorded. A graph between load intensity as abscissa and volume change as ordinate. The load intensity at which volume change is zero is called swelling pressure.
  38. 38. Fig.3.4 –Pressure Vs Volume Change curve 3.4 Factors affecting the magnitude of swelling pressure: The swelling pressure of an expansive soil is not unique but it is influenced by number of factors such as initial density and water content, method of compaction, confining pressure and specimen size etc. Murthy, VNS and Chari R. (Ref. 22) studied these factors affecting the swelling pressure of expansive soil. 3.4.1 Initial water content: Swelling being basically processes of absorption of water, the initial water content represents the state of initial swelling. A soil with lower water content is expected to swell more than soil with higher water content. The lowest water content at site during a dry season may be taken as datum for the purpose of field computation. 3.4.2 Density of soil sample: For constant moisture content, the soil density has a definite effect on swell pressure. This is mainly due to the grater scope for building up of absorbed film around each of clay particles. Uppal and Palit (ref 38) have shown that as dry density increases the swell pressure also increases. The have found that at low density up to 15 kN/m3 the swell pressure is very small but as the degree of compaction increased beyond this value there is abrupt rise in swelling pressure.
  39. 39. 3.4.3 Time of saturation: The process of swelling is gradual because soil takes time for the water to penetrate into soil layers and cause expansion cumulatively. Therefore time allowed for expansion is an important factor. The affinity for absorption being great in soils with low moisture content, initial rate increases the swell pressure in those soils is greater than those soils with higher water content. It can thus be anticipated that soils with lower moisture will have a very percentage of swell even during initial contact with water. Initial rate of increase of swell pressure is lesser in soils with higher densities. This may be the effect of lower permeability of the soil and is also of great significance in practice. 3.4.4 Free expansion permitted: Swell pressure is a consequence of the restraint on the free swelling. Any expansion allowed result in a reduction of swelling pressure. An expansion of 0.025 mm is said to reduce the swell pressure by as much as 5 KN/sqm. Two identical samples were tested using proving rings of different stiffness. A proving ring with lesser stiffness undergoes large deformation. A soil has thus a definite free expansion before developing the full swell pressure. The swell pressure under any building foundation will be equal to the foundation pressure. The difference between the possible maximum swell pressure and foundation pressure results in an expansion and consequent vertical movement of the structure. 3.4.5 Sample height: Some tests were conducted by Uppal and Palit (Ref.32) to study the effect of height of sample on swelling pressure. The process of swelling is result of building absorbed water films. Given sufficient time such action will take place over the entire depth of clay stratum. The quantitative swell and swelling pressure should be a cumulative effect. The swelling pressure is observed to vary directly with the height and inversely with the diameter of the specimen. However if the skin friction is eliminated
  40. 40. the swelling pressure is found to be independent of the size of the test specimen. 3.5 Field measurement of swelling pressure: The problem of safe and economic design of foundations in expansive soil has been engaging the attention of geotechnical engineers all over the world. The problem which has proved most difficult is that of a single storied building on heaving clay because of light foundation pressures. In India many housing schemes are located in areas made up of expansive clay. Therefore the problem needs to be studied in detail. Results of laboratory measurement of swelling pressure of black cotton soils and failures of few buildings made it clear that it would be useful to conduct some field measurement of swelling pressure and compare it with laboratory investigations. 3.5.1 Swelling pressure determination in field: The general soil profile in the chosen area consists of 2.2 to 2.5 m. of B.C. soil as top layer underlain by 2.5 m brownish yellow sticky clay resting on soft morrum which extend below to a fairly great depth. Field Set-up for swelling pressure measurement: At test site bore holes 15 cm diameter and 5 to 6 m depths were sunk with the help of power augers. In each bore hole a reinforcement cage was lowered and concreting was done. The concrete piles protruded 1 m above ground level. The threaded portion of reinforcement was 15 cm above the pile head. A steel plate was attached to the pile for uniform load distribution. Steel I section was fixed to a pair of piles which were free from vertical movements due to swelling of soil. Plates 75 cm to 25 cm diameter were placed at a depth 30 cm to measure swelling force exerted by soil, using proving ring attached to I section.
  41. 41. 3.6. Lateral swelling pressure: The phenomenon of lateral swelling of expansive soil is well known. Many structures crack due to lateral swelling pressures. Kassif at el (ref.15) measured lateral swelling pressures on two instrumented underground conduits buried in swelling soil. The strain gauges were fixed along the longitudinal direction of conduits. The field data was compared with theoretical data. Komornik et el (Ref.20) developed a special device for laboratory evaluation of lateral swelling pressure by modifying the mould of consolidometer to which strain gauges were attached. The modified apparatus was also useful to measure earth pressure at rest. ***.***
  42. 42. 4 CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES 4.1 Expansive soils always pose various problems to foundation engineers. Almost all cohesive soils have expansive property from insignificant to highly significant. Expansive soils are found in various parts of the world such as USA, South Africa, Australia, Spain, Israel, Myanmar and India. In India these expansive soils are known by local names such as Black Cotton soils (BC) in central India, Bentonite in Rajasthan and Kashmir, Mar or Kabar in Uttar Pradesh. These soils occupy about 30 to 40 % of the land area of India. 4.2 The problems posed by expansive soils of India can be summarized as below, 4.2.1 Deep excavation for foundation: BC soils are residual soils resulting from weathering of Igneous rock (Basalt). The thickness of soil stratum can be high as 3 to 10 m. laying the foundation on a firm non-swelling stratum involves deep excavation in stiff clay and increases the cost of construction. 4.2.2 Assumption of low bearing capacity: The correct estimation of allowable bearing capacity of BC soils is complicated by various factors such as swelling pressure, ground water table variations, site conditions etc. This leads to assumption of lower bearing capacity. But if the probable swelling is higher than the assumed bearing capacity, the foundations are subjected differential settlements. Cracking of single storied buildings is very common than that of double storied buildings. 4.2.3 Non uniform swelling or shrinkage: The equilibrium water content is not same below the foundation. This leads to differential settlements and diagonal cracking of masonry superstructure.
