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Hr interviews for freshers by navdeep kumar


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Hr interviews for freshers by navdeep kumar

  1. 1. Author: Navdeep Kumar m
  2. 2. PREFACE HR Interviews prepares you for anything that might come your way during the all-important interview. It covers the various aspects of placements .Whether you're interviewing for an entry-level job or a top-level management position, this thorough guide provides answers for almost any question you can imagine-plus, it arms you with smart questions hiring managers want you to ask. This book has been written for Engineering, M.Tech, M.B.A, M.C.A, diploma students and BPO jobs. The HR interviews book in response to the desire of numerous inquisitive students from every field who want to get good job in reputed MNCs. It covers Resume creation, Cover letters, Interview Tips and the latest Interviews techniques (e.g. Telephonic Interviews) which are adopting by Indian Companies. Such as General Motors, Microsoft, IBM, TCS, Wipro and other MNCs. Expert advice on telephone interviews, Group Discussion, following up the interview, and salary negotiation has been covered in a simple language. Now You Can Have Any Job You Want! Learn How To Take Control Of Your Interview And Have Your Interviewer Begging To Hire You With A Step-By-Step Guide That Will Show You Exactly What To Say, How To Say It...Even When To Say It. The Perfect Interview Is Only A Few Minutes Away... From pre-interview research to follow-up calls, the authors walk you through every step of the interview process, providing the tips and tools you need to succeed in every interview. Practice exercises let you practice your perfect response, and helpful sample answers guide you on your way. You'll get excellent advice on customizing your resume for any position and on mastering the art of the interview. The book covers step-by-step guidelines, ready-to-use interview questions and other valuable hiring tools that will help get great employees on board quickly and effectively. This book is one of the most practical and useful interviewing guide. Organization of book into different chapters goes straight to the point right from the beginning and helps you unveil questions behind those interview questions. It is useful not only for interviewee but for interviewer as well. Any suggestion from any reader for improvement of the book will be thankfully accepted. Good Luck! Navdeep Kumar
  3. 3. Contents Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Cover Letters Chapter 3 How to create Curriculum Vitae Chapter 4 Interview Techniques Chapter 5 Telephonic Interviews Chapter 6 How to answer Interview Questions Chapter 7 Group discussion Chapter 8 Interviews to Get admission in Higher Studies Chapter 9 How to handle illegal Questions Chapter 10 How to Negotiate Salary Chapter 11 Questions to ask the Interviewer Chapter 12 Handling difficult Interview Situations Chapter 13 Interview Follow-up Chapter 14 Common Interview Mistakes Chapter 15 Finer points of Interview strategies Chapter 16 Practice Tests
  4. 4. Cover letters Chapter Cover letters Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Purpose Five rules to keep in mind Recommended cover letter outline Email cover letters Avoid cover letter mistakes Sample cover letters 1
  5. 5. Cover letters PURPOSE A cover letter is the job seeker's introduction to the employer or recruiter. It can also be a marketing device. It highlights a few specific points in the job seeker's experience and skills that match or exceed the requirements of the job. As you begin your job search, you will find that many employers will not only request your resume, but will expect a cover letter as well. Many people overlook the importance of a cover letter, and instead only focus on putting an effort into their resume. However, the cover letter is just as important in getting an employer to call you for an interview. In considering how to write a cover letter with resume it is appropriate to first consider what must be written into your cover letter. First, your cover letter should state what job you are applying for, as well as, the qualifications you possess to do this job. The cover letter should leave the employer wanting to know more about you, and cause the reviewer to call you for an interview. Another factor to consider beyond the content of the cover letter is its presentation. When learning how to write a cover letter with resume, the applicant should use quality paper to print the cover letter and resume.. Not only should the cover letter be printed on quality paper, it should look professional without any creases, stains or smudges. The reason it is important to put as much effort into learning how to write a cover letter with your resume is the fact that the cover letter will speak for you first. Within this letter, you will briefly provide the reasons why the employer should consider hiring you. The cover letter is an important tool in making your resume stands out from the other resumes that the employer will receive. FIVE RULES TO KEEP IN MIND: 1. Put Yourself in the Employer’s Shoes Never forget who your audience is and why you are writing this letter, it should be employer-focused. In your first paragraph, you need to quickly and clearly answer the employer’s unspoken questions : “Who are you?” “Why have you contacted me?” “Why should I be interested in meeting you?” To answer the last question, you need to do some research on the firm. An effective cover letter will (a) Highlight skills and abilities of most interest to the specific employer reading your letter based on your knowledge of their needs (b) Demonstrate that you are familiar with their particular organization. 2. Don’t Re-State Your Resume Your cover letter should not re-hash your resume. The cover letter is an opportunity to make explicit how the skills you developed previously will be beneficial to this particular employer. The second paragraph of your letter should articulate explicitly where your characteristics and experiences meet their needs. Your introductory sentence or two can assert accomplishments, e.g., “I have developed strong writing skills” or “solid analytical abilities,” but you must have examples that support your 2
  6. 6. Cover letters claims or conclusions (awards, commendations by employer, professor). If you cannot think of any experience or award that demonstrates this quality or attribute to support your proposition, don’t make the claim. It cannot just be your opinion. 3. Style A successful cover letter is concise, quickly absorbed, sounds genuine and rings sincere. Don’t write complex, convoluted sentences, or use obscure words in an effort to sound sophisticated and highly educated. Instead, you will come across as pompous and insincere and your letter will be discarded before the reader gets to the signature line. Confidence and competence will be best conveyed through simple, straightforward language. Don’t use outrageous superlatives. Remember that you are a law student building your legal career on a solid academic and practical foundation. Avoid phrases such as “I’m the perfect candidate for this position because…” or “I am confident I will exceed your expectations in every way.” Blunt statements like these rings hollow. Make plausible claims and be sure to support them with credible accounts from your experiences 4. Lying – Don’t! Don’t manufacture a story, or embellish an experience or credential to impress a prospective employer. One lie begets another and, typically, you get caught somewhere along the way and the results will be devastating. Integrity is critical in this profession. You want to begin developing a reputation for being trustworthy and honest now. 5. Avoid Typos and Grammatical Errors Your sentence structure, punctuation and spelling should be flawless. Don’t give the employer a reason to toss your application in the “reject” pile. Does the inside address match the salutation? Always address your letter to the person responsible for legal hiring, not simply “Hiring Partner.” Make sure the right letter goes into the right envelope. These things may seem intuitive, but many qualified candidates are immediately rejected for seemingly “minor” errors. Attorneys will cut you no slack for a simple typo or, even worse, letters that are sloppy, reflect poor editing or proofing. Nor should they! If you can’t produce a final product that is flawless about yourself, why would an attorney trust you to competently handle client matters? Don’t rush to get them out or prepare the letters when you are too tired to be aware of mistakes. Take the extra time to do the job well and you will receive a better response to your letters. RECOMMENDED COVER LETTER OUTLINE Note: Use proper business letter format and make sure your address, phone number and e-mail appear at the top of the page. Use good quality bond paper. 1. Introductory Paragraph Remember that this paragraph answers the questions: • “Who are you?” • “Why have you contacted me?” 3
