Andhra PradeshFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Andhra Pradesh آن دھرا پ ردی ش — State — Lepakshi Nandi (bull) - Historical Landmark of the State Seal
Location of Andhra Pradesh in India Map of Andhra Pradesh Coordinates (Hyderabad): 17.366°N 78.476°ECoordinates: 17.366°N 78.476°E Country India Established 1 November 1956 (55 years ago) Capital Hyderabad Largest city Hyderabad Districts 23 totalGovernment – Body Government of India,Government of Andhra
Pradesh – Governor E. S. L. Narasimhan – N. Kiran Kumar Reddy (INC) Chief Minister – Legislature Bicameral (294 + 90 seats) – Deputy Chief Damodar Raja Narasimha Minister – High Court Andhra Pradesh High Court Area† – Total 275,045 km2 (106,195.5 sq mi) Area rank 4th Population (2011) – Total 84,655,533 – Rank 5th – Density 307.8/km2 (797.2/sq mi) Time zone IST (UTC+05:30) ISO 3166 code IN-AP HDI 0.572 (medium) HDI rank 20th (2005) Literacy 67.77% (2011) Official Telugu, Urdu language Website ap.gov.inAndhra Pradesh (Telugu: , Urdu: [ ,آن دھرا پ ردی شaːndʱrə prədeːʃ] ( listen)), is oneof the 28 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of India. It is Indias fourth largeststate by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city by populationisHyderabad.The total GDP of Andhra Pradesh is $100 billion and is ranked third among allstates in India. The State has the second-longest coastline of 972 km (604 mi) among all theStates in India. The primary official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu and Urdu is thesecondary official language in some places, while other languages spoken in Andhra Pradeshare Hindi, Marathi, Tamil, Kannada, Oriya. 10281 persons declare English as their first languagein Andhra Pradesh according to the 2001 census.Andhra Pradesh lies between 12°41 and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40E longitude, and isbordered by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Orissa in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the
East, Tamil Nadu to the south and Karnataka to the west. Andhra Pradesh is historically calledthe "Rice Bowl of India". More than 77% of its crop is rice; Andhra Pradesh produced17,796,000 tonnes of rice in 2006. Two major rivers, the Godavari and theKrishna, run acrossthe state. The small enclave (30 square kilometres (12 sq mi)) ofYanam, a district of Puducherry,lies in the Godavari Delta in the northeast of the state.On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganization Act formed Andhra Pradesh by mergingTelugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad State and the already existing Andhra State . Contents [hide]1 Early History2 Early modern history3 Geography and climate4 Demographics o 4.1 Religions5 Economy o 5.1 Information technology and other key sectors6 Administration7 Tourism o 7.1 Religious Tourism 7.1.1 Other temples and piligrimage sites in Andhra Pradesh8 Culture o 8.1 Cuisine o 8.2 Dance o 8.3 Literature o 8.4 Cinema o 8.5 Music9 Sports10 Education and Research11 Transport o 11.1 By road o 11.2 By rail o 11.3 By air
o 11.4 By sea12 Newspapers and journals o 12.1 In Telugu o 12.2 In Urdu o 12.3 Newspapers from other states13 See also14 References15 External linksEarly HistoryMain article: History of Andhra PradeshKondaveeduKakatiya sculpture atWarangalA pillar at Ahobilamtemple in Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh
Rock-cut Lord --Buddha-- Statue at Bojjanakonda nearAnakapalle,VisakhapatnamAn Andhra tribe was mentioned in the Sanskrit epics such asAitareya Brahmana (800 BCE)and Mahabharata (400 BCE).The Natya Shastra written by Bharatha (1st century BCE) alsomentions the Andhra people. The roots of the Telugu languagehave been seen on inscriptionsfound near the Guntur districtand from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the 5thcentury CE.Megasthenes, a Greek traveller and geographer who visited the Court of ChandraguptaMaurya (322–297 BCE), mentioned that the region had three fortified towns and an army of100,000 infantry, 200 cavalry, and 1,000 elephants. Buddhist books reveal that Andhrasestablished their huts or tents near the Godavari River at that time.Inscriptional evidence shows that there was an early kingdom incoastal Andhra (Guntur District)ruled first by Kuberaka and then by his son Varun, with Pratipalapura (Bhattiprolu) as thecapital. Around the same time, Dhanyakatakam/Dharanikota (present dayAmaravati) appears tohave been an important place, which was visited by Gautama Buddha. According to theancient Tibetanscholar Taranatha: "On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year followinghis enlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of TheGlorious Lunar Mansions (Kalachakra)".Literary evidence shows that long before Satavahanas, a legendary king named AndhraVishnu ruled in and around theDiviseema region of Andhra Pradesh. After his reign, peoplecame to believe that he had an amsa of the divine savior Lord Maha Vishnu himself. Perhaps inhis honor, people dedicated a new temple now located at Srikaku?am, Krishna District. The lordof the temple is known as Andhra Vi?h?u or Srikaku?andhra Vi?h?u. The Mauryans extendedtheir rule over Andhra in the 4th century BC. With the fall of the Maurya Empire in the 3rdcentury BC, the Satavahanas became independent. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220CE, the Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Rashtrakutas, Vishnukundinas, EasternChalukyas, and Cholas ruled the land.During this period, Telugu emerged as a popular language,supplanting Prakrit and Sanskrit. Telugu was made the official language bythe Vishnukundina kings (5th and 6th centuries), who ruled from their capital city of Vengi.Eastern Chalukyas ruled for a long period after the decline of Vishnukundinas; their capital wasalso Vengi. As early as the 1st century CE, Chalukyas were mentioned as being vassals andchieftains under the Satavahanas and later under the Ikshvakus. The Chalukya ruler RajarajaNarendra ruled Rajahmundry around 1022 CE.