  43. 43. 4.2.4 High cost and low reliability of rehabilitation: Remedial measures for damaged structure are costly and not reliable in long term. Hence prevention is better than cure. 4.3 Construction techniques for foundations in expansive soils: 4.3.1 Removal of entire expansive soil: The first and very simple method is to remove the entire layer of expansive soil up to firm and non-expansive stratum. 4.3.2 Other practice is to provide a cushioning layer between bottom of foundation and top of soil. The cushioning layer is granular soil to allow the swelling of soil to penetrate in its voids. Laboratory tests have shown that if an expansive soil is permitted to expand by slight amount, the swelling pressure is reduced by considerable amount. This method is suitable if the thickness of swelling soil stratum is less than 2 m. Dawson (ref.7) conducted study of foundations on expansive soil, permitted to swell laterally by providing honeycomb tiles. Reiner (Ref.42) presented an economical type of foundation. As per his method the foundation pit was covered by a thin layer of lean concrete covered with a layer of bitumen. The lean concrete layer cracks and bitumen enters into the cracks and provides a cushion. Boardman (Ref.3, 4) proposed a method in which brick walls are reinforced and building is divided into separate units allowing open joints. But this method is suitable for sites at which seasonal changes in water content of ground are not much. Date (ref.18) adopted an inverted T beam and pile foundation system. It was assumed that during dry season loads would be transferred to piles and in wet season the swelling pressures would be resisted by inverted T beams.
  44. 44. 4.3.6 A raft or mat is a combined footing that covers the entire area beneath the structure and supports all the walls and columns. This type is used when the allowable soil pressure is low and building loads are heavy. The raft is also used when where soil mass contains compressible layers which may lead differential settlements. The raft or mat tends to bridge over the erratic deposits and eliminates the differential settlement. It is also used to reduce settlement above highly compressible soils by making the weight of the structure and raft approximately equal to the weight of the soil excavated. 4.3.7 Sorochan E.A. (35) Suggested the use of compensating sand cushions in case of continuous footing for comparatively stiff structures. The working principle of a compensating cushion consists in a controlled pressure rise on the foundation role at the soil swelling location under the foundation. This leads to the formation of compacted core in the cushion, which aids to the flowing of sand from the foundation base. The possibility of such a flowing depends on the different pressures produced by the foundation and by the side backfill material and transmitted to the cushion surface. Nevertheless, a rise of foundation cannot be excluded in this case. The efficiency of cushion action can be evaluated by the magnitude of the “Compensation coefficient” compensation coefficient K being the ratio of the actual foundation rise to the possible magnitude of the soil swelling. 4.3.8 The pier and belled footing cast in a drilled and under-remed hole is in reality a cast in place pile with an enlarged base. If the clay is dry or below the shrinkage limit when the pier is cast, it will subsequently swell both laterally and vertically and exert pressure against the sides of the pier and uplift along the pier. This uplift force along the surface of the pier is limited by friction along the pier surface, by the shear strength of the clay, and by the expansive force of the clay. Without precautions for reducing the friction between clay and concrete of the pier, it is probable that the shear strength
  45. 45. of the clay will be the governing factor. The uplift pressure is greatest near the top of the pier where the clay expands most. In some cases, uplift has been sufficient to pull the pier in two at the top of bell. Ref. Fig.4.1 Fig.4.1 - The pier and belled footing It is believed that the following criteria can be used for the design of successful foundations of cast in place pier and belled footing units. (a) Use as high contact pressure as is consistent with carrying capacity of the soil. (b) Use bell 3 times diameter of pier for maximum anchor. (c) Use smallest pier compatible with load and bell size in order to keep surface area minimum. (d) Extend reinforcement into bell to within 4” of bottom in order to anchor pier to bell. Sometime the oversize hole is drilled to the entire depth and the bell is formed at the bottom of the oversize hole. The bell is filled with concrete to extend a slight distance in to the pier above the bell and the casing for the pier is pushed a short distance into the fresh concrete in order to prevent concrete from rising into the space around the outside of the casing. When using this procedure, care should be exercised to see that the casing is not
  46. 46. let into the hole before the concrete has been placed in the bell otherwise a shaft may be cast with no footing. 4.3.9 The grade beams or plinth beams cast in contact with desiccated clay are sometimes broken be uplift pressure of expanding clay. Even if the grade beams were reinforced to resist this pressure, the uplift on the supports may cause as much damage as if the beam were allowed to break Provision should be made for a void under grade beams into witch the clay can expand without exerting uplift pressure. The use of collapsible card board beam boxes is much more practical and sure method of preventing uplift under grade beams. These cardboard boxes are shipped flat and are folded to form a hollow box of the proper dimensions for the purpose. The cardboard is treated to prevent immediate disintegration and to remain strong enough to support runways for concrete buggies long enough, for concrete to be placed and harden. These cardboard beam boxes are produced commercially in Kansas and Texas. 4.3.10 Several methods have been devised for casting the structural floor system on forms that lie directly on the clay and disintegrate after a short period leaving a space for expansion of the clay. Fig.4.2 - Structural floor system One method for forming the slab which has been sued experimentally is to loosen the clay to a depth of 30 to 50 cm. and to form the loose soil in
  47. 47. windrows to make a form for Joists. In order for this method to be successful, the depth of the loosened clay must be adjusted to existing conditions. The volume decrease of the loosened soil must be equal to or greater that the volume increase of the undisturbed clay below the loosened material. This method cannot be considered reliable, as during construction of the loose fill, the soil may be compacted unfit is will itself swell as much as or more than, the undisturbed soil. This method consists of excavation deeply enough to form the area solid with baled hay or straw laid end to end and side by side. These bales are covered with roofing felt or sisal craft. The depressions between the bales are forms for joists. The hay or straw is sprayed with ammonium nitrate to accelerate disintegration of the straw. But the hay increases the fire hazard and makes the construction site look like a feed lot. The aesthetic value of rotting hay under the floor is questionable. An effective method of providing void spaces under slab and beams into which the clay can expand without producing uplift pressure is by the use of water proof cardboard forms of sufficient strength to support the fresh concrete and which later disintegrates. The cardboard forms are shipped flat and are folder into shape during installation. But when the basement floor is formed and cast before the basement walls are erected, the collapsible forms are exposed to the weather during construction of floor, and the banks of the excavation are susceptible to sloughing or sliding into the excavation, which weakens the exposed cardboard forms during rainy season and collapse. Sometimes a card board form is placed under the basement wall. Under a heavy load, this method is ineffective because the beam box may be crushed by the weight of fresh concrete. Another arrangement known as slab on sonotube forms may be used. In this method split sonotube are laid side by side to provide forms for joist