  7. 7. Cover letters • “Why should I be interested in meeting you?” In other words, this paragraph immediately establishes your employment interest and generates interest in you. If you have a mutual acquaintance, or someone referred you to the individual you are writing, use that in your opening line: [Name of referring party] recommended that I contact you. Follow this with an explanation of what you are seeking, for example: As a first year law student at the University of Denver Sturm College of Law with a strong interest in natural resources law, I am very interested in pursuing a law clerk position with your firm. Or, something along these lines: [Referring party] has described your practice in the area of intellectual property as “cutting edge.” As a first year law student at the University Of Denver Sturm College Of Law with a technical background and keen interest in patent law, I am very interested in clerking for your firm. 2. The Body of the Letter – Paragraph Two This section of the letter describes specific training, achievements or experiences that highlight your strengths and abilities and demonstrate the value you can bring to this particular employer. Remember: don’t simply repeat the information in your resume. Highlight items of particular relevance to this employer in this paragraph. Keep in mind you are answering the employer’s unspoken question: Why should I meet you? 3. The Final Paragraph – Paragraph Three State your action plan! This is where you tell the employer what you will do in terms of follow up. Tell him her you will follow up within 10 days to see if an interview or meeting can be arranged. Thank the addressee for her time and consideration. Here are a few examples: I would appreciate the opportunity to meet with you to discuss the possibility of summer employment with your firm. I will be in Kansas City during my holiday break, December 15-31. If I haven’t heard from you before that time, I will call you to schedule an appointment. Thank you for your consideration. If my experience and background meet your requirements for a new associate, please contact me at the address or telephone number listed above. I look forward to hearing from you and appreciate your consideration. I would appreciate the opportunity to discuss how my background may fit your needs. I will contact you within the next two weeks to see if we might arrange a meeting. Thank you for your consideration. If for some reason you are unable to follow-up (generally not recommended), close by saying: If my experience and background meet your requirements for a new associate, please contact me at the address or telephone number listed above. I look forward to hearing from you and appreciate your consideration. EMAIL COVER LETTERS 4
  8. 8. Cover letters  Online cover letters are notoriously awful, poorly written throwaways. It's going over the Internet, but it's the same product. The cover is very important and should be the same quality as if you were mailing it.  Include the same type of information, in a shorter version. Don't rehash resume, tell them where you learned about the listing, why you're right for the job, and how they can reach you.  If you are including your resume as an attachment, make sure the prospective employer accepts attachments and then state in your cover letter the program you used to create the attachment. ("I've enclosed a resume written in Microsoft Word 2000") You also might want to include a cut and paste text version of your resume, in case the person reading the resume doesn't have the software to open your attachment.  Save a copy of whatever you send by including your own email address in the "BCC" field or by making sure a copy goes to your "Sent Mail" folder. This allows you to resend the letter if a problem pops up.  Do not fill in the recipient's email address until you've finished writing and editing the cover letter and resume. This prevents you from accidentally sending off the message before it is ready.  If you really want the job, follow up an emailed cover letter and resume with a hard copy in the mail to give you another chance for exposure. Include a cover letter in the hard copy also, and include, "I recently emailed you my resume and I'm following up with this hard copy." For formatting, stick to left-justified headers and four-inch wide text lines in your paragraphs. The address you're mailing to may have a small email page format that will awkwardly wrap text around the screen. Many email systems cannot handle text enhancements like bolding, bulleting, or underlining, so play it safe by using CAPITAL LETTERS -- or dashes -- if you need to make an emphasis. AVOID THESE COVER LETTER MISTAKES Your cover letter shows employers how well you express yourself. It can also demonstrate that you are savvy in the ways of marketing yourself and selling your best qualifications. A good cover letter can entice the recipient to review your resume. A bad cover letter, on the other hand, can nip your chances in the bud. Here are some mistakes that contribute to bad cover letters. To ensure that your cover letter is effective, make sure you don't commit any of the following errors. Some of these are obvious mistakes while others are easier to miss. But they all have one thing in common; you should avoid them at all costs! Oops! Despite the fact that companies consistently demand that applicants submit cover letters along with their resumes, many job seekers still believe the cover letter to be nothing but a mild formality. 5
  9. 9. Cover letters Sometimes they don't bother sending a cover letter at all or just one paragraph notes, quickly belted out with little thought. When you send a poor cover letter, you send the message that you can't get the job done, even when quality is essential. Unless you enjoy sitting around in the house ducking calls from bill collectors, that's not the kind of message you want to send. Too short is too bad Many people send one paragraph, two- or three-sentence throwaway notes in place of real cover letters. Or they confuse the cover letter with a dashed-off note, such as the fax coversheet. A cover letter should have three to four paragraphs, no paragraphs of over six lines long, with the longest one being the middle one or two, and the shortest one being the final, summation paragraph. The idea is to make the document brief and easily readable while still demonstrating a professional, thoughtful manner. Ms. Namachi, I am very interested in the position you have advertised and would very much enjoy working at Minton Advertising. Although I am only available for the summer, I hope that you can review my resume and that it might be possible for me to work at Minton this summer. Thank you for your consideration. Aatherine Breedon Failing to address the letter to the specific name of the recipient Addressing the letter to "Dear Personnel Director/HR Director," "To Whom It May Concern," "Dear Sir or Madam" (or worse, "Dear Sirs") instead of a named individual are all lazy approaches that show the employer that you were not concerned enough to find out the name of the person with the hiring power. It's not always easy to find the name of the specific hiring manager, but try to do so if at all possible. Usually, you can just call 6
  10. 10. Cover letters the company and ask who the hiring manager is for a given position. Tap into your personal network to learn the names of hiring managers. Let's say a company post an opening online. You know someone who works at the company. Ask your contact to find out the name of the person hiring for that position. Also use the library, phone book, and Internet to track down names of hiring managers. The worst-case scenario is that your letter will begin "Dear Hiring Manager for [name of position]:" It's not the best approach, but if you absolutely cannot find a name, this salutation does at least provide some specificity. Telling the employer what the company can do for you instead of what you can do for the company This mistake is particularly common among new college graduates and other inexperienced job-seekers. In most cases, employers are in business to make a profit. They want to know what you can do for their bottom line, not what they can do to fulfill your career dreams. Tell the employer how you can meet his or her needs and contribute to the company. Leaving the ball in the employer's court Too many cover letters end with a line like this: "I look forward to hearing from you." Proactive cover letters, in which the job-seeker requests an interview and promises to follow up with a phone call, are far more effective. Don't be vague about your desire to be interviewed. Come right out and ask for an interview. Then, take your specific action a step farther and tell the recipient that you will contact him or her in a specified period of time to arrange an interview appointment. Obviously, if you say you will follow up, you have to do so. If you take this proactive approach and follow up, you will be much more likely to get interviews than if you did not follow up. This follow-up aspect is another good reason to obtain the specific name of the hiring manager. Here's a sample closing paragraph requesting specific action and describing the writer's planned follow-up. I would like to be considered for a sales position in which someone of my background could make a contribution. I will contact you soon to arrange for an interview. Should you require any additional information, I can be contacted at the phone numbers listed above. Being boring and formulaic Don't waste your first paragraph by writing a boring introduction. Use the first paragraph to grab the employer's attention. Tell the employer why you are writing and summarize the reasons you are qualified for the position, expanding on your qualifications in later paragraphs. Don't use such clichés as "Enclosed please find my resume" or "As you can see on my resume enclosed herewith." Employers can see that your resume is enclosed; they don't need you to tell them. Such trite phrases just waste precious space. Write a letter that will make the employer want to get to know you better. Silliness In attempt to let their personality and humor soak through the cotton-bound paper, many applicants try to make their cover letters funny. But these attempts rarely work. You have no way of knowing if your prospective boss shares your sense of humor. More broadly speaking, the cover letter offers a sample of your ability to conduct business-like communications. Clowning around can disguise your professionalism. Poor grammar and misspellings No one wants to make grammatical or spelling errors, but applicants nevertheless consistently submit cover letters with small, thoughtless, yet deadly errors. 7