The battle of Palnadu (1182) resulted in the weakening of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty and ledto the emergence of the Kakatiya dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The Kakatiyas wereat first vassals of the Rashtrakutas, and ruled over a small territory near Warangal. Eventually allthe Telugu lands were united by the Kakatiyas. In 1323 CE, Delhi Sultan Ghiyath al-DinTughluq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country and capturedWarangal. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner. Musunuri Nayaks recaptured Warangal fromthe Delhi Sultanate in 1326 CE and ruled for fifty years.State language Telugu ( )State symbol Poorna kumbham ( ) Maa Telugu Thalliki ( )State song by Sri Sankarambadi SundaraachariState animal Black Buck ( )State bird Indian Roller ( )State tree Neem ( )State sport Kabaddi ( )State dance Kuchipudi ( )State flower Water lily ( )Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the greatest empires in the history ofAndhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officersof the Kakatiyas of Warangal. In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the BahmaniSultanate, was established in south Indiaby Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the
Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about twohundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century.Although Hyderabad was founded less than 500 years ago, archaeologists have unearthed IronAge sites near the city that could date back to 500 BC. Approximately over 1000 years ago thisregion was ruled by Kakatiyas until 1310 AD, and fell under Delhi sultanate from (1310–1345),when the central sultanate became weak the Bahmani Sultan revolted against the Sultan of DelhiMuhammad bin Tughluq and established an independent state in Deccan within the DelhiSultanates southern provinces and ruled until 1518 AD. Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, governor ofgolconda, declared Independence from Bahmani Dynasty, and announced himself a sultan ofgolconda in the year 1518 AD, and founded the Qutb Shahi dynasty.Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a fifth Sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty (the ruling family of theGolconda Sultanate, previously a feudatory of Bahmani sultanate that declared independence in1512) founded the city of Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591 to relieve awater shortage the dynasty had experienced at its old headquarters at Golconda city(11kilometers west of Hyderabad city on the other side of Musi). He also ordered the construction ofthe Charminar. The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb captured kingdom of Golconda including thecity of Hyderabad in 1687 and, during this short Mughal rule, Mughal-appointed governors ofthe city soon gained autonomy.In 1724, Asaf Jah I, who was granted the title Nizam-ul-Mulk ("Governor of the country") by theMughal emperor, defeated a rival official to establish control over kingdom of Golcondarenamed it as Hyderabad state. Thus began the Asaf Jahi dynasty that ruled Hyderabad Stateuntil a year after Indias independence from Britain. Asaf Jahs successors ruled as the Nizams ofHyderabad. The rule of the seven Nizams saw the growth of Hyderabad city both culturally andeconomically. Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the kingdom (Hyderabad state) andGolkonda city was almost abandoned. Huge reservoirs, like the Nizam Sagar, Tungabhadra,Osman Sagar, and Himayat Sagar, were built. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also begunduring this time; the actual work was completed by the Government of India in 1969. The wealthand grandeur of the Nizams is demonstrated by the fabled Jewels of The Nizams, which is atourist attraction. The state was the richest and the largest among the princely states of India. Theland area of the state was 90,543 mi²; its population in 1901 was 50,073,759. It enjoyed anestimated revenue of £90,029,000.
Charminar at HyderabadEarly modern historyVizag skylineSee also: Andhra State, Vishalandhra Movement, and Telangana RebellionIn Colonial India, Northern Circars became part of the BritishMadras Presidency. Eventually thisregion emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad ceded fiveterritories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseemaregion. The Nizams retainedcontrol of the interior provinces as theprincely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule inreturn for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight againstthe erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation ofHyderabad State. Meanwhile,the French occupied Yanam, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control)would hold it until 1954. India became independentfrom the United Kingdom in 1947. TheNizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but thepeople of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad wasforcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948.
In an effort to gain an independent state based on the linguistic and protect the interests of theAndhra (Telugu-speaking) people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted until death in 1952.After his death, Andhra attained statehood on 1 November 1953, with Kurnool as its capital.On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganization Act merged the Telugu-speaking areas of theformer Hyderabad state with the Telugu-speaking areas of the former Madras state to form thestate of Vishalandhra, which is named as Andhra Pradesh. The city of Hyderabad, the formercapital of the Hyderabad State, was made the capital of the new state.There were several movements to disintegrate Andhra Pradesh into two states viz. Andhraand Telengana in the late 1960 which are continuing till date.On 9 December 2009, it was announced that a separation proposal for Telangana would beintroduced to the state assembly. Controversy arose as to the future status of Hyderabad City,part of one of the ten districts of Telangana region. This move was opposed by protesters fromKosta and Rayalaseema regions. On 23 December 2009, the government decided to put thedecision of bifurcating the state on hold until a consensus is achieved among the differentpolitical parties.This agitated supporters of a separate Telangana state. On 5 January 2010, the CentralGovernment represented by Home Minister P Chidambaram conducted a meeting by inviting allthe recognised political parties of AP and recorded their stand on the issue. The Government ofIndia appointed a committee, headed by B. N. Srikrishna, to guide the central government tosettle the issue of Telangana amicably. The committee submitted its report on 30 December2010, a day before its term was to expire.Geography and climateThe Mouth of the Godavari River (East) emptying into the Bay of Bengal
Greater Flamingoes(Phoenicopterus roseus) taking off Pocharam lakeAerial view ofVisakhapatnam portEthipothala FallsGeographically, Andhra Pradesh is composed of most of the eastern half of theDeccanplateau and the plains to the east of the Eastern Ghats. Andhra Pradesh is divided into threeregions. The northern part of the plateau is theTelangana region and the southern part is knownas Rayalaseema. These two regions are separated by the River Krishna. The third regionis Coastal Andhra. The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. TheEastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The KadapaBasin formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral rich area. The coastalplains are for the most part delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penner rivers.The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the states geography. The Ghats become morepronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. The Eastern Ghat region is hometo dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to theDeccan Plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. Most of the coastal plains are put tointense agricultural use. The west and southwest parts of Andhra Pradesh have semi-aridconditions.
Indian Space Research Organisations Satish Dhawan Space Centre is located at the BarrierIsland ofSriharikota, in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh.The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region.Monsoons play a major role in determining the climate of the state. Summers last from March toJune. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state,with temperature ranging between 20 °C and 41 °C.July to September is the seasons for tropical rains in Andhra Pradesh. The state receives heavyrainfall from Southwest Monsoon during these months. About one third of the total rainfall inAndhra Pradesh is brought by the Northeast Monsoon. October and November see low-pressuresystems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the NortheastMonsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. November, December,January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a longcoastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 °C to30 °C.Hyderabad is the capital and, along with the adjoining twin city Secunderabad, is the largest cityin the state.Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradeshs main seaport, is the second largest city and ishome to the Indian Navys Eastern Naval Command. Due to its location and proximity to majorrail and road routes, Vijayawada is a major trading center and is the third largest city of thestate,Guntur is the fourth largest city of the state, followedby Warangal, Tirupati, Rajahmundry, Kakinada. Other important places of the stateare Nellore, Srikakulam,Kurnool, and Kadapa.Demographics [hide]Population Trend Census Pop. %± 1961 35,983,000 — 1971 43,503,000 20.9% 1981 53,550,000 23.1% 1991 66,508,000 24.2%
2001 75,727,000 13.9% 2011 84,655,533 11.8% Source:Census of IndiaLanguages of Andhra Pradesh in 2001 Telugu (84.77%) Urdu (8.36%) Hindi (2.77%) Tamil (1.13%)Telugu is the official language of the state, spoken by 83% of the population. Major linguisticminority groups include Urdu (8.63%), Hindi(3.23%), and Tamil (1.01%).Other languages spoken in Andhra Pradesh by less than 1% eachareMarathi (0.8%), Kannada(0.74%), and Oriya (0.44%). Languages spoken by less than 0.2% ofthe populationinclude Malayalam (0.08%), Gujarati(0.06%), Bengali (0.05%), Gorkhali/Nepali (0.03%), Punjabi (0.01%) andSindhi(0.01%).The main ethnic group of Andhra Pradesh is the Telugu people, who are primarily Dravidians.Andhra Pradesh ranks tenth compared to all Indian States in the Human Development Indexscoreswith a score of 0.416.