  48. 48. below the bottom of the concrete joists. The bottom of space between the two halves is filled with sand about 7 to 8 cm deep. The joist steel and concrete are placed to form a reinforced concrete floor slab supported on grade or plinth beams After a short time, the sonotubes disintegrate, the sand runs out from under the joists, and a void is formed into which the clay can swell without exerting pressure on the bottom of the slab. 4.3.11 The most common and best suited of all is the under-reamed pile foundation. This method is discussed in detail in the next chapter. 4.4.0 There are problems posed to the old buildings which are standing. The techniques or the remedial measures used for the prevention and further developments of cracks are discussed below. 4.4.1 A. K. (9) and Subash Chandra suggests a simple method for the prevention recurrent in small buildings founded on Black Cotton Soil, directed at keeping the moisture content in soil immediately under and around the building as constant as possible so as to minimize the ground movement. Vertical sand drains connected by channels are placed about 2m. on centers all around the effected building. Waste water from the building was allowed to flow into them. A line concrete apron laid on polythene membrane may be added between the walls of the building and the sand drains to retard loss of moisture by evaporation as much as possible. 4.4.2 Ward, W.H. (40) studied the effect of fast growing trees and shrubs on shallow foundation. According to him, in summer the trees absorb large quantities of water from the clay under footing which then shrinks appreciably and lets down the structure which is incapable of resisting the settlement. The shrinkage one reaches as far as the most remote root which generally extends distance greater than the height of the tree. (1) So the fast growing trees should not be planted near the foundation.
  49. 49. (2) The footing is placed sufficiently deep in a zone not affected by soil moisture movements and (3) The structure may have shallow foundation but be made strong enough to resist cracking. 4.4.3 Rao N.V.R.L.N., and Krishnamurthy (29) suggested a method on the same principle that, “the moisture content under the foundation and around the building should remain constant as far as possible. They put forward the idea of soak way pits, at proper spacing so that water drains quickly and the soil surrounding the building remains dry. The soak way pits are filled with materials like sand and gravel, and a concrete apron around the building is suggested. 4.4.4 Jaspar J.L. and Shetenko V. W. (18) suggested the foundation anchor piles in clay shale. Earth dams and appurtenant structures in the Prairie Provinces are often constructed on clay shale foundation. Concrete structures such as spillways may be damaged due to swelling of foundation or to differential movements. Various protective devices have been installed to reduce and control the amount of swelling and differential heave beneath structures. Hold-down piles have been used, which were mainly reinforced concrete with bottom flared out. This type which could take little strain often became ineffective either through breakage or slippage. To overcome this problem, anchor piles were designed to stretch a certain extent without failure of the shale. It was not intended that this type of pile would eliminate swelling but that would reduce the rate and amount of swelling or differential movement. 4.4.5 A flexible waterproof apron, of about 2m. width provided at a depth of about 90 cm. forms a suitable remedial measure for cracked buildings. The best time for providing an apron is at the end of monsoons. The soil should be neither too dry nor too wet. It should be dug out around the building up
  50. 50. to a depth of about 50 cm. The surface is them dressed and given an outward slope of 1 in 30. Over this surface a flexible apron which may accommodate ground movement s without rupture is laid. It can be a 10 cm. lime concrete layer over which a tar felt is laid. In place of tar-felt and alkathene sheet 0.25 mm. thick can be used. Care should be taken that no mechanical damage is caused to the water proof membrane. Alternatively a bituminous concrete layer of about 75 mm. thickness can be adopted in place of lime concrete and alkathene sheet. The apron should go about 75 mm. into the foundation wall by cutting a chase so that no room is left for evaporation or saturation from the joint. The width of apron is kept 2m. A typical section of the apron treatment is shown in figure 4.3 Fig.4.3- A flexible waterproof apron After the apron is laid the soil should be back filled and properly dressed to give an outward slope of 1 in 30. It will serve to protect the apron against damage.
  51. 51. It has been observe that the underground flexible aprons around buildings arrest further cracking. After two cycles of seasons the cracks becomes stable and no further damage is generally noticed. ***.***
  52. 52. 5-UNDER-REAMED PILE FOUNDATIONS 5.1 Introduction: The best method of foundations in expansive soils is foundation which is anchored in the stable zone of the ground, in which the moisture variations are negligible. This was observed from the performance of cast-in-situ piles with enlarged bases. Such piles were successfully installed in South Africa and Israel. CBRI Roorkee realized the importance of such piles and undertook a research project to develop a simple procedure for manually operated hand augured piles. More than 5000 piles were constructed and tested in various parts of India and based on the practical experience CBRI Roorkee published and published a manual on under- reamed piles and gave design tables for various diameters of augured piles. Subsequently Bureau of Indian Standards published a code of practice I.S.2911 part 3. The code describes the various parts such as pile, grade beams and reinforcement details. The code also includes a design formula for working out load carrying capacity of a single on multi-reamed piles. The code also includes the equipment required for such construction. A method of load test on piles is also included. 5.2 Limitations of UR piles: There are many limitations to construction of under-reamed piles and are discussed below; Needs strict supervision: Unless there is strict supervision by expert, the whole purpose of this technique is lost. The check points as listed below. Exact location-Insist use of guide on ground for proper location and inclination of pile. Proper length of pile- The top bulb must be in the stable. Checking of bulb diameter- Use L bar to check the bulb diameter Spacing between two bulbs- Adequate spacing is must to avoid collapse of side wall of bore.