  11. 11. Cover letters Many problems slip through because people have a difficult time seeing the mistakes in their own writing. So ask someone else to proofread the cover letter for you. 1£ that's not possible, read the document aloud, slowly and word by word. Every time you make a correction, read the whole document over again. Writers make many mistakes during the final editing process as they make corrections, particularly with tense and word placements. Michel James 150-1321st Avenue NY 11377 (718) 204-2113 December 19, 2004 I am actively seeking an opportunity for enhanced career growth - ideally, a challenge in which my administrative abilities could be utilized to there fullest. Increasingly responsible experience has enabled me to develop the kinds of experience that I would bring to any position. One particular characteristic of my work has been the degree of initiative that has been required and that, in fact, I have demonstrated, and my colleagues have continued to recognize my professional skill and facility at meeting organization objectives. I am a highly organized individual who is able to juggle many different types of tasks simultaneously, as evident in my current position. For your review I have enclosed my resume qualifications and work experiences to date. that summarizes both educational I fully realize that this brief letter can not describe either the range of benefits I would bring to any position or the types of results I would hope to produce. Therefore, I would greatly appreciate the opportunity of speaking with you personally at your earliest convenience. Sincerely, Michel James 8
  12. 12. Cover letters Rehashing your resume You can use your cover letter to highlight the aspects of your resume that are relevant to the position, but you're wasting precious space -- and the potential employer's time -- if you simply repeat your resume. Rambling on too long and telling the story of your life/career Keep you letter as brief as possible. Never, never more than one page. Keeping to four or five paragraphs of no more than three sentences each is a good guideline. Using bullet points in the letter is a good way to break up blocks of text and interest the reader. Some job-seekers tend to use their cover letters to provide a narrative of their life or career. That's not what the letter is all about; it's a marketing tool that should focus on the qualifications that will sell you to the employer. Your letter should answer the question that the employer will be asking while reading the words you've written: "Why should I hire this person?" Answer with your Unique Selling Proposition. Use simple language and uncomplicated sentence structure. Ruthlessly eliminate all unnecessary words. Using wimpy language Avoid such phrases as "I feel" and "I believe." Your statements will be much stronger without them. It's best to either leave off the qualifier or use a stronger qualifier, such as "I am confident," I am convinced," or "I am positive." 9
  13. 13. Cover letters Sample Cover Letter (No Work Experience/Fresher) March 16, 2006 123 Some Street Winnipeg, Manitoba R2W 0L7 Mr. Kumar Research Director Unicity Laboratories 780 Wolseley Avenue Winnipeg, Manitoba R3G 1C6 Dear Mr. Kumar, I am writing to apply for the position of Biological Technician, as advertised on your homepage March 10, 2007. Your recent move into the field of food safety and quality is of particular interest to me as I plan to pursue a career in this area. Recently I graduated from the University of Manitoba with a Bachelor of Science (Honours) majoring in Biology. This program allowed me the opportunity to learn and practice the various microbiological analysis procedures necessary for this type of research. Of particular relevance is the research project I completed in my final year on Paralytic Shellfish Poison. Through this work, I developed a strong understanding of the types and causes of bacterial food poisoning, as well as the necessary extraction and bioassay procedures used for detection. As many of my lab assignments involved working in groups, I have developed strong teamwork skills, and enjoy such an environment. I will contact you the week of March 25, 2006 to ensure that you received this resume and to answer any questions which you may have. Thank you for your consideration. Sincerely, Jasica Bedi 10
  14. 14. Cover letters Sample Cover Letter (Replying to an advertised job - Financial Services) Jill West 24 Third Ave COOGEE NSW 2256 Ph: 9555 7983 March 26th , 2006 Mr. Joshi Human Resources Manager Childrens Hospital Westmead WESTMEAD NSW 2444 Dear Mr. Joshi, Re: Financial Services Manager The Financial Services Manager position, advertised in the newspaper ‘The Tribune’ on 23/12/06, caught my attention as it involves the challenge of improving financial reporting procedures company wide and the application of specialist management and taxation accounting knowledge. I have been seeking just such an opportunity as this, and I think my background in Financial Services would complement your requirements very well. Of particular interest for you and the members of your team are my strong accomplishments in:  reorganizing accounting and invoicing functions to achieve improved operating efficiency.  improving cash flow for the institution as a whole.  reducing outstanding invoices. Examples of specific achievements are:  reduced the average turnaround time for invoices from 32 to 24 days.  reduced casual staff hours from 56 to 41 per month with concurrent decrease in training hours required.  improved cash flow by $1.2 million per month. My contributions to the department in my current role have been achieved by improving information flow, increasing the efficiency of our internal processes and procedures, and improving cooperation between our department and the departments with which we interact. After five years in my current role, I have a thorough 11
  15. 15. Cover letters understanding of every aspect of this function. Although my current employer is very happy with my performance, I am seeking new challenges and the opportunity to develop my skills in a management role. If you are seeking a Financial Manager who stays abreast of her field, who understands a range of financial systems, who is an enthusiastic team member and who is committed to achieving organisation-wide success, then please consider what I have to offer. My C.V. is enclosed for your review. I would be happy to have a preliminary discussion with you or members of your committee to discuss the requirements of the position. I will call you within the week to answer any initial questions you may have and to provide any further documentation you may require. Thank you for your consideration of my application. I look forward to exploring this opportunity further. Yours sincerely, Amit Mehta 12
  16. 16. Cover letters 13
  17. 17. Cover letters Sample Cover Letter (Sending an application where you have been told there is a position) Ravinder singh 111 Harris Street FIVE DOCK NSW 2046 Ph: 9712 2222 Email: 20 October 2000 Ms Vanessa Watson Marketing Director Comspec Incorporated 111 Kent Street SYDNEY NSW 2000 Dear Ms Watson Public Relations Position Sunita Rao, a mutual acquaintance, recently passed on the information that you may soon have an opening in your Public Relations Department. If so, I am interested in being considered for the position as I would value the opportunity to undertake the constant communication challenges and changes as they arise at Comspec. My research about Comspec shows that it thrives in the competitive financial technology industry through well researched and strategic relationship marketing and through tight product branding. Both strategies were heavily utilized by my project team in a major marketing project I completed at university. In December I completed a Bachelor’s Degree, majoring in Media and Communications, with a second major in Marketing and a stream of subjects in publication relations, from the University of New South Wales. This hands-on course provided me with skills in media liaison, copy writing, editing, branding, account management and relationship marketing. Complementing my education based skills were the skills in desktop publishing, web page design and press release drafting gained from summer vacation work experience in public relations for a fast growing technology firm. The enclosed resume provides specific details about my experience, skills and qualifications. Please feel free to visit my personal web site at where you can view samples of my web designs, writing and press releases. Should you wish to meet with me to discuss my suitability for a position with your company, please telephone me on 98888 3333 or email me at I will call you in one week, if I do not hear from you sooner. Thank you very much for your consideration. Yours sincerely Ravinder singh 14
  18. 18. Cover letters Sample Cover Letter (Email version) March 14, 2007 Ms. Mary Prince Director of Personnel Large National Bank Corporation Roanoke, VA 124040 Dear Ms. Prince: As I indicated in our telephone conversation yesterday, I would like to apply for the marketing research position you advertised in the March 12th edition of the Roanoke Times and World News. With my undergraduate research background, my training in psychology and sociology, and my work experience, I believe I could make a valuable contribution to Large National Bank Corporation in this position. In May I will complete my Bachelor of Science in Psychology with a minor in Sociology from Georga Polytechnic Institute and State University. As part of the requirements for this degree, I am involved in a senior marketing research project that has given me experience interviewing and surveying research subjects and assisting with the analysis of the data collected. I also have completed a course in statistics and research methods. In addition to academic work, my experience also includes working part-time as a bookkeeper in a small independent bookstore with an annual budget of approximately $150,000. Because of the small size of this business, I have been exposed to and participated in most aspects of managing a business, including advertising and marketing. As the bookkeeper, I produced monthly sales reports that allow the owner/buyer to project seasonal inventory needs. I also assisted with the development of ideas for special promotional events and calculated book sales proceeds after each event in order to evaluate its success. I believe that the combination of my business experience and social science research training is well-suited to the marketing research position you described. I have enclosed a copy of my resume with additional information about my qualifications. Thank you for your consideration. I look forward to receiving your reply. Sincerely, Jessica Bedi 210 Prices Fork Road Blacksburg, VA 124060 (5140) 552-1234 Resume text included in email below and attached as MS Word document 15