The National Council of Applied Economic Research district analysis in 2001 revealsthat Khammam,Krishna, West Godavari, Chittoor, and Medak are the five districts with thehighest Human Development Indexscores in ascending order in rural AP. The data show that thepoor make up 16.3 per cent of the total population in rural AP and expenditure on consumption isaround 13.5 per cent of the total consumption expenditure. The female literacy rate is 0.66compared to male literacy rate in rural AP. The district-wise variations for poverty ratio are highand low for the ratio of female/male literacy rate.ReligionsThe state is home to Hindu saints of all castes. An important figure is Saint Yogi Sri PotuluriVirabrahmendra Swami. He was born in theVishwabrahmin (goldsmith) caste andhad Brahmin and Dalit disciples. Fisherman Raghu was a Shudra saint. Saint Kakkayyawas achura (sweeper) Harijan saint. Religion in Andhra Pradesh PercentHinduism 89.01%Islam 9.16%Christianity 1.7%Jainism 0.05%Sikhism 0.04%Others 0.17%Several important Hindu modern-day saints are from Andhra Pradesh. These includeNimbarka,who founded Dvaitadvaita; Mother Meera, who runs an ashram in Madanapalle;Sri Sathya SaiBaba, Sri Sivabala Yogi Maharaj who advocates religious unity in worship; Swami SundaraChaitanyanandaji of the Aurobindo Mission; and Brahmarshi Subhash Patri, founder of thepyramid spiritual societies movement.Islam in Hyderabad, with historical patronizingby the rulers, has a strong Sufi influence, with various moments active in the last two decades.Hyderabad has also produced many renowned religious scholars of representing different Islamicsects and trends, including Abul Ala Maududi, Turab-ul-Haq Qadri, and Allamah RasheedTurabi. Most Telugu Christians are Protestant belonging to major Indian Protestantdenominations such as the Church of South India, the Andhra Evangelical Lutheran Church, theSamavesam of Telugu Baptist Churches and several others.
Tirumala Gopurams Temple Mecca Masjid in Hyderabad The Church of South IndiaCathedral at MedakEconomyMain article: Economy of Andhra Pradesh GDP by yearYear State GDP ( MM)1980 81,9101985 152,6601990 333,3601995 798,540
2000 1,401,1902007 2,294,610Andhra Pradeshs GSDP for 2010 was estimated at $100.35 billion in current prices. The stateranks third in terms of overall Gross State Product among all the states of the Indian Union. Interms of per capita GSDP the state compares very favorably with other large states. In the 2010list by Forbes Magazine, there are Seven from Andhra Pradesh among the top 100 richestIndians.Coconut fields in East GodavariSrisailam Dam - Hydro Electric Power SourceAgriculture has been the chief source of income for the states economy. Andhra Pradesh is anexporter of many agricultural products. Four important rivers of India,the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Thungabhadra flow through the state, providing irrigation.Rice, sugarcane, cotton, Chili pepper, mango, and tobacco are the local crops. Recently, cropsused for vegetable oilproduction such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There aremany multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin IrrigationProjects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.The service sector of the state accounts for 43% of the gross state domestic product (GSDP) andemploys 20% of the work force.Andhra Pradesh economy has registered over 5.5% annual
economic growth rate during the last two decades. The state is one of the mostindustrially developed states of India.Andhra Pradesh ranks second in India in terms of mineral wealth. The state has about one thirdof Indiaslimestone reserves, estimated at about 30 billion tonnes. The Tumalappalli Uraniummine in Andhra has confirmed 49,000 tonnes of ore and there are indications that it could holdreserves totalling three times its current size, The Times of India quoted Srikumar Banerjee assaying. The mines proven reserve is enough to support a 8,000 mega watts nuclear power plantfor 40 years, the report added. The Krishna Godavari Basin has huge reserves of natural gas andpetroleum. The state has a large amount of coal reserves. The state ranks first nationwidein hydro electricity generation, with a national market share of over 11%. Andhra Pradesh hasthe second largest power generating utility in the country, with an installed capacity of around10,650 MW. The two cheapest sources of thermal power generation – coal and natural gas – arein abundance.Information technology and other key sectorsCyber Towers at HyderabadThe Andhra Pradesh State Legislative Assembly at the centre of Hyderabad City.Main article: Software industry in Andhra PradeshIn 2004–2005, Andhra Pradesh was at the second position in the list oftop information technology exporting states of India. The IT sector is expanding at a rate of52.3% every year. The IT exports reached 19,000 crores ($4.5 billion) in 2006–2007,contributed to 14 per cent of total IT exports of the nation and ranked fourth in India. Other
key sectors include, Biopharmaceuticals, Power, Automobile, Tourism, Textiles, Retail, Leather,Mining and Religious tourism.AdministrationMain articles: Government of Andhra Pradesh, Politics of Andhra Pradesh, and List of ChiefMinisters of Andhra PradeshAndhra Pradesh has a Vidhan Sabha (legislative assembly, lower house) of 294 seats, anda Vidhan Parishad (legislative council, upper house) of 90 members. 31 members are electedfrom local bodies, 31 members are elected from the assembly, eight members are elected fromteachers, eight members are elected from graduates, and 12 members are nominated by theGovernor. In the Parliament of IndiaAndhra Pradesh has 18 in the Rajya Sabha, the UpperHouse, and 42 in the Lok Sabha, the Lower House.Andhra Pradesh had a series of governments headed by Indian National Congress (INC) Partyuntil 1982.N. Chandrababu Naidu held the record for the longest serving chief minister (1995 to2004). P. V. Narasimha Rao served as the chief minister of the state from 1971 to 1973, and wenton to become the Prime Minister of India in 1991. The first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradeshwas Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, who later served as President of India. The Congress ChiefMinisters of the state are Damodaram Sanjivayya, Kasu Brahmananda Reddy, P. V. NarasimhaRao, Jalagam Vengala Rao, Marri Chenna Reddy, Tanguturi Anjaiah, Bhavanam VenkataramiReddy, Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao, Nedurumalli JanardhanaReddy, Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy, Konijeti Rosaiah and N. Kiran Kumar Reddy.Andhra Pradesh High Court at Hyderabad, the main judicial body for the StateUntil 1962, the CPI, along with socialist parties, played an important role as opposition parties.Parties namely Praja Socialist Party and Krishi Lok Party played important role in 1950s. In the1967 state assembly elections all socialist parties were eliminated and CPI lost opposition partystatus. N.G. Rangas Swatantra Party became the Opposition Party. They also failed to hold