  53. 53. Concreting – Use PVC pipe during poring of concrete of desired slump. No vibrator is to be used. Use heavy tamping rods. Piles should be randomly selected for load test. 5.3 The different design and construction steps are illustrated through Fig. 5,1 to 5.7 below Fig.5.1 - Construction Stages Fig. 5.2 –Measurement of bulb . Fig.5.3- Details of under-reamed pile
  54. 54. Fig.5.4 –Boring in progress Fig.5.5 –Pullout of hand auger Fig.5.6 –Reinforcement details Fig.5.7 –Standard dimensions ***.***
  55. 55. 6 STABILISATION OF EXPANSIVE SOILS 6.0 Introduction: Stabilization in a broad sense incorporates the various methods employed for modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance. Stabilization is being used for a variety of engineering works, the most common application being in the construction roads and foundation purposes, where the main objective is to increase the strength, improve the stability of soil mass and to reduce the construction cost. With this in mind studies were conducted by Katti (21) and others to evaluate the effect of inorganic chemical on various properties of black cotton soils. 6.1 Effect of inorganic chemicals on the consistency properties. For this study they selected soils S-2, S-4, S-5, S-6, S-9, S-9, S-10 and S-11 i.e. from Poona, Nasik, Nagpur, Sholapur, Baroda, Bezawada, Wadagaon sites. The chemicals used for treating some or all the soils were hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Ba and Fe, carbonates of Na, Mg and Ba; cement, sodium silicate, Di-ammonium phosphate, suplhates of Na and Cu, phosphates of Mg and Ca and potassium dichromate. The percentage of chemicals used varied between 0 to 10 percent based on the over dry weight of the soil. 6.1.1 Hydroxides :The variation in the consistency properties of the soils treated with hydroxides, of potassium, sodium and calcium is represented in fig. In case of all soils other than S-4, the addition of KOH varying from 1.5 to 7 percent has made the soil non-plastic. S-4 shows disruptive effect. KOH goes on reducing the liquid limit and plasticity index. 0.75 to 3 percent, the shrinkage limit value significantly increased indication that volume change tendency has been considerably decreased. The shrinkage limits go as high as 40 in some cases from initial value of around 8 to 10. The increase in Plasticity Index at small percentage may be due to the dispersion effect. The dispersive action of NaOH with small addition is evident. The L.L. of nearly all the soils increases up to about 1 to 1.5% and in the same range the P.L. decrease
  56. 56. and P.I. increases. Larger addition invariably causes lowering of L.L., increase in P.L. and decrease in P.I. At small percentage of NaOH decrease in S.L. is observed. However beyond about 0.75% the S.L. value nearly always increase with increasing additive. These results indicate that while at low percentages of NaOH these is a tendency for dispersion to take place, further addition results in less of plasticity and increase in S.L. The addition of Ca(OH)2 beyond about 1% distinctly goes on reducing the L.L. and P.I. and increasing P.L. These results indicate that all the soils become non-plastic beyond 1.5%, except S-10 soil. The shrinkage limit value continuously increase with the addition Ca(OH)2. Mg(OH)2 does not seem to have appreciable effect on the consistency properties of any of the soils. 6.1.2 Chlorides: CaCl2, BaCL2 and MgCl2, do not have much effect on the P.L. and S. L. of the soil. However, there is decrease in L.L. values and decrease in P.L. value. It may be noted that while in case of Ca(OH)2 there is an increase in P.L. and S. L. with the additive, these values more or less remains constant in ease of calcium chlorides. This effect may be due to the fact that the chlorides are more alkaline than the corresponding hydroxides. With the addition FeCl3, the L.L. value show a tendency to decrease and P.L. values more or less constant. It was possible to determine S.L. only in case of S-9, S-10, S-11 soils and these did not show significant change. In other soils, it was not possible to determine S.L. values. It was observed that the addition of FeCl3 beyond L percent makes the soil mass porous like bread. This may be due to the formation of HCL which on reaction with the carbonates present on the soil evolves CO2. the escape of the gas gives rise to the porous structure. Chemical test confirmed that CO2 was liberated during the processes. It may be noted that S-9, S-10, and S-11 soils contain less than 0.5% carbonates which the other contain even up to 6.65%.
  57. 57. KCI and NaCL were tried only on S-2 soil, These chemicals increase the S.L. values to a great extent while L.L. and P. L. values decrease. KCI seems to be more effective than NaCL. 6.1.3 Carbonates :MgCo3 increases the L.L. and P.L. values while BaCo3 does not show any marked effect. The S. L. values tend to increase. Na2Co3 was used with S-2,S-4,S-5, and S-6 soils. All carbonates may be said to produce dispersion and cause increase in plasticity. 6.1.4 Cement :It can be noted that cement has a similar effect as Ca(OH)2 but to a lesser degree. This may be due to the lesser amount of free lime available from cement. It may be noted that even with 10 per cent of cement, the soils do not become non-plastic. The S.L. values however, considerably increase with the addition of cement. 6.1.5 Na2Sio3 :Sodium silicate increase the L.L. and P.I. for all the soils and make them highly plastic. This may be attributed to the disperse effect. The S.L. values seem to increase with the additive. 6.1.6 Di-ammonium Phosphate: This chemical was tried on soils S-2, S-4, S- 5 and S-6 and its effect is found to be similar to that of FeCl3. the S.L. Values could not be determined since the soil turned porous due to the evolution of NH3. 6.1.7 Other Chemicals: Na2SO4, CuSO4, K2Cr2O7, Ca3(PO4)2 and Mg3 (PO4)2 were tried only on S-2 soil. In general Na2SO4 shows an increase in L.L. and P.I. due to the dispersion. Variation in P.L. and S. L. were not significant CaSO4 and MgSO4 behave more like dispersing agent K2Cr2O7 decreases, L.L., P.L. and P.I. and S.L. is increased. 6.2 Effect of aging on consistency: The amount of complex compound formed due to the reaction between soil and chemical is dependent upon (i) The amount of chemicals (ii) pH of the soil (iii) The amount of time allowed for the reaction. The chemicals used are hydroxides of Na, K, Mg and Ca, chlorides of Ba, Ca and Mg, Carbonates of Na, Ba, and Mg and cement. The chemical used in various percentages between 0 and 7.