  19. 19. Cover letters Sample Cover Letter (Sending an application where there has been no advertisement) Mohit Saha 23/11 Crown Street MELBOURNE VIC 3000 Ph: 99885566 Email: 20 October 2006 Mr Graham Sharpe Human Resources Officer Sunbeam 222 George Street SYDNEY NSW 2000 Dear Mr Sharpe I understand that your firm is expanding its operations in Australia in line with its commitment to a global growth strategy. As a recent university graduate with a degree in Business Management, I am well prepared to deal with the tasks involved in managing resources and staff in an expanding organizational climate. Now that my studies have been successfully completed, I would like to offer my services to your company. You will see that along with my academic preparation, I have substantial marketing experience gained through part-time employment and an internship in Sydney with Kelvinator. At Kelvinator, I assisted the Marketing Manager in a re-branding project for two major product lines, which has boosted sales for those product lines by 25% and 35%. These projects further developed my project management, market research and product development skills. My work record in these situations has been exemplary, as evidenced by my enclosed performance reports. During my recent studies in Business Management, I achieved a solid credit average in my results overall and a distinction average in the marketing major. These results reflect well-developed analytical and problem solving skills, thorough research skills and a solid theoretical underpinning in business and marketing theory. With relevant marketing experience, management capabilities and strong interest in product development, I am seeking an entry-level position in marketing, product development or business management with Sunbeam and I am available for part-time or full time employment. Thank you for your consideration. Yours sincerely Mohit Saha 16
  20. 20. Cover letters Sample Cover Letter (Cover Letter of a Electrical Engineer in Response to a Classified Ad) Naveen Kumar 1111 First Street | Anytown, ST 00000 | 123-456-7890 | May 21, 2007 Ms. Nancy Wilson Vice President of Engineering XYZ Engineering Corporation 1233 Elm Street Anytown, ST 12345 Dear Ms. Wilson: Please consider me for the entry level Electrical Engineering position that is currently available with your company. My enthusiasm and dedication earned me a GPA of 4.0 in the electrical engineering program at the Acme Institute of Technology, as well as several academic awards and honors outlined on the attached résumé. Challenging projects have always attracted my interest. Both inside and outside the classroom, I have assumed leadership roles and have been able to creatively solve problems. As President of the Student Chapter of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, I served as project manager for the annual engineering competition where our college engineering team designed and built a robotic mouse that beat out all other college teams competing in the competition. Immediately after graduating, I worked for several months as an intern for an electronics company where I was able to design a circuit board text fixture that reduced my employer's testing costs significantly. During the past two years, I have been employed as a Developmental Technician at Acme University where I have consistently demonstrated my ability to perform any tasks assigned with little or no supervision. I am quite adept at multi-tasking, performing various electrical, mechanical and IT duties as outlined on my résumé. I feel confident that my education and experience would make me an excellent candidate for this position. Thank you for your consideration and I look forward to meeting you. Sincerely, Naveen Kumar 17
  21. 21. Cover letters Sample Cover Letter (Letter of inquiry about employment possibilities, e-mail version by (Mechanical engineer) December 12, 2006 Mr. Robert Burns President, Template Division MEGATEK Corporation 9845 Technical Way Arlington, VA 22207 Dear Mr. Burns: I learned of MEGATEK through online research using the Career Search database through Career Services at Virginia Tech where I am completing my Master's degree in Mechanical Engineering. From my research on your web site, I believe there would be a good fit between my skills and interests and your needs. I am interested in a software engineering position upon completion of my degree in May 2008. As a graduate student, I am one of six members on a software development team where we are writing a computer aided aircraft design program for NASA. My responsibilities include designing, coding, and testing of a graphical portion of the program which requires the use of GIARO for graphics input and output. I have a strong background in computer aided design, software development, and engineering, and believe that these skills would benefit the designing and manufacturing aspects of Template software. Enclosed is my resume which further outlines my qualifications. My qualifications make me well suited to the projects areas in which your division of MEGATEK is expanding efforts. I would appreciate the opportunity to discuss a position with you, and will contact you in a week or ten days to answer any questions you may have and to see if you need any other information from me such as a company application form or transcripts. Thank you for your consideration. Sincerely, John Stevens 123 Ascot Lane Blacksburg, VA 24060 (540) 555-2556 18
  22. 22. Cover letters Sample Cover Letter for a Teacher 1456 South Street (621) 554-5555 Port Jefferson, NY 11777 <Date> <Name of Hiring Authority, Title> <Name of Institution> <Address> <City, State Zip> Dear <Mr. or Ms.><Last Name>: I am writing in response to your opening for the position of <Title> at <Name of University>. The opportunity to teach and inspire students within your university is an exciting prospect that I feel qualified for and fully able to undertake. Please allow me to explain briefly my philosophy regarding academic leadership and how I could contribute to the growth and success of your institution. Providing quality, broad-based academic direction and leadership remains one of the core catalysts for success in higher education institutions today. In my instructional career, I have demonstrated the ability to develop complete curricula for a variety of courses and influence student improvement through quality lectures, discussions, assignments, and assessments. In my current position as Associate Professor with the Katharine Gibbs School, I have also worked with organizations within the community to provide internship and job opportunities to students and graduates, respectively. What I bring to the position that may be unique among candidates is my 8-year background in the human services field. In working with clients suffering from various illnesses and conditions, I have gained experience in developing strategies that address both short-term and long-term needs. I feel this experience augments my instructional background and would provide a unique perspective to students in my future classes. My résumé is enclosed to provide you with additional details concerning my background and qualifications for this position. I am certain an interview would fully reveal my abilities and enthusiasm for the opportunity to contribute to your faculty. Thank you for your time and consideration. Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any questions. Sincerely , N.Kumar 19
  23. 23. Cover letters Sample Cover letter with mentioning of salary requirement N.Kumar 1189 Laurel Lane Cohasset, MA 02025 Residence (721) 255-5555 (Date) (Name of Hiring Manager, Title) (Name of Company) (Addres (City, State Zip) Dear (Mr. Or Ms.)(Last Name): It was with great interest that I read your advertisement for the position of Position Title. Please allow me to explain how my skills and qualifications could contribute to your firm. Through strategic planning, persistence, and superior business development initiatives, I am confident I can help your staff increase sales and meet company goals in customer growth and sales expansion. My sales and management experience has strengthened my ability to analyze customer needs, co-develop and present appropriate solutions, and win over both prospective and existing customers. Some of my achievements that illustrate the type of performance I can bring to your company include: - REVENUE GROWTH – As a Senior Account Manager with Red Rim Technologies, 150% of my sales quota by combining account relationship nurturing and solutions development with my own professional development activities. - NEW BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT – As a Global Sales Director with Intercup Technologies, I identified and captured opportunities for new business development, qualifying $160 million pipeline. - TEAM GROWTH – As a Regional Sales Manager with LIO, I led a team of 40 through an accelerated growth and market expansion, achieving an average of 133% of quota. In short, I am an outcome-driven professional with a winning approach to sales development and business growth, and I would enjoy bringing this degree of dedication to your organization. In terms of salary, I’m certain that your organization offers a fair compensation package. I look forward to an interview and I can provide you with details concerning my qualifications and accomplishments. I will contact you next week to follow up on this letter of inquiry; perhaps we could arrange a meeting to discuss our mutual interests. Thank you for your time and consideration. Sincerely, N.Kumar Enclosure 20