control later and became defunct. In 1978 Jalagam Vengal Rao and Kasu Brahmananda Reddyformed the Reddy Congress and contested against Congress (I) but lost.In 1983 the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the State elections and N.T. Rama Rao(NTR)became the chief minister of the state for the first time. This broke the long time single partymonopoly enjoyed by the INC from 1956 until 1982. A few months after the election, NadendlaBhaskara Rao usurped power when NTR was away in the United States for medical treatment.After coming back, NTR campaigned for a comeback by demonstrating the support of themajority of the elected MLAs. The governor Thakur Ram Lal was ousted by Indira Gandhi andin his place she appointedShankar Dayal Sharma. NTR was reinstated as Chief Minister. Withina month NTR recommended the dissolution of the assembly and called for fresh elections.Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October 1984 by her Sikh bodyguard and Rajiv Gandhi wasmade Prime Minister by President Giani Zail Singh. In the ensuing elections for Lok Sabha andthe AP Assembly, the Telugu Desam Party won in Andhra Pradesh and NTR came back topower.The 1989 elections ended the rule of NTR, with the INC party returning to power with MarriChenna Reddy at the helm. He was replaced byJanardhan Reddy in 1990, who was replacedby Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy in 1992. In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to theTelugu Desam Party again, and NTR became the chief minister again. Nara Chandrababu Naidu,the son-in-law of NTR, usurped power with the backing of a majority of the MLAs. The TeluguDesam Party won both the assembly and Lok Sabha election in 1999 under the leadershipof Chandrababu Naidu. There was an assassination attempt on Naidu in 2003 in Tirupathi; hesurvived the attack. In the ensuing elections the party lost power to a resurgent Congress Partyand its allies. Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became the Chief Minister.Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became the CM again by fending off the Praja Rajyam Party and amajor alliance of TDP, TRS, CPI and CPM. He died on 2 September 2009 in a helicoptercrash. Konijeti Rosaiah, a senior statesman and former State Finance Minister, became the ChiefMinister of AP on 3 September 2009. On 24 November 2010, Rosaiah submitted his resignationon the grounds of increased work pressure.Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy Reddy was sworn in asthe new CM on the following day.Tourism
Belum CavesRishikonda beachBorra Caves (stalagmites and stalactites)Andhra Pradesh is promoted by its tourism department as the "Koh-i-Noor of India."Andhra Pradesh is the home of many religious pilgrim centres. Tirumala VenkateswaraTemple in Tirupati, the abode of Hindu god Venkateswara, is most visited religious center of anyfaith in the world.Srisailam, nestled in the Nallamala Hills is the abodeof Mallikarjuna and is one of twelve Jyothirlingas in India. Amaravatis Shiva temple is one ofthe Pancharamams, as is Yadagirigutta, the abode of an avatara of Vishnu, Lakshmi Narasimha.The Ramappa temple and Thousand Pillars temple in Warangal are famous for their templecarvings. The state has numerous Buddhist centres at Amaravati, NagarjunaKonda, Bhattiprolu,Ghantasala, Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Bavikonda, Thotlakonda,Shalihundam, Pavuralakonda,Bojjannakonda(Sankaram), Phanigiri and
Kolanpaka. The Vijayanagara Empire built number of monuments, includingthe Srisailam temple and Lepakshi temples.Araku ValleyNorth View of BhimilibeachThe golden beaches at Visakhapatnam, the one-million-year-old limestone caves at Borra,picturesque Araku Valley, hill resorts of Horsley Hills, river Godavari racing through a narrowgorge at Papi Kondalu, waterfalls at Ettipotala, Kuntala and rich bio-diversity at Talakona aresome of the natural attractions of the state.Kailashagiri is a park near the sea in Visakhapatnam.Visakhapatnam is home to other tourist attactions such as the INS Kursura S20 Submarinemuseum (the only one of its kind in India), the longest beach road in India, Yarada Beach, ArakuValley, and Indira Gandhi Zoological Gardens.The Borra Caves are located in the Anatagiri Hills of the Eastern Ghats, near Vishakapatnam.They are at an altitude of about 800 to 1300 metres and are famous for million-year-old stalactiteand stalagmite formations. They were discovered by British geologist William King George in1807. The caves get their name from a formation inside the caves that looks like the humanbrain, which in the local language, Telugu, is known asburra. The Belum caves were formed dueto erosion in limestone deposits in the area by the weakly acidic water of the Chitravati Rivermillions of years ago.The Papi Hills are located in Khammam district, near Bhadrachalam. Boat cruises are availableon the river Godavari.
The Belum Caves in Kurnool District have a length of 3,229 metres (10,594 ft), making them thesecond largest natural caves on the Indian subcontinent. The Belum Caves derive their namefrom Bilum, the Sanskrit word for caves. In Telugu, the caves are known as Belum Guhalu. Thecaves have long passages, spacious chambers, freshwater galleries, and siphons. The cavesdeepest point is 120 feet (37 m) from the entrance and is known asPatalganaga.Horsley Hills, elevation 1,265 metres (4,150 ft), is a summer hill resort in Andhra Pradesh, about160 km (99 mi) from Bangalore and144 km (89 mi) from Tirupati. The town of Madanapalle liesnearby. Major tourist attractions include the Mallamma temple and the Rishi Valley School.Horsely Hills is the departure point for the Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary at a distance of 87 km(54 mi).Nirmal is famous for its handicrafts and paintings. Kuntala waterfall, at 45 metres (148 ft), is thebiggest in the state. Charminar, Golconda Fort, Chandragiri Fort, Chowmahalla Palace,and Falaknuma Palace are some of the monuments in the state.Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada in Krishna district, Venkateswara Temple in DwarakaTirumala, West Godavari District, and Surya temple in Arasavelli in Srikakulam District are alsoplaces to see in Andhra Pradesh.The Annavaram Satayannarayana Swami temple is in East Godavari,near Kakinada.Konaseema is another place in East Godavari for nature lovers with scenicgreenery of lush paddy fields and coconut groves. All along the banks of river Godavari and itscanals.Religious TourismTirumala Venkateswara Temple, an important pilgrimage site inTirupati
Birla Mandir Hindu templeDiguva Mangalagiri TempleDurga Temple in VijayawadaRamappa TempleMalluru Ugra Narasimha Swamy Temple at Mangapet of Warangal District AndhraPradesh, IndiaTirumala Venkateswara Temple in the town of Tirumala in Chittoordistrict is a very importantpilgrimage site for Hindus throughout India. It is the richest piligrimage city of any religiousfaith in the world.Its main temple is dedicated to the god Venkateswara. In 1517 Vijayanagararuler Sri Krishna Deva Raya, on one of his many visits to the temple, donated gold and jewels,enabling the Vimana (inner shrine) roofing to be gilded. Statues of Sri Krishna Deva Raya andhis spouse stand in the premises of the temple.