  58. 58. Free water is essential for reaction to take place between soil and the chemical added. 6.2.1 Hydroxides: Plasticity characteristics of the soil are arranged by the addition of hydroxides at zero aging period. The L.L. value of the chemically treated soil show an increasing trend upto 3% of NaOH, 0.5% of KOH, 0.1% of Ca(OH)2. The L.L. values at the above percentages fro NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2. are 147,84.8, and 87.7% compared to the value of 81% for raw soil. The initial increase is more predominant in case of NaOH, due to its highly dispersive nature. These effects are also reflected in the variation of P.I. NaOH increases the P.I. from 35% to 85% at 3% additive and decreases to 15.5 percent at 7 per cent additive. The hydroxides in general improve the shrinkage properties of soils at zero aging period. With aging L.L. tend to decrease with all hydroxides while the P.L. remains constant or show a tendency to decrease. For instance it may be noted that from fig. that L.L. values with 0.5 percent of NaOH at 0, 48 and 96 hours aging are 101.5, 85.0, and 80.3 per cent respectively while the P.L. values at the same percentages at the corresponding curing period are 56.7, 47.0 and 47.0 This decrease in L.L. may be due to the formation of complex cementing gel produced due to the reaction between chemical and the soil constituents. The amount of this cementing gel formed depends upon the amount of chemical added and time allowed for the reaction and pH of the system. With more chemical and more time, more quantity of the gel like cementation material would be formed. The S.L. values increase with aging beyond 1.5% of NaOH, while the values reduce with aging when Ca(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2 are added. 6.2.2 Chlorides: S-8 soil i.e. the soil from Amravati shows the same behavior with chlorides at the aging period as other soils described earlier, showing decrease in L.L. with the addition of chemicals and a negligible effect on P.I. and S.L. values. With aging chlorides decrease the L.L. and the P.I. The P.L. values show a slightly decreasing trend although in the case of CaCl2, there seems to be an increasing value beyond 72 hours. This may be due to the gel formation.
  59. 59. Fig. shows the effect of aging of CaCl2 on consistency properties. It may be noted that at 1% additive the L.L. values at 0, 48 and 96 hours are 76.8,72.6 and 71.0 respectively and the corresponding P.L. values are 34.7, 31.7, 31.7 and 34.9. 6.2.3 Carbonates: The zero hour L.L. and P.I. values of the soil sample increase with the addition fo carbonates , the effect being more pronounced with Na2Co3 , S.L. is unaffected by carbonates. With aging there is a definite decreasing trend in L.L. and P.I., the change being predominant at higher percentages. This may be attributed to the formation of gel like cementing. The values of L.L. at 0.5 percent Na2Co3 at 0,48 and 72 hours are 89.2, 79.0 and 77.0 percent and P.I. values are 48.9, 37.6 and 35.3 at the corresponding curing period respectively. 6.2.4 Sodium Silicate: (Na2Sio3) – Sodium Silicate produces high dispersion and increase in L.L. and P.I., S. L. remaining nearly constant. With aging all consistency limits shows a tendency to decrease. At 0.5% additive the L.L. reduces from 85 to 77.7% and P.I. from 50.4% to 41/8 when cured for 96 hours. This behavior is the same as for the other chemicals. Cement: - The addition of cement brings about changes similar to those of Ca(OH)2, both with aging and amount. 6.3. Bearing Characteristics: A study was conducted on S-2 soil i.e. from Poona treated with KOH, NaOH, Ca(OH)2, cement and Na2Co3, to get an idea about the bearing characteristics used for this study was 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 3.0, and 7.0 percent of the oven dry weight of the soil. C.B.R. test at standard proctor density with surcharge on soaked samples were conducted. The No. of days soaking was 4 days. The test results are presented in table. From the data it may be noted that beyond 1 percent KOH, NaOH, Ca(OH)2 and cement appreciably increase the C.B.R. values.
  60. 60. The increase in C.B.R. values is an indication that the complex cementations gel which are formed have cementing property even under highly wet condition. This is an important factor with respect to the stability of the soil-chemical system under field condition. Further studies on expansive soils subjected to drying and rewetting is needed, because it is expected after drying the gel may attain a condition of insolubility. Na2CO3 does not seem to have much effect on C.B. R. Values. 6.4 Permeability characteristics: Permeability being one of the important factor to be considered in the design and construction of Civil Engineering works, it is intended to study the effect of inorganic chemicals on the permeability characteristics of three black cotton soils, viz. S-2, S-4, and S-12 i.e., from Poona, Nasik and Wadagaon. The chemicals selected for the study are hydroxides of Na, K, and Ca chlorides of K, Na, Ca and Mg and carbonates of K, Na, Ca, Ba and Mg and were used in proportions of 0.1, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 10.0 percent on the basis of even dried weight of soil. The procedure for mixing was the same as in consistency studies. The mixtures were compacted to field densities of 1.330, 1.225, 1.253gm/cc. For S-2, S-4 and S-12 soils respectively in Jodhpur pattern moulds by static compaction. The samples were then saturated under vacuum for 36 hours prior to conduction the permeability test by the falling head method. The experiments were run in duplicate. The values obtained were erratic during the first few hours but attained fairly constant values at the end of 10 hours and the values are recorded at the end of 12 hours. The data collected in the case of soils S-4 and S-12 is presented in tables. 6.4.1 Hydroxides: NaOH when added up to about 2-3 percent in all the three soils bring down the permeability values to less than that obtained for the bank soil. Beyond this percentages, the permeability values increase continuously up to about 10 percent, the increase being very rapid beyond 5 percent. The values in units of 10-7 cm/sec. for S-2 soil at 0.1.3 and 10 percent additives at 3.2, 0.5, 1.4, 869.4 respectively while corresponding values for S-4 and S-12 soils are 9.6 and 4.8, 1.6 and 2.6,8.0 and 36.1 and 3140 and 1685 respectively. The decrease in permeability at the lower percentages may be due to the dispersion effect of NaOH.