  24. 24. Cover letters Executive Cover Letter Example JOHN SMITH 123 Southern Drive, East Islip, NY 11730 Phone: (621) 535-5555 (Date) (Name of Hiring Manager, Title) (Name of Company) (Address) (City, State Zip) Dear (Mr. Or Ms.)(Last Name): Please accept my resume in consideration for the Position Title position with your organization. With extensive management experience and consistent success in the achievement of objectives, I am confident I will contribute the same level of performance as a member of your team. My experience in management extends over 20 years as I have progressed from smaller-scale companies to my current role as Director of Financial Services for an $80 million commercial printing firm. Although my achievements span this entire period, I would like to mention a few representative contributions with my current employer to illustrate the skills and abilities I offer: - TECHNOLOGY/DATA SOLUTIONS – Continually seeking techniques and strategies for improvement, I have created spreadsheets and databases to strengthen analysis and processing tasks; in turn, our company has realized dramatic reductions in turnaround times for work completion. - TEAM MANAGEMENT – I have trained, mentored, and evaluated teams across multiple departments and functions, including my current responsibility for 17 personnel with diverse backgrounds. - BOTTOM-LINE ORIENTATION – Profit building and sustained growth have been the basis and result from our business decisions; we have achieved over $300,000 in savings from our partnership arrangements and secured cost reductions in other areas that have added to bottom-line success. These achievements span various functions; thus, I have demonstrated the ability to meet and exceed expectations in a variety of environments. And I am certain that I will contribute the same level of performance with your organization. To provide you with details concerning my qualifications and accomplishments, my résumé is enclosed. I would welcome a meeting to discuss our mutual interests and the results you can expect from me. Thank you for your time and consideration. Sincerely, John Smith Enclosure 21
  25. 25. Cover letters Administrative Cover Letter Example Terri Evenson 4651 Dock Road Bay Shore, NY 11706 Phone: (631) 533-5555 Email: (Date) (Name of Hiring Authority, Title) (Name of Company) (Address) (City, State Zip) Dear (Mr. or Ms.)(Last Name): I read your advertisement for an Administrative Assistant with great interest and enthusiasm, as my skills and qualifications match your requirements for this position. Therefore, I am submitting my résumé for your review and consideration. Please allow me to explain briefly the contribution I would make with your organization. Throughout my 18+ -year career as an administrative assistant, I have demonstrated proficiency in all core office administration functions, including document preparation, internal/external communications, data and records management, meeting scheduling, and task prioritization. In short, I can manage the office without supervision, juggle multiple tasks effectively, and maintain confidentiality with highly sensitive materials and matters. In addition, I have experience in supervising staff and working with high net worth clients, both of which require extra attention to the “people management” side of business. Through successfully managing both internal and external relationships, I have accelerated the achievement of goals and positioned myself as a valuable resource in a variety of situations. I would bring to your district not only these administrative skills, but also a positive, cooperative attitude that I have displayed throughout my career. I maintain calm under pressure and adapt to meet the unique needs of each organization. Again, my résumé will detail the required skills and background you seek. I would welcome the opportunity for an interview at your convenience, and I thank you in advance for your time and consideration. Sincerely, Terri Evenson Enclosure 22
  26. 26. Cover letters Sample Cover letter for Part time job Hary Peterson Hivehere Avenue, #3 * Loserville, CA 40332 * Phone * E-mail July 14, 2000 (Name of Hiring Authority, Title) (Name of Company) (Address) (City, State Zip) Dear (Mr. or Ms.) (Last Name): I was very excited to learn of your advertisement for a part-time Advertising Coordinator for your downtown Chicago office. As a writer, administrator, theatre artist, and instructor, I have a great deal of experience in producing effective copy for a variety of venues. I believe these wide-ranging experiences would make me an excellent candidate for your position. Having recently completed my Ph.D. in English (Northwestern University), I have produced and presented written materials for both specialist and non-specialist audiences. Both in the classroom and in presenting research materials to my colleagues, I have mastered the ability to 'pitch' my writing to a diverse audience. Outside of academe, I have demonstrated similar editorial and public relations skills. From 1995-1997, I served as the Educational Programs Coordinator at the Center for Talent Development (Northwestern University). In this position, I was responsible for the design, marketing, staffing and implementation of four education programs. My duties included many tasks which attest to my skill in tailoring my writing to meet an array of different requirements:    Writing and revising brochure copy, I kept our students abreast of the latest developments in our programming. Generating new advertisement copy, I attracted new students, parents and teachers to the Center. Corresponding with teachers, parents, school officials, and community members, I created templates for a variety of Center communications. My experience as an intern in the Development Department at Steppen Theatre as well attests to my skill at written communication. During my internship, I prepared the theatre's application for a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. As part of this project, I revised essays 'on-file' from past applications and composed new essays to publicize the theatre's developing goals and projects. I would like the opportunity to use these skills in the field of advertising, and am eager to discuss any openings with you. Thank you for your consideration. Sincerely, Hary Peterson 23
  27. 27. How to Create Curriculum Vitae Chapter How to Create Curriculum Vitae Contents 1. Introduction 2. Difference between CV Resume 3. Different CV formats 4. CV formats in different countries 5. Appearance of CV 6. Sections of CV 7. Tips for fresher 1
  28. 28. How to Create Curriculum Vitae Introduction Curriculum Vitae (also referred to as “CV,” or “vita,”) is a Latin term translated as “the course of one’s life or career.” It is a document that summarizes your identity as a scholar. While the CV’s conventional purpose is to provide a comprehensive and detailed description of your educational and academic background and experiences/accomplishments, its strategic purpose is to entice the reader to invite you for an interview. While there is not one standard format, the information that follows is intended to help you design a CV in a way that enables search committees to immediately and easily identify your most relevant and important attributes. Difference between Curriculum Vitae (CV) and Resume When applying for jobs, internships, fellowships, and academic programs, you will often be asked to submit a resume or curriculum vitae (CV). These documents chronicle your prior work history, highlight awards and academic achievements, and assert your qualifications.. They have the same intent which is to state the facts about the applicant’s education, work experience, skills and accomplishments. The main difference between the two is the way these facts are presented. The resume is the brief summary of the individual’s work history, educational attainment and relevant skills and accomplishment to 2
  29. 29. How to Create Curriculum Vitae the job being applied. An individual can create several resume for different positions or different companies. Resume by standard should be concise and relevant to the position being applied. It should be tailored to fit the requirement of the prospective company or employer. No unnecessary achievements or skills must be mention because it would rather gain an impression of audacity. Personal details in Resume are likewise limited to residence address, contact details, date of birth, civil status and nationality. The Curriculum Vitae on the other hand bear all the information of an individual. Every detail of education, employment, achievements and skills are listed with the addition of the organizations or affiliations, licenses and commendations. All previous work experiences must be properly listed with elaborated job descriptions. It allows the individuals to elaborate the oldest achievement or the earliest award they received in the past. All trainings and seminars attended are likewise listed in the Curriculum Vitae. Thus, Curriculum Vitae are actually longer than Resume. It is this reason that Curriculum Vitae are usually used when applying in academic, medical, scientific and overseas jobs because employers in these industries prefer to know each applicant thoroughly. The terms resume and CV are used in different ways all over the world. In the United States and in the English-speaking areas of Canada, the word resume is used predominantly. Furthermore, these regions have begun to accept longer resumes that reflect CVs. Therefore, in these regions, the term CV is not particularly necessary. The term CV is used more often in Ireland, England, Scotland, New Zealand, and French Canada. In India and Australia, however, the terms are generally interchangeable. DIFFERENT CV FORMATS Do you know that there are a number of different ways to lay out your CV? Depending on your career situation, there might be a more 3