The five ancient Hindu temples of Lord Shiva, known as Pancharama Kshetras, are located at - Amararama, Draksharama, Somarama,Ksheerarama and Kumararama. The Sivalingas atthese temples are made from a single Sivalinga.Simhachalam is another popular pilgrimage site of national importance located on a hill 20kilometres (12 mi) north of the Visakhapatnam city centre. Simhachalam is said to be the abodeof the savior-godNarasimha, who rescued Prahlada from his abusive father Hiranyakashipu. Oneof the most exquisitely sculpted shrines of Andhra Pradesh, it has a beautifully carved 16-pillared Natya mantapa and a 96-pillared Kalyana mantapa. The temple was built in 11thcentury by Kullotunga chola. Engaged couples go to this temple as a ritual just before marriage.It is one of the most crowded temples of Andhra Pradesh.Srisailam temple in Kurnool district is a very famous Shiva temple, and is one of thetwelve Jyotirlingashrines. Lord Ramahimself installed the Sahasralinga, whilethe Pandavas lodged the Panchapandavalingas in the temple courtyard. The Skanda Purana, anancient religious text, has a chapter called "Srisaila Kandam" dedicated to this temple, whichpoints to its ancient origin. It is said that Adi Shankara(c. 788–821 CE) visited this temple at thetime that he composed his Sivananda Lahiri. Srisailam is located in Kurnool district.Bhadrachalam Temple is a temple to Lord Rama in the town of Bhadrachalam in Khammamdistrict. It is situated on the banks of the river Godavari. This is the place where KancherlaGopanna (1620–1680) wrote his devotional songs dedicated to lord Rama. It was believed thatlord Rama spent some years on the banks of river Godavari here in Treta Yuga. KancherlaGopanna raised the funds and constructed the temple during the reign of Tanisha in the 17thcentury. Sri Rama Navami, a celebration of the Marriage of Lord Rama and sita, is celebratedhere every year. Government of Andhra Pradesh sends pearls for the event.Kanaka Durga Temple is a temple to the goddess Durga situated on the Indrakeeladri Hill in thecity ofVijayawada on the banks of Krishna River. Special pujas are performed during Dasara,also calledNavratri. The most significant are Saraswati puja and Theppotsavam. The festival ofDasara for the Goddess Durga is celebrated there every year. A large number of pilgrims attendthe colourful celebrations and take a holy dip in the Krishna River.Other temples and piligrimage sites in Andhra Pradesh Gnana Saraswati Temple, Basar is a temple to the goddess Saraswati, goddess of education. Basaris located in Adilabad district 50 kilometers from Nirmal. Yaganti Caves and Mahanandi are pilgrimage centres in Kurnool District. Kailasagiri Temple Hill, in Visakhapatnam.
Birla Mandir, in Hyderabad. Sanghi Temple, at Hayathnagar, in Hyderabad. Chilkur Balaji Temple, on the banks of Osman Sagar Lake. Ramappa Temple, constructed in 1213, is located 77 km from Warangal. Mecca Masjid in Hyderabad. There is a statue of Buddha that was erected in 1992 on the Hussain Sagar Lake in Hyderabad. Srikalahasti Temple is an ancient Shiva temple located on the banks of river Swarnamukhi in Chittoordistrict. Satyanarayana Swamy temple in Annavaram in East Godavari district. Vemulavada in Karimnagar district is another popular place of pilgrimage. It is best known for the Sri Raja Rajeshwara temple. Venkateswara Temple in Chinna Tirupathi(Dwaraka Tirumala) near to Tadepalligudem and Eluru. Veerabhadra temple at Lepakshi in Ananthapur district. Sri Viswa Viznana Vidya Adhyatmika Peetham is a theosophical congregation based on the principles of oneness of God, and discovering divinity in the self. The ashram is situated in Pithapuram, East Godavari district.CultureBapus paintings, Nanduri Venkata Subba Raos Yenki Paatalu (Songs about a washerwomancalled Yenki), mischievous Budugu (a characterby Mullapudi), Annamayyas songs, Aavakaaya (a variant of mango pickle in which the kernel ofmango is retained), Gongura (achutney from Roselle plant), Atla Taddi (a seasonal festivalpredominantly for teenage girls), the banks of river Godavari, and the Dudu basavanna (theceremonial ox decorated for door-to-door exhibition during the harvest festival Sankranthi) havelong defined Telugu culture. The village of Durgi is known for stone craft, producing carvingsof idols in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone toweathering. Kalamkari is an ancient textile art form dating back to the Indus ValleyCivilization. Andhra Pradesh is famous for doll making. Dolls are made from wood, mud, drygrass, and lightweight metal alloys. Tirupathi is famous for redwood carvings.Kondapalli isfamous for mud toys with rich colors. The village of Etikoppaka, located in Visakhapatnamdistrict, produces lacquered toys. Nirmal paintings are expressive and are usually painted over ablack background. Story telling in Andhra Pradesh is an art form in itself. Folk dances unique toAndhra Pradesh include Yaksha ganam, Burra katha (usually done by three people, telling
stories using three different musical instruments), Jangama kathalu, Hari kathalu, Chekkabajana, Urumula natyam (usually done at festivals, where a group of people dance in circleswith loud music), and Ghata natyam (performances done with earthen pots over oneshead).Andhra Pradesh has many museums, the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which features avaried collection of sculptures, paintings, and religious artifacts, including the ArchaeologicalMuseum at Amaravati near Guntur City that features relics of nearby ancient sites, andtheVisakha Museum, in Visakhapatnam, which displays the history of the pre-Independence andthotla konda which depicts the age old budhist stupas and cultural style, Madras Presidency in arehabilitated Dutch bungalow. Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada has a good collectionof ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions. Other ancient sitesinclude dozens of ancient Buddhist stupas in Nagarjunakonda which is now an islandin Nagarjuna Sagar, an artificial lake that formed after the construction of Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.The Island has a large museum that houses many Buddhist relics.Just like in other parts of the country, many festivals are celebrated in Andhra Pradesh, whichinclude - Ugadi, Sankranthi, Dasara,Varalakshmi Vratham, VinayakaChavithi, Deepavali, Batukamma, Rakhi poornima, Christmas, Sri Rama Navami, Bonalu, MahaShivaratri,Nagula Chaviti, Holi, Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Muharram, Milad-un-Nabi etc.CuisineHyderabad biryani served with other Indian dishes