  61. 61. At higher percentages, aggregation effect seems to set in, leading the higher value of permeability. KOH shows the similar trend to that of NaOH. However, the dispersive action is noticed over a much smaller range (0.1 to 0.25 percent ) ain this care and the rate of increase is much higher at larger percentages. The values show a decreasing trend beyond 7 percent, in all the soils. This trend can be observed from the tables. The permeability values increase as high as 15, 450 x 10-7, 21275 x 10-7 and 17,300 x 10-7 cm/sec at 7 percent in soils S-2 S-4 and S-12 which are about 2000 to 5000 times their original values. The dispersion and aggregation effect due to K ion are similar to Na ion. It has already been noted while discussion the consistency properties of the soils, that KOH is more effective in causing aggregation effect due to the proper co-ordination number and ionic radius of the K ion. Moreover KOH is stronger alkali than NaOH and therefore the permeability values obtained much higher than NaOH. When the percentage, however, is increased more than 7 percent, the mineral breaks up into their constituents in the highly alkaline environment and complex compound that are formed block the horse, thus causing decrease in the values of the permeability. Ca(OH)2 was used with soils S-2 and S-4 Even at 0.1 percent level, there is significant increase in the coefficient of permeability. The coefficient of permeability goes on increasing with the addition of chemical and reaches a value of 304.6 x 10- 7 cm.sec. in case of soil S-2 at 7 percent and 711.5 x 10-7 cm/sec. in case of S-4 soil at 5 percent. Beyond these percentages the permeability values tend to decrease. 6.4.2 Chlorides: NaCL and KCL are not much effective on account of their lower alkalinity, as the corresponding hydroxides in changing the permeability characteristics. The values obtained up to 1.5 percent addition are erratic, beyond which aggregation occurs and permeability increases. However, even at as high percentage as 10, there is no evidence of the formation and subsequent removal of the humates, possibly due to the pH not rising adequately to initiate the reaction
  62. 62. with the humus of the soil. With 10 percent of NaCL, the permeability value of the S-2, S-4, and S-12 soils are 14.8, 45.2 and 30.1 x 10-7cm/sem., while with the same amount of KCL, the values are 68.1, 1775.0 and 988 x 10-7cm/sec. respectively. The continuous increase of permeability up to 10 percent NaCL in the case of S-12 Soil, show that the aggregation continuous to occur even up to that percentage and this may be due to the clay content of the soil being the highest of all the three soils used. CaCL2 behaves in a very much similar way as Ca(OH)2 increasing the permeability values at all percentage, permeability as high as 65.0 x 10-7cm/sec. at 7 percent in the case of S-2 Soil, 1150 x 10-7 cm/sec Percent in the case of S-4 Soil, 988 x 10-7 cm/sec. at 10 percent in the case of S-12 Soil are obtained. MgCl2 was tried on S-2 and S-4 soils and was found to be not much effective; the permeability values obtained being less than those for blank soils. At higher percentage, however, the values increase. 6.4.3 Carbonates: Na2Co3 being a highly dispersing agent, decreases the value of the permeability even at low percentage. Further addition of additive does not appreciably alter the values. K2Co3 and CaCo3 were tried on S-2 and S-4 soils. K2Co3 being a comparatively stronger alkali than Na2 Co3, permeability value decreases initially up to about 2 to 3 percent, due to the dispersion and beyond this the values increase due to the removal of humus. The values obtained at higher percentage are in between those of KCL and KOH. CaCo3 reduces the permeability up to 1.5 percent, where after the values continuously increase up to 10 percent. For instance in the case of S-4 soil, the permeability at 1.5 per cent is 2.6 x 10-7cm/sec. which rises to 34.8 x 10-7cm/sec. at 10 percent. The chemical has low order of solubility and dissociation and hence at low percentages, the fine particle of the un-dissociated chemicals, plug the pores into the soil sample, thereby lowering the permeability values. At higher
  63. 63. percentages enough calcium ion released to cause not effect of aggregation resulting in higher values of permeability, inspire of the unassociated chemicals continuing to plug the pores. BaCo3 and MgCo3 did not show any consistent trend with the soils probably to the simultaneous action of both aggregation and plugging the pores process. It is evident from the previous investigation that certain inorganic chemical are effective in significantly changing the textural and permeability of black cotton soils. Some of these chemicals are soluble and some are insoluble. 6.5 Use of Lime-Cement and Combination of Lime and Cement: The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the unconfined compressive strength, bearing capacity, shear strength, flexural strength and durability characteristics of black cotton soil samples treated with lime and cement. Lime used is this investigation was a calcium hydroxide of technical grade and the cement was a normal Portland cement. 6.5.1 The studies conducted by Katti on lime alone on soils. S-1 to S-12 i.e. from Sholapur, Poona, Sidheswar, Nasik, Nagpur, Sholapur, Veldhari, Amravati, Baroda, Wadagaon, sites. It may be seen that 7 day compressive strength in all cases, are less than 300 psi. However in most soils, 28 days compressive strength of over 300 psi can be obtained. These large increases in strength with time may be attributed to the long term pozzolanic reaction taking place in the soil mixes. 6.5.2 In general soil- Cement mixes show increase in strength with increasing amount of cement. There are several mixes in all soil, containing less than 15 per cent total admixture which give 7 day strengths as high as 500 to 600 psi. Normally 6 to 12% of total admixtures is found to be sufficient to give more than 300 psi after 7 day curing, the amount of lime content in combination may vary between 2 to 4 percent and cement 4 to 10 percent. These observations show that the presence of lime has changed the texture of the soil giving rides to reduction in surface area and making the mixes behaves like silty or sandy soils.