  30. 30. How to Create Curriculum Vitae appropriate format that will bring you better results. Each has advantages and disadvantages, so it's important to consider them all before reaching a decision on which will work for you. Chronological CV If you're planning to change jobs but continue working in the same field, the Chronological CV is probably the best option. This is the most traditional format and the one you're probably most familiar with. It's also good if you're changing fields but remaining in a very similar kind of job. Your career history is shown in reverse chronological order, with a strong emphasis on job titles and the names of your employers. This is good if your current or previous employers are wellknown organizations. It also shows your career development clearly, meaning that promotions show up well. People like the Chronological CV because it is clear and easy to read. Functional CV If you've had a varied career or are seeking to change direction, this format may be suitable, as it highlights the main achievements and functions (skills, competencies or expertise) of your work history. Job titles and company names are reduced in importance and sometimes even left out altogether. The Functional CV may strengthen your application if you want to draw attention to skills that haven't been used in your most recent work. It also works if you've had many varied jobs, as it allows you to sum up your overall experience. Yet there are instances when this isn't the most appropriate format. Promotions aren't as prominent, as your list of positions is included on the second page. For the same reason, highly prestigious past employers may not be noticed (although you could highlight them in your profile and covering letter). If you haven't had many responsibilities, this CV could make your experience look narrow. Another disadvantage is that some employers may not like this format - recruitment personnel are aware that it can be used to conceal weak areas. Targeted CV This type of CV emphasizes the skills and experiences that are directly relevant to the kind of job or field you're applying for. It's extremely useful when you're planning a change of career direction. It focuses on your abilities and achievements used not just recently, but across your entire career. It can encompass relevant voluntary or unpaid experience. It also means that you can aim for several completely different jobs, using a CV that's adjusted for each. 4
  31. 31. How to Create Curriculum Vitae The disadvantages are that your promotions or career development won't be as obvious, as the information will be on the second page (if included). Employers' names are downplayed and, as with the Functional CV, this format isn't liked by all recruiters. Alternative CV This kind of CV is most often used by talented people seeking work in the creative industries - e.g. design, media or public relations - as it is highly individual and uses a one-off visual style. It's suitable only for applications for posts requiring exception visual or verbal talent, and then only when the application is being made directly to the person the applicant will be working for. Even then, it could fail completely if it hits the wrong note. This kind of CV should never be sent to personnel departments or for advertised vacancies. It is totally unsuitable for senior managers or executives seeking to hold positions of responsibility. CV FORMATS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES The world over employers' look for the same qualities in their applicants regardless of whether the job is in London, Singapore or Japan. However candidates should be aware that there may be subtle conventions associated with the application process within different countries. In general what goes into your CV does not vary tremendously when applying for jobs in different countries. In some cases it is better to show more, and in others best to show less. It may be appropriate to include a list of previous positions, detailing your duties, responsibilities, names, dates, locations professional memberships and references. It may be appropriate to put actual titles and dates of speeches and presentations you have given or articles you published. It is possible that employers in some countries will want to know your religion and passport number The length of your CV varies greatly in different countries, for example in Greece employers are of the opinion that bigger is better. If your information spans more than four pages it is recommended that you write a one or two page summary featuring all of your details in a condensed form . Indian CV When applying for a job in India your CV should include your Name, Address/Email/Phone number at the top followed by your career objectives. This should contain usage of professional/business language, the potential contributions you can make to the company, mention your potential strengths that have relevance to the job, specify the level of responsibility you can handle. Continue with your professional experience, key 5
  32. 32. How to Create Curriculum Vitae Achievements, relevant. education, projects and any other activities you deem U.K As part of your job application, you should include a one-page, tailored, cover letter. The letter should be business-like, typed on good quality white or ivory paper, and addressed to a specific person. Your enclosed resume may be two to three pages, depending on your experience. Start with your name, address, contact information, birth date, marital status, and nationality. If you are a non-EU citizen, clarify your work permit status. In what is called the profile section, give your professional designation (e.g., CPA), and immediate ambitions; then, in bullet-format, list relevant skills and a few work-related achievements. Begin your employment history by describing your current position. Following the profile section, provide the name, location, and focus of each company, and your title and responsibilities. If you are new to the job market, you may include temporary or part-time positions. The last major section is education. In reverse-chronological order (most recent listed first) list schools attended, locations, areas of study, and diplomas/degrees. Mention additional courses and training, and special skills such as foreign language fluency and computer programs in which you are proficient. At the end, it is sufficient to say: References are available on request. Japan If you are applying your CV should be ordered by topic: educational background, work history (employment), membership or affiliations, skills (such as languages, computer skills, certifications, etc), and on occasion your hobbies and interests (though not always advised). Under each topic your experiences should be presented in reverse chronological order (most recent activity first). Attribute information such as name, age, sex comes first, followed by academic/job background, then qualifications. Your career objectives come last and are paid the least emphasis. This fact might imply that Japanese recruitment attaches utmost importance on the applicant itself, especially his/her attributes, and pays less attention to his/her ability or careers. 6
  33. 33. How to Create Curriculum Vitae Australia Your CV should show your Name, Address, Phone Number, Age, and Nationality, Education subjects taken and results for last two years of secondary school. Any tertiary, trade, or recreational courses done in part or full (even if only a hobby class…in gardening or something) List any work experience you have - both full and part-time jobs. Note the job, employer and date you commenced and date you left. Also note experience outside of employment (e.g. Grew up on farm, helped parents with veggie garden, collected stamps since I was ten). Any awards or positions of responsibility held, e.g. president of club, football team captain, Queen's scout etc.Skills list - all your relevant skills e.g. typing speed of 45wpm, commercial drivers license. Etc. Denmark Speculative applications are often successful in Denmark. Your CV should be short and neatly presented or two pages, including only the most relevant details. Start with your personal details, followed in reverse chronological order by your education, your work experience and extra-curricular activities. Recent graduates should give their examination grades. If you have work experience, emphasize your practical experience. You do not have to attach a picture, but sometimes a Polaroid is taken during the first interview. Start your application letter not with 'Dear Mr/Ms X', but write at the beginning 'For the attention of Mr/Ms X'. Russia CVs are normally handwritten and very detailed. Russian employers expect a biography in full sentences, explaining everything you have done Austria You start your CV with your personal details, including name, address, telephone number with international access code, your place and date of birth and your civil status. The Austrian CV is in reversed chronological order, detailing your most recent activities first. After your personal details, you mention your education, including the results, followed by your language skills and your practical experience (include apprenticeships, since Austrian employers attach great importance to it). Extra-curricular activities, such as hobbies, special interests and voluntary work, are mentioned at the end. Pay special attention to 7