Uggani bajji - typical snack of RayalaseemaMain article: Andhra cuisineThe cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is one of the spiciest of all Indian cuisines. There are manyvariations to the cuisine (all involving rice) depending on geographical regions, caste, andtraditions. Pickles and chutneys, called thoku also called as pachadi in Telugu, are particularlypopular in Andhra Pradesh and many varieties of pickles and chutneys are unique to the State.Chutneys are made from practically every vegetable including tomatoes, brinjals (eggplant),and roselle (Gongura).Avaakaya (mango) is probably the best known of the Andhra Pradeshpickles. Rice is the staple food and is used in a wide variety of ways. Typically, rice is eitherboiled and eaten with curry, or made into a batter for use in a crepe-like dishcalled attu (pesarattu is made of a mixture of this batter and mung beans) or dosas, a crepe filledwith black beans or lentils.Meat, vegetables and greens are prepared with different spices (masala) into a variety of stronglyflavored dishes such as Hyderabadi Biryani, fish curry, brinjal curry, and Gongura pachadi themost popular dish of andhra pradesh.An Andhra dish is recognized with the dish being listed inthe menu. The coastal region is even more well versed with the varieties in sea food speciallyknown for "Chapala Pulusu", "Bommidala pulusu", "Koramenu kura". Especially Hyderabadicuisine is influenced by the Muslims who arrived in Telangana in the 14th century. Much of thecuisine revolves around meat. It is rich and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spicesand ghee (clarified butter). Lamb, chicken, and fish are the most widely used meats in the non-vegetarian dishes. Biriyani is perhaps the most distinctive and popular dish of Hyderabadicuisine.DanceClassical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; women tend to learn itmore often.Kuchipudi is the states best-known classical dance form. The various dance formsthat existed through the states history are Bonalu, Dappu, ChenchuBhagotham, Kuchipudi, Bhamakalapam, Burrakatha,Veeranatyam, Butta bommalu, TappetaGullu, Lambadi, Dhimsa, Kolattam, and Chindu. Jaanapadam theenmar is a popular folk dance.
Jayapa Senani was the first person to write about the dances prevalent in AndhraPradesh. Both Desi and Margi forms of dances are included in his Sanskrit treatise NrutyaRatnavali. Kuchipudi, dance by Yamini Reddy Kuchipudi DancerLiteratureMain article: Telugu literatureNannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the great Sanskritepic Mahabharata into Telugu. Pothana is the poet who composed the classic SriMad MahaBhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatham, authored by Veda Vyasain Sanskrit.Nannayya (c. 11th century AD), the earliest known Telugu author, was patronized bythe king Rajaraja Narendra who ruled from Rajamahendravaram (now Rajahmundry).The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada. The Telugu poet Vemana, anative of Kadapa, is notable for his philosophical poems. Telugu literature after KandukuriVeeresalingam (1848–1919) is termed modern literature. Known as Gadya Tikkana, SatyavathiCharitam was the author Telugu-language social novel, Satyavathi Charitam. JnanpithAwardwinners include Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana and Dr. C. Narayana Reddy. The AndhraPradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sribrought new forms of expressionism into Teluguliterature.
Other modern writers include Gunturu Seshendra Sarma, the only person nominated from Indiafor a Nobel prize in literature sinceRabindranath Tagore. The West Bengal Governmentconferred on him the title Rashtrendu ("Moon of the Nation"). Telugu University awarded himan honorary Doctorate in Literature in 1994. He received the Kalidas Samman award from theMadhya Pradhesh government, and he won the Central Sahitya Akademi fellowship in1999. Puttaparthi Narayanacharyulu is one of the scholarly poets of Telugu literature. He wrotethe books Sivatandavam and Panduranga Mahatyam. Other notable writers from AndhraPradesh include Srirangam Sreenivasarao, Gurram Jashuva, Chinnaya Suri, ViswanathaSatyanarayana. Dr.vempalli gangadhar,popular telugu story writer.seeweb;www.vempalligangadhar.comCinemaA western street replica at Ramoji Film CityMain article: Telugu CinemaIn the early 90s the Telugu film industry, had completely shifted its baseto Hyderabad from Madras. Hyderabad, houses Prasads IMAX theatre which was the biggest 3DIMAX screen in the world when it was built in 2007.Tollywood is among the, highest numberof film producing industries in India. It is also home to Ramoji Film Citywhich is the world’slargest integrated film studio complex at over 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) of land. Prolific filmproducer from the state, D. Ramanaidu holds a Guinness Record for the most number of filmsproduced by a person. Andhra Pradesh has around 5500 cinema halls. The state producesabout 200 films a year. It has around 40% (330 out of 930) of the Dolby Digital theatres inIndia.Music
Balamuralikrishnaduring a concert in Kuwait on 29 March 2006, accompanied by MavelikkaraSathees Chandran (violin), Perunna G. Harikumar (mridangom), Manjoor Unnikrishnan(ghatam)Main article: Music of Andhra PradeshMany composers of Carnatic music like Annamacharya, Tyagaraja, Kshetrayya, andBhadrachalaRamadas were of Telugu descent. Modern Carnatic music composers likeGhantasala and Sri M.Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent. The Telugu film industry hosts many musiccomposers and playback singers such as S. P. Balasubrahmanyam. Folk songs are popular in themany rural areas of the state. Forms such as the Burra katha and Poli are still performedtoday.SportsThe Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh, is the governing body which looks after theinfrastructure development inCricket, Field hockey, Association Football, Olympicweightlifting, Chess, Water Sports, Tennis, Badminton, Table Tennis, Cycling etc.[citationneeded] Sports like kho kho, kabaddi, chinni daandu and goli (marbles) are played mostly in coastalAndhra & Telangana areas.One of the most popular sports in Andhra pradesh is cricket. The Hyderabad CricketAssociation nurtures potential international players. The Hyderabad cricket team has wonthe Ranji Trophy twice. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium in Hyderabad, regularlyhosts international matches. The Deccan Chargers, an Indian Premier League franchise, is basedin Hyderabad.Notable cricketers from Andhra Pradesh, include C. K. Nayudu, Maharajkumar ofVizianagram, M. V. Narasimha Rao, Mohammad Azharuddin, M. S. K. Prasad, V.V.S.Laxman, Tirumalasetti Suman, Arshad Ayub, Ambati Rayudu, Paul Valthaty, VenkatapathyRaju,Sravanthi Naidu, Yalaka Venugopal Rao etc.Other accomplished sports-persons include, A. Ramana Rao, Karnam Malleswari, PullelaGopichand, Sania Mirza, Saina Nehwal, Sharath Kamal, Chetan Anand (Badminton), MukeshKumar (Hockey), Abdul Najeeb Qureshi, Jwala Gutta, Raman Subbarao, Kamineni Eswara Rao,
etc. Grandmasters in Chess like, Koneru Humpy, Pendyala Harikrishna, Dronavalli Harika andGogineni Rohit hail from the state.Education and ResearchIndian School of BusinessAndhra Pradesh is served by more than 20 institutes of higher education. All major arts,humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, business, and veterinary science are offered,with first degrees and postgraduate awards available. Advanced research is conducted in allmajor areas.Andhra Pradesh has 1,330 arts, science and commerce colleges; 1,000 MBA and MCAcolleges;847 engineering colleges; 53 medical colleges, and one Indian Institute of Technology (inHyderabad). The student to teacher ratio in higher education is 19:1. According to the 2001census, Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 61.11% (as per Andhra pradesh Govtsofficial website). The male literacy rate is 70.3% and the female literacy rate is 67.4%.[citationneeded]Andhra Pradesh is the home to Osmania University, it is one of the oldest modern universities inIndia. It is one of the largest university systems in the subcontinent with over 300,000 studentson its various campuses and affiliated colleges. The Government of Andhra Pradesh hasestablished Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies (RGUKT) in 2008 to caterto the educational needs of the gifted rural youth of Andhra Pradesh. The Institute specializes inteaching and research in Information Technology and other emerging disciplines under thecontrol of a common university Governing Council and following a common syllabus.School children in an elementary school in Andhra Pradesh