  64. 64. It may be noted that the strength of soil-lime-cement mixes is due to the combined effect of aggregation, hydration and posssilanic reactions. 6.5.3 The soil samples used for the investigation of bearing characteristic are S-2 and S-8 i.e. from Poona and Amravati. The addition of increasing amounts, of lime cement or combination of lime and cement show a variation of bearing characteristics almost similar to that observed for unconfined compressive strength. 6.5.4 Effect of lime and Cement on Strength characteristics Lime and cement added together generally resulted in comparatively large improvement in strength characteristics. An optimum lime content varying between 6 to 8% gives for a given amount of cement .The maximum cohesion, internal friction and initial tangent modulus values. Cohesion values of over 100 psi. Are obtained for almost all the mixes containing more than 20 per cent total admixture, while the values of angle of internal friction are of the order of 200 to 300 and initial tangent modulus are over 30 kips per sq. in for most of the mixes. 6.5.5 Effect of lime and cement on flexural characteristics of soils : The soil sample use in the investigation was S-2 soil. The raw soil did not have any flexural strength, the addition of lime and of cement enhanced Mr and Est value, where Mr is the modulus of rupture and Est is the modulus of elasticity of rupture. The addition of 4 to 6 per cent of lime, the Mr and Est value have increased to 71 and 128000 psi respectively. Further addition of lime have not been useful Effect of cement are however smaller combination of lime and cement have given Mr values of up to even 100 psi. In general with increasing amounts of cement for constant lime contents, there is increase in strength and the strengths of combinations of admixtures are not a superposition of the strengths of two components added separately. 6.5.6 As soil-lime and soil-lime-cement mixes are anticipate to be used for base and sub-base construction with a wearing coat in top, the mixes are subjected
  65. 65. to wetting and drying tests, as per ASTM procedure, for volume change measurements. 6.5.7 Both increasing moisture content and aging period cause reduction in density and increase in O.M.C. However with increasing amount oaf lime for zero aging period, there is increase in density upto certain amount of lime added and decrease thereafter. For other aging period with the addition of lime up to a certain amount the density rapidly decrease. Further addition of lime would not bring about any greater reduction in density. The alteration in density due to the addition of various percentages of cement to the different soil-lime mixtures does not show any definite trend. 6.5.8 Field Test on Soils with Lime and Cement: It can be observed from the laboratory investigation that combination of lime and cement were promising in improving the plasticity, unconfined compressive strength, shearing strength and flexural properties. It was there-fore decided to try a few of these mixes in the field as a base coarse material under the various weather and sugared moisture condition to evaluate the performance of soil-lime- cement mix, and to compare the strength obtained with similar mixes under laboratory controlled condition. The unconfined compressive strength studies on laboratory and field cured specimen indicate that about 48 to 60 percent of the laboratory strength can be attained in the field. C.B.R. values for laboratory cured samples exceeded beyond 200 for the mixes tried even after 20 day mixing. The field studies indicate that even under the severe weather conditions, the soil-lime cement base courses may stand fairly well. 6.6 Stabilization of soils with Aniline and furfural: Early stabilization studied indicated that artificial resins were a mean for accomplishing a practical stabilization with satisfactory results. The most effective of these artificial resins is the resin formed by the reacting on two parts of anticline to one part of the furfural.
  66. 66. Aniline and furfural are two liquid organic chemicals that polymerize on contact to form a resign know as aniline furfural resin. Aniline reacts with baldheads to from a group of compounds that are known as „Schiff‟ bases. 6.7 Use of Molasses for stabilization: Molasses which is a byproduct from sugar factory in area close to the factory it is available cheap. Some of the laboratory experiments have shown that the soil can be successfully stabilized with molasses. Molasses is a mixture of Glucose (C6H12O6) and Sucrose (C12H22O12). Also small quantities of inorganic salts and organic compounds are present.
  67. 67. Table No. 6.1- Variation of Permeability of S-12 soil, with the addition of various Inorganic Chemicals. Chemic al Chemical in Percent of oven dry weight of soil 0. 1 0.2 5 0.5 0.7 5 1.0 1.5 2 3 5 7 10 K expressed in unit of 10-7 cm/Sec. NaCH 6. 6 6.0 1.4 1.7 2.6 4.2 4.9 36.1 379. 0 415. 0 1685. 0 KOH 4. 8 3.8 8.1 9.9 17. 3 74. 5 284. 0 609 0 1168 0 1730 0 1145 0 NACl 7. 4 8.0 8.4 8.2 8.7 9.5 13.4 16.9 20.8 24.7 30.1 KCl 7. 0 12. 3 9.7 12. 8 21. 4 36. 8 60.5 80.5 159. 0 368. 0 988.0 CaCl2 9. 5 10. 0 16. 8 23. 4 29. 0 60. 6 231. 0 247. 0 282. 0 410. 0 497.0 Na2CO2 2. 9 3.6 3.9 2.6 0.9 1.3 1.3 0.8 1.9 2.0 1.9 Permeability of blank soil was 4.8 x 10-7 cm/Sec.
  68. 68. Table No. 6.2-Variation of Permeability of S-4 Soil with the addition of various inorganicChemicals expressed in units of 10-7 cm/Sec. Chemical Chemical in Percent of oven dry weight 0.1 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 5 7 10 NaOH 6.1 9.7 3.1 1.7 1.6 3.3 7.7 8.0 50.9 328 314 0 KOH 6.3 8.4 12.5 8.3 22.4 27.6 66.5 2380. 12520 21725 15167 Ca(OH)2 19.7 21.7 30.8 75.0 119.5 272 306.5 343.0 711.5 489.5 589.5 NaCl 12.9 15.6 16.1 13.7 9.8 5.6 15.8 41.3 34.6 41.7 45.2 KCl 14.2 10.4 14.0 17.3 29.7 63.7 89.3 151.0 297.0 628.0 1775.0 CaCl2 18.3 25.2 34.7 40.3 4.845.5 63.4 308.0 322.0 304. 890.0 1150.0 MgCl2 3.4 3.4 5.4 4.5 4.8 5.7 10.3 42.6 79.2 0398.0 761.5 Na2CO3 5.1 5.8 2.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.9 1.9 K2CO3 3.3 2.2 1.6 1.2 1.8 2.3 8.9 51.5 666.5 973.0 2179. 0 CaCo3 2.5 2.8 5.0 2.5 2.9 2.6 6.7 7.5 11.1 21.9 34.8 MgCO3 5 5.2 7.8 7.2 8.5 13.9 36.3 22.3 20.5 11.5 6.1 BaCO3 1.1 7.5 6.9 6.9 7.6 7.5 7.4 10.0 22.8 11.4 5.7 Permeability of Blank soil was 9.6 x 10-7 cm/Sec.
  69. 69. Table No 6.3-C .B. R. Test Value @ 5 mm Penetration Chemical Chemical Percent 0.0 0.1 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.0 3.0 7.0 KOH 3.84 3.72 4.66 4.22 5.19 3.90 16.46 26.18 NaOH 3.84 4.50 3.99 3.87 3.86 4.28 21.44 23.59 Ca(OH)2 3.84 4.54 3.84 4.86 5.90 8.38 47.20 83.18 Cement 3.84 4.23 4.13 4.59 4.67 5.64 11.39 42.33 Na2CO3 3.84 4.78 3.33 3.27 4.07 4.11 5.16 6.31 ***.*** .