  34. 34. How to Create Curriculum Vitae this last category, since Austrian employers find extra-curricular activities important. Attach a photo to your CV (put your personal details on the back) and put the date on your CV and sign it (like in Germany). France French companies will expect you to send a hand written covering letter (the only exceptions are to be found in some parts of the IT sector), as they are very keen on graphology and use it as part of the selection process (approximately 85% of French employers use it!) Your resume itself should be relatively short, with a maximum pages. If you are a new job seeker, it may be even shorter. with personal information: name, address, phone, and e-mail. data, such as birth date, marital status, and children are of two Begin Personal optional. Begin the section on education with your most recent study, and then list all schools attended, ending with your high (secondary) school. Give the name and location of each, your areas of study, degrees, and dates of attendance. Also, mention any additional courses, internships or specialized training. In the Work Experience section, list for each position the dates, the name, location, size, and type of company, and your title(s) and responsibilities. If you have many years of work experience, the education section follows your employment history. At the end of the resume, you should list special competencies (such as level of expertise in foreign language, and computer skills), professional affiliations and volunteer experience, if relevant. State that references are available on request. Germany The German CV is always in strict chronological order with a photo (put your details on the back of the picture) attached with a paper clip to the top right hand corner. Sign your CV on the bottom right, opposite the date in the left corner. It is common to mention your civil status (including children), your sc76hool results and whether you have a driving license. Previously, the civil status rubric 8
  35. 35. How to Create Curriculum Vitae also contained parents' names and professions and your religion, but this is no longer very common. Mind your style of writing; poetic descriptions and boasting is not appreciated by German recruiters. Start with your personal details (name, address, telephone number with international access code, place and date of birth, civil status), followed by your education including the results and work experience (do not forget to mention apprenticeships). Make sure there are no 'gaps' in your CV, hence the importance of mentioning your complete education. However, if there are 'gaps', ensure you mention the reason, even report periods of unemployment. German companies do not wish to know about your personal interests, only mentioned them when relevant for the job. Language skills and areas of interest are given in a German CV. Applicants are expected to include evidence of their accomplishments, so you present your CV in a binder and include copies of all your educational certificates and any references from former employers. Your CV should be signed at the bottom. Ireland Irish CVs have no standard length. But many employers prefer them short, maximum two pages. A CV should only give facts and figures. Your motivation, skills and qualities for the job have to be mentioned in your letter, not your CV. Information in the CV can either be presented in chronological or reverse chronological order. Start with your personal details (often without place of birth or religion), education (recent graduates should include results and courses attended), work experience (with exact dates) and leisure activities. In Ireland a great deal of emphasis is placed upon extra-curricular activities and personal achievements. Put them in your CV. Recent graduates should always mention anything they have done outside their academic study. USA The words Curriculum and Vitae are much too complicated for the average American to pronounce so they call it a CV instead. Exclude anything from your CV that might prospective employers a chance to discriminate against you for example , personal details such as age, sex, marital status, whether you hold a current driving license. Never include a photo. You are trying to sell a product- you Canada In Canada the job application procedure is more commercial than in most other Western countries. In result both the cover letter and the resume (Canadians use résumés instead of CVs) should contain power words and action verbs that show accomplishment and action. 9
  36. 36. How to Create Curriculum Vitae The resume (two pages: less if you have had little or no work experience), includes the following: • • • • • • Contact information, centered at the top. Education, listing colleges and/or universities attended, dates of attendance, courses of study, and diplomas or degrees. In this section, you should also mention extra courses or training, internships, and foreign travel. List this information in reverse-chronological order. Work experience, giving the firm name, your title(s), dates of employment and responsibilities. State whether the work was temporary or part-time. If you have no job at the present, you should mention that fact also. Once again, the information should be listed in reverse-chronological order. Other skills, such as computer, and language fluency. Personal information, such as relevant volunteer activities and hobbies. Three references, with their titles and contact information. In Canada, it is illegal for a prospective employer to ask your marital status, sexual orientation, race, or age, or to request a photo. Swiss CV The aim of your Swiss CV should be to persuade the employer to invite you for an interview. Therefore, your CV is a marketing tool, which should be adapted to the market in which you intend to use it. Check in advance, within the company you are seeking employment with, what is the main language. Use the English language CV for international companies, unless they specify otherwise. The English CV is typed on one to two pages of A4 format paper in reverse-chronological order - starting with what you have done most recently. The Swiss CV in German is longer and typed on two to three pages of A4 format paper in chronological order, very detailed and has attachments, such as grades, references, etc. A photo is usually attached to the top right corner. Both Swiss CV should include your personal details, education, qualifications and practical experience. Often CVs are kept on file for lengthy periods, so any contact details you give have to remain accurate in the long term. A daytime phone number, with the international access code and e-mail are most important. 10
  37. 37. How to Create Curriculum Vitae Swiss recruiters attach great importance to work experience, so make your CV more effective by providing examples to prove your achievements that might interests your future employer. Mention your native tongue and describe level of fluency for the other languages. Reveal your computer literacy. Extracurricular activities, hobbies and interests are optional. Carefully consider what to leave out of your CV. On a separate sheet, include two or three references. APPEARANCE OF CV CV writing is a controversial subject - part art, part science. If you ask any two people their idea of the perfect CV, you are likely to get two different and rather subjective responses. However, there are a number of 'do's, 'don't's and common pitfalls, which most personnel professionals would agree on. If you bear these in mind when preparing your CV, you stand a much better chance of surviving the 'CV cull'! Font Don't get creative. Really. What you want in a font is not a decorative design choice, but a simple, easily read font that shows you mean business. In other words, when looking for a font, think black or gray suit. Unacceptable Fonts: Courier font: if you didn't have to write your cover letter on a typewriter, why make it look like you did? This font looks like the default font of a malfunctioning computer and is also notorious as the typeface that mediocre high school students use because of its massive, page-filling size. Do you really want such a dishonest font representing your words? • Say no to anything that looks remotely like handwriting or hints at it, like italicized versions of regular fonts. This is a business document, not a thank you note to a neighbor. And these fonts are difficult to read. 11
  38. 38. How to Create Curriculum Vitae • • Avoid any font that looks like it would be more appropriate on a mediaeval manuscript or the label of a malt liquor bottle. No Ye Olde Fonts. No~ historical-period fonts at all, for that matter. Recommended fonts include Time~ New Roman or Arial Helvetica. Remember: what impresses readers the most should not be the letters on the page but the words they spell. Paper A stroll through most business supply stores will reveal a sea of paper choices, from traditional plain white to hot pink and purple. Outlandishly colored resumes are to be used by people whose jobs demand more dramatic visual statements: hairdressers, fashion designers, and clowns. The rest of us need to focus on the understated dignity of whites, light grays, and ecru. Use the same paper for your cover letter and envelope as you use for your resume. Length Far too long - Probably the principal mistake people make when preparing their own CVs. We keep CVs brief and cut out the waffle - 2 pages is generally a maximum, and for those with little experience, writing a 1 page CV generally makes more sense. We also use other techniques such as bullet pointing - these help make your CV easier to read; they help make it punchy. In other words: be concise. Only provide information on (training) courses, software knowledge, hobbies and references that is relevant. Bear in mind that a CV does not have to be an autobiography or life story! 12
  39. 39. How to Create Curriculum Vitae Order The conventional order is: personal details; education; work experience; interests; skills; referees. However, you are free to change this if your own life or the type of work fits another order eg; a mature applicant might prefer work experience before education. You can include other headings if you feel they are relevant e.g achievements, career aim, positions of responsibility. The choice is yours, but don't overdo it. Include many facts List your job duties beneath each position. List your achievements, responsibilities and results. Talk about results - what difference did your presence make? Use numbers for achievements wherever possible, e.g. Boosted sales by 20% in first year. And always write in a slightly formal manner and never use the word I - e.g. Supervised the team rather than I supervised the team. Use the past tense for previous jobs and the present tense for your current job. Not too many lists Include specific skills, such as languages, administrative or computing skills, in a separate section in your CV. Don't relist them for every job you've used them in. This is particularly so for IT work - lists of tools and packages make dull reading and won't make you stand out from other people with the same abilities. Consistency Keep the same verb tense throughout. Don't mix too many grammatical styles. Short sentences, phrases or bullet points are all OK. Aim to be clear and concise. Repetition Do not repeat yourself. This is boring and a waste of paper! Find new things to say about similar jobs or use a statement such as during all my Diwali vacations I worked in a busy central post office on a wide range of duties related to the seasonally increased volume of work. 13