The state has recently made strides in setting up several institutes. Andhra Pradesh is home tothe Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Tata Institute of Fundamental ResearchHyderabad, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad (IIIT-H), National Institute of Technology NIT Warangal,the Nalsar University of Law, Centrefor Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) Hyderabad, Indian Institute of ChemicalTechnology (IICT), Hyderabad, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (HyderabadCampus),University of Hyderabad, School of Planning and Architecture, Rajiv GandhiUniversity of Knowledge Technologies and the Indian School of Business (ISB). TheNational Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) and The Institute of Hotel Management,Catering Technology and Applied Nutrition are also located in Hyderabad. Also GeorgiaInstitute of Technology, is in the process of setting up their campus in Hyderabad.Apart from this Andhra Pradesh was home to many more top class universitys like English andForeign Languages University, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, OsmaniaUniversity, Andhra University, Nagarjuna University, Kakatiya University, SriVenkateswara University, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Potti Sreeramulu TeluguUniversity, Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rayalaseema university,Kurnool, and private engineering colleges like Vasavi College of Engineering, ChaitanyaBharathi Institute of Technology, MVSR Engineering College to serve their people acrossAndhra Pradesh.The Government of Andhra Pradesh has established the first University of Health Sciences,fulfilling the recommendations of several committees. The Andhra Pradesh University of HealthSciences was established by Act.No. 6 of the Andhra Pradesh legislature and was inaugurated in1986 by the late Sri N.T. Rama Rao, then Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. After the death ofits founder Sri N.T. Rama Rao the University was named after him as NTR University of HealthSciences, Andhra Pradesh.TransportBy road
Major road links of Andhra PradeshThe railroad bridge between Rajahmundry andKovvurA total of 146,954 km (91,313 mi) of roads are maintained by the State, of which StateHighways comprise 42,511 km (26,415 mi), National Highways 2,949 km (1,832 mi), andDistrict Roads 101,484 km (63,059 mi). The growth rate for vehicle ownership in AndhraPradesh is the highest in the country at 16%.Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the major public transportcorporation owned by the government of Andhra Pradesh that connects all the cities and villages.APSRTC is in the Guinness Book of World Records for having the largest fleet of vehicles(approximately 21,000), and the longest distance covered daily. Vijayawada is the 2nd largestBus-Standing in Asia. Thousands of private operators also run buses connecting major citiesand towns. Private vehicles like cars, motorised scooters, and bicycles occupy a major share ofthe local transport in the cities and adjoining villages.By railThe Secunderabad Railway Station, headquarters of theSouth Central RailwayVisakhapatnamseaport
Railways are a major means of transport connecting all major cities and towns. The history ofrailways in Andhra Pradesh dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad. This Railway Stationis located in the heart of Telangana Region. Most of Andhra Pradesh falls under the auspices ofthe South Central Railway, founded in 1966 with its headquarters at Secunderabad. The EastCoast Railway serves Srikakulam, Vizianagaram District, and part of Visakhapatnam districtincluding Visakhapatnam City. Vijayawada Railway Station is one of the busiest railwayjunctions in India.5th largest Railway station in South.By airHyderabad International Airport, also known as Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, is theinternational airport for the city of Hyderabad. It is the largest airport in the state and one of thebusiest airports nationwide. Other airports in the state are Visakhapatnam Airport, VijayawadaAirport, Rajahmundry Airport, and Tirupati Airport. The government also has plans to startairports in eight othercities: Guntur, Ongole, Nellore, Warangal, Kadapa, Tadepalligudem,Kurnool, Karimnagar, Ramagundam and Kothagudem.By seaAndhra Pradesh has two of the major ports of India at Visakhapatnam and Kakinada and threeminor ports atKrishnapatnam (Nellore), Machilipatnam, and Nizampatnam (Guntur). A privateport is being developed atGangavaram, near Visakhapatnam. This deep seaport canaccommodate ocean liners up to 200,000–250,000 DWT.Newspapers and journalsIn Telugu Andhra Bhoomi Andhra Jyothy Andhra Prabha Deccan Chronicle Eenadu Islamic Voice - Telugu Namaste Telangana Prajasakti Suryaa Vaartha
sakshiIn Urdu Awam Etemaad daily The Munsif Daily The Siasat DailyNewspapers from other states Hindustan Times The Business Line The Economic Times The Hindu The New Indian Express The Times of India Those other problems in Andhra Pradesh P. Sainath If present political trends and shifts in Andhra Pradesh intensify, the State could see an election within a year. And not just over Telangana. When Chandrababu Naidu sits on a hunger fast for suffering farmers, you know something is afoot in Andhra Pradesh. Excessive rains have devastated the crops in the State. And losses have been enormous. But a farmer losing over Rs.15,000 on an acre of paddy will get less than Rs.2500 in compensation. And the nature of land relations in Andhra Pradesh ensures that most tenant farmers wont get even that. Yet, it is the political shifts that are less seen. If — and it is very much an „if — present trends intensify, Andhra Pradesh could see an election within a year. And not just over Telangana. That election could throw up big surprises and a new regional formation of some strength. The ruling Congress seems preoccupied with shooting itself in the foot. Faced with an array of issues that demand attention, it has focussed all its energies on fighting Jaganmohan Reddy. The highlight of the handling of Telangana was not to address the problems of that troubled region but to order the son of Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy not to go there for any kind of campaign. In public perception, rightly or wrongly, this was writing off Telangana to the Telangana Rashtra Samiti. For those opposed to statehood for the