  70. 70. 7-CONCLUSIONS An attempt has been made to review and edit the vast literature available on the subject of expansive soils, so as to elucidate the present status of knowledge on the subject. Though there are number of identification methods and techniques, classifications systems of expansive soils are only few. None of the classification system takes into account the percentage of clay minerals. The literature on engineering properties is scanty and gives properties of some local soils only. A systematic soil survey of expansive soils should be undertaken. The procedure for measurement of swelling pressure needs standardization taking into consideration of various factors affecting it. There is much scope for effect of swelling on retaining structures. Each of the construction technique described in the chapter 4, has its own limitations. Under-reamed pile foundations described in detail in chapter 5 but the other foundation techniques are becoming important. There is a scope to develop some simple techniques for low cost houses. Stabilization methods using inorganic and organic additives are described in chapter 6, but more practical methods need to be developed. Our sincere efforts to include maximum available information had certain limitations such as non-availability of references and time limit to complete the project work. ***.***
  71. 71. 8-BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Alam Singh (1965),”Soil Mechanics in Theory and Practice”, Asia Publishing House, New Delhi. 2. Bolton Seed et el (1962) Jr. of SM&FE Proc. ASCE June 1962 3. Boardman, V.R.(1956),”Reinforcement of brick walls to reduce cracking “NBRI, South Africa bulletin No.14,March 1956. 4. Boardman, V.R.(1956),”Thee point support of brick building to prevent cracking”, NBRI, South Africa bulletin No.16,May 1956. 5. Buildings digest No.91, “Remedial measures for cracked buildings in expansive soil area” C.B.R.I. Roorkee. 6. Buildings digest No.56, “Remedial measures for cracked buildings in expansive soil area” C.B.R.I. Roorkee. 7. Dawson, R.F.(1952),”The vertical movement of house No.1 on honeycombed foundations ”,Proc. South-west conference on Tropical housing and buildings”, April 1952. 8. Date, K.R. (1950), Bore-hole piles and inverted T beam foundations in expansive soils, Indian Concrete Jr., 1950. 9. Deb, A.K. et el (1963),”Remedial measures for the prevention of recurrent cracking in small buildings founded on B.C. soil. Indian Concrete Journal, May 1963. 10. Gupta, S.N. (19xx), Physico-chemical properties of expansive clays in relation to their engineering properties”, 3rd Asian Regional conference. 11. Grim, R.E. (1953),”Clay Mineralogy”, Pub. McGraw Hill Book Company New York 1953. 12. Holtz, W.G. and Gibbs, H.J.(1956),”Engineering properties of expansive clays”, Trans. ASCE, Vol. 121, 1956. 13. I.S.2911 Part 3, (1973), “Under-reamed pile foundations”, 1973. 14. “Review of Expansive soils” (1974),Jr. of Geotechnical Div. ASCE, Vol. 100, June 1974. 15. Journal of Indian Road Congress, A suggested soil classification of B.C. Soils of India”, Vol.18, 1953-54.
  72. 72. 16. Journal of Indian Road Congress, Vol.19, 1954-55. 17. Journal of Institution of Engineers (I),(1964),”Foundation failure caused by adjoining tree roots”, Vol.45, 1964. 18. Jaspar, et el (1969),”Foundation anchor piles in clay shells”, Canadian Geotechnical journal, Vol.6. 1969. 19. Kassiff G and Zeiflan J.G. (1961),”Lateral swelling pressures on conduits from expansive clay backfill”, Highway research board. . 40th Annual meeting, Special Bulletin No. 313. 20. Komornik A. and Zaitlan J.G. (1965),”Measurement of lateral swelling pressure”, 6th International conference, Part 1. 21. Katti, R.K. et el “Report on research on B.C. Soils with and without inorganic additives”, IIT Mumbai. 22. Murthy VNS , et el “Swell and swell pressures in clays”. 23. Myaer and Habib (1957), “Swelling of soil under large industrialbuildings”, 4th Int. Conf. SMFE, Vol.1. 24. Satyanarayana N. and Shah, C.C. “Physical properties of soils”. 25. Purcher, I.V. and Manna R.E.”Soil mechanics and foundations”, Marril Publishing company. 26. Proc. of Institution of Civil engineers (1954) “Foundation failure due to clay shrinkage caused by popular trees”. 27. Proc. of Institution of Civil engineers (1957), Vol. 8, 1957. 28. Ranganathan et el (1965), Proc. of 8th Int. conf. on SMFE Canada. 29. Rao, NVR et el “Damage to building in Salwood area on expansive soils”, I.M.E. Pune 30. Raymond Dawson, “Movement of small houses erected on expansive soils”, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on S.M.F.E., Vol.1. 31. Scot R.F. “Principles of soil mechanics”, Addison-Wesley pub. co. London. 32. Sorochan E.A. Journal of Indian Nat. society of SMFE, Vol. 9, No.3, July 1970. 33. Sorochan E.A. Journal of Indian Nat. society of SMFE, Vol. 9.No.2, April 1970. 34. Holtz W.G.”Soil as engineering material”. 35. School of Military Engineering, “Field measurement of swelling pressure on B.C. soil”, Proc. 2nd Asian Regional conference.
  73. 73. 36. Summer school on SM&FE, Dept of Civil Eng. Jabalpur. 37. Terzaghi, K. (1931), “Influence of elasticity and permeability on swelling of two phases system ,Colloid chemistry, Vol. 3,pp 65-68. 38. Uppal M.L. (1959),” A study of factors influencing the swelling pressures of clays”, Jr. of IRC, Vol. 24, Dec. 1959, pp 543-555. 39. Vaze K.V. “Prachin Hindi Shilpashastra (Marathi book), Pune. 40. Ward W.N.”Effect of fast growing trees and shrubs on shallow foundations”, Jr. of Inst. of Eng. London. ***.***
  74. 74. VITA Name E-Mail Mobile No Guide – Dr. A.S. Nene 9404082547 1. Er. Sunil Khankhoje 9822576672 2. Er. A.M. Patankar 3. Er. D.M. Mukewar