region, this seemed a betrayal. They recall how „YSR had undermined K. Chandrasekhar Rao whose previous resignation saw him lose strength in the Lok Sabha. This year, KCRs TRS swept the region. For those demanding a separate state, the Congress has promised little and delivered less. Not a single one of their burning problems has been taken up, let alone resolved. The State government needed to tackle a growing crisis on many fronts, farming being one of them. A year of total paralysis under K. Rosaiah meant this did not happen, even though the then Agriculture Minister tried to reverse some awful policies flowing downwards from the Centre. Ultimately, the Centres policy direction on agriculture had to further undermine small farmers everywhere, including Andhra Pradesh. Already, the lack of land reform within Andhra Pradesh makes the plight of tenant farmers — who account for a third of the farmers in the State — a lot worse. Tenancy farming has grown and the AP Kisan Sabha estimates there are 40 lakh such farmers across the State. Most lead a life bogged down in anxiety, tension and debt. The few rights they have are fragile, the farms they operate are
failing even without natural calamity. They account for a large number of farm suicides in the State. Even when compensation is paid out for crop losses, these are grabbed by the owner whose land the tenant has leased for farming, since the land is in his name. Getting loans from banks is sheer torture. (At this point, Collectors in some districts are appealing to bankers to extend credit to tenant farmers.) The banks have not given out even a fraction of these loans promised to tenant farmers by official diktat. Tenant farmers have little security of tenure and are subject to rack-renting. Three commissions in recent years, those headed by Jayati Ghosh, Dr. M.S. Swaminathan and Konneru Rangarao have made major observations and recommendations relating to this group. In practice, the government has done nothing about them. And as times get worse for farmers as a whole, tenant farmers take a bad beating. Then there are the problems of the MNREGS, once doing relatively better in Andhra Pradesh than in many other States. The past year has unsettled a once-working programme. Again, for many, this compares badly with the YSR period when in districts of Anantapur there was a member from almost every household at the NREG sites in many villages. Back then, distress migrations had actually fallen in districts like Mahbubnagar as the NREGS expanded. So quite a few do hark back to that period as one of hope. Even in urban Andhra Pradesh where the YSR government restored lakhs of BPL cards cancelled by the Naidu regime. There are also the issues of mega projects and the lakhs of people displaced by those. Of flawed irrigation projects, dubious land deals, and a bizarre number of SEZs. These and major corruption scandals were pretty much a part of YSRs time, too. However, the negative outcomes of some of these would unfold more slowly. So in the 2009 elections, the positive policies paid off — while the bills for the destructive ones would and will come in later. So in public perception, the YSR era comes out looking good compared to the chaos of the present. As of now, a lot of this translates into public goodwill for Jaganmohan Reddy. While this situation lasts, the negatives of his own politics, ambition, character and charges of corruption might seem less important to those fed up with the way things are now. These problems could well catch up with him but at present, he seems to be on a roll. That Mr. Naidu, of all people, has decided to go on a hunger strike in support of suffering farmers confirms that the Opposition sees the government as being in real trouble. Yet the Congress mess- up has not seen Mr. Naidu gain greatly so far. As for the Praja Rajyam Party of Chiranjeevi, it now seems a severely edited scene in the unfolding drama. If the present trends hold, the default gainer could be Jaganmohan Reddy and his yet to be named new party. The Congress will be the big loser — beyond the State too, given Andhra Pradeshs importance to its strength at the Centre. With Tamil Nadu also in flux, the Congress problem becomes national. Its allies know it is in trouble. Note Sharad Pawars increasingly strident criticisms of government policies. The more the Congress has tried to can Jaganmohan Reddy, the more — so far — he gains. Indeed, its perceived “insults to the YSR legacy” could translate into a matter of regional pride that works in favour of YSRs son. Jagan Reddy has made deep forays into the districts and the Congress is unable to counter him. More important, the public response to his visits has been impressive and, at least for now, appears to be growing. Sitting Congress MLAs show up at his meetings. Followers of other parties attend them in big numbers. Large turnouts to receive him at railway stations have made the Congress nervous. The partys shot at playing Reddy politics has shown little success so far. And the splitting of the YSR family has not gone down well with a public already seeing Jagan Reddy as the wronged party. Its a classic Congress dilemma. The party has no leaders of any consequence in the State (or most States) because that is how it needs it to be. It cannot allow the emergence of strong State leaders independent of the Centre. YSR was an exception. The same problem in Maharashtra has seen it bring in a Chief Minister with no base, let alone a State-wide standing. It matters little now, who it makes Chief Ministers in the States — it has no leaders. Anyone seen emerging was choked off. In Maharashtra, where the NCP was an endangered species, it gets a new lease of life. In the just concluded Assembly session, Deputy Chief Minister Ajit Pawar seemed dominant. While Prithviraj Chavan appeared to be wondering what he had got himself into. In Andhra Pradesh, it gets more embarrassing, where to fight Jagan Reddy the Congress has to (without saying so) oppose dynastic succession. Something it is not best qualified to do. A growing number of Congress supporters seem drawn towards Jagan Reddy.
It can, of course, prolong its tactical manoeuvres. It is the most experienced political force in the country at that. But Andhra Pradesh might not be so easy to control from here on. The report of the commission on Telangana is barely two weeks away. It will certainly recognise the historic neglect of that region and its huge and long ignored problems. Whether it advises statehood for it or draws up a list of options including that one, who will contain the fallout? Either way, there is turbulence ahead. Who is the State leader who commands respect in all regions? What happens if and when the number of MLAs joining Jagan Reddys camp reaches a critical mass? What will the Congress go to the people of Telangana and Andhra with in the event of an election? Leave alone the next State polls — which could happen two years ahead of schedule if the Congress government folds — the by-elections to the seats vacated by Jagan Reddy and his mother will prove humiliating. The results could see a bigger flow of MLAs towards him. Across all regions of the State, the Congress is between a rock and a hard place.