  40. 40. How to Create Curriculum Vitae Typography Avoid changes of type faces. Use different sizes, capitals and / or bold type for headings. Underlining is not fashionable. History When writing a CV, Always concentrate on recent history and summarize older information. If you've got A Levels then don't list all your O Levels/GCSEs on the CV. Similarly, if you've got a degree, there's no need to include A Level grades unless they're all As or Bs. Employers are most interested in what you've done most recently, although they obviously still need to know the basics of older information. Adapt it You don't have to use the same CV every time. You can have two or three versions, each for a different kind of job. Or you can tailor your CV to suit the job you're applying for. It isn't a case of one size fits all. SECTIONS OF CV Job objective Job objectives ten readers exactly what kind of job you're looking for, make your intentions clear and set the tone for how the rest of the resume is evaluated. While some resumes are very focused, others aren't clearly focused on any one job. A job objective will clarify any ambiguities. If you seek a part-time or freelance position, the job objective is a good way of making that clear so that no confusion arises later. The job objective on the resume rephrases or restates intentions stated in the cover letter. However, the job objective is useful because many people read over the resume before looking at the cover letter. Job objectives come in two types: descriptive and titled. Descriptive job objectives briefly describe the type of job you're interested in. Titled job descriptions name the job title. Descriptive job objectives work best when you're more interested in being seen as an overall candidate or when applying to a company that has no specific positions open. The job objective 14
  41. 41. How to Create Curriculum Vitae sentence should be brief and no more than two lines long. Do not permit your objective to ramble. Resume writers make their biggest mistakes when writing descriptive job objectives by listing a bunch of clichés such as “a chance to apply my skills, and a challenging opportunity or “an opportunity for growth. These phrases have been used so many times that they don't even register with readers. The key is to be honest about what you really want, in an unassuming and business-like fashion. Titled job objectives simply list the exact job title for which you are applying. This comes in handy when you are applying to a large company that may have several positions open at once. Education The education section is one of tile few times you get to brag about your education to somebody who doesn't share your bloodline. List the institution you attended and its location and your degree. The graduation date, which should consist of the year and semester or season, is listed unless you wish to withhold it for age related reasons. For those who are still finishing academic programs, list your Anticipated Completion Date. Most resume writers should put their Education section in the last section of their resumes. But recent graduates, alumni from particularly prestigious schools or programs, and graduates of the employer's alma mater should list the Education section at the top of the page, below the summary of qualifications section (or job objective, if there is no summary). Work experience Do not just mention the name of the company and the position you held, but also provide a brief job description. State for instance whether you held an executive position or worked on a particular project. This will give the recruiter an impression of your abilities. After all, a recruiter is not familiar with every company. If you, for instance, only mention that 'From February 2001 up to and including November 2002, I worked in sales at Apple co', the person reading the letter will have no idea as to what that job actually entailed. Were you on the sales staff (telesales or field sales?) at a software company or did you work as a shop assistant at a 15
  42. 42. How to Create Curriculum Vitae greengrocer's? After a number of years of work experience, your internships will become less interesting. Do not provide too much information on these, unless they are very relevant to the job that you are applying for. Key Skills The inclusion of a 'Key Skills' section in a CV is progressively less popular these days. It is now considered better to spread evidence of key skills and abilities throughout your employment history. Specific points should be addressed in the covering letter, a vitally important part of any application. References Details of referees shouldn't be included on your CV. Instead simply write References available on request”. They clutter it up and, more importantly, you will find that your referees get pestered unnecessarily by time-wasters. By the time they have given handled their umpteenth enquiry they are a lot less likely to say nice things about you! Name format Bold or capitalize your name, using letters two to six points larger than the rest of the text. Place your name on the first line of your page. The traditional place to put the name is at the center of the page, but many now prefer to right justify their names so when the resume lands in a folder, Your name is clearly visible. Address Make sure the address you're giving is reliable. If you're still at college, and your address is still in a state of flux, put a permanent address in case somebody pulls your resume from a file a few months afteryou send it in. Avoid post office boxes (unless you're in school) because they make people suspect that you're biding something. E-mail All prospective employers expect you to have an e-mail address. Don't use work e-mails. Get a personal one from an Internet service provider 16
  43. 43. How to Create Curriculum Vitae like AOL or free service like Hotmail or Yahoo! But if you use your online account for more than just work, beware. If you're one of AOL's millions of users, for instance, make sure your member profile doesn't contain anything incriminating, embarrassing, or inappropriate, or that your screen name isn't something along the lines of Also include your home and mobile phone numbers. If including a current work number, always say whether there are times when it is appropriate to call you. Personal details It used to be normal to provide more personal details, such as gender, date of birth and marital status, at the top of your CV. However, times have changed and it is no longer necessary to include these details on a CV. If you do want to include any of these details it is best to list them at the end of the CV. You might wish to include your date of birth, but it isn't always expected nowadays. If you are looking for a job in the country where you were educated, an employer can usually calculate your age from your educational background. You may be worried that your age will put employers off. You could omit it, but your Career History will usually give some hints as to your age group. Marital Status doesn't need to be included in today's CV, although for specific jobs it can be helpful to be up-front about this. For instance, if the job you're applying for involves unsociable hours or lots of travel, stating that you are single could be advantageous. This may not seem fair on the grounds of discrimination, but it's as well to be realistic about the concerns that might rightly or wrongly be in the employer's mind. Nationality isn't essential. Use your judgement to decide whether your nationality is of concern to the employer involved and include it if you think it is. 17
  44. 44. How to Create Curriculum Vitae Inclusion of hobbies and interests is entirely optional. On the one hand, it helps provide a rounded picture of you that goes beyond Career History. Sometimes your strengths can shine through in the activities you list, as can your personality type. This section can be especially useful if you're at the start of your career. Don't go over the top, though - list no more than five at most. And do think about how your interests might be perceived by other people. Train-spotting, for instance, does not have a positive image in the public consciousness. Likewise, a list of solitary activities will not make you look like a good team player. TIPS FOR FRESHER A fresher is a fresh graduate by definition. What should you do if you are a fresher who will compete for regular jobs where other more experienced people will apply. • Do not be intimidated about the competition. Apply highlighting your academic records (if it is good), your personal traits (for example extremely friendly, deadline oriented, a good organizer, a born leader, etc) which best match with those required for the job. • Mention specific courses or training programs which you might have attended and which might give you a good edge over those who have only the required qualification and work experience. Relate the achievements in such a way that it should show you as a theoretical expert in certain angles. • You might also mention in your CV that you are self-taught person in terms of the latest technological trends and techniques; for example you can learn basic programming, software engineering and design and web designing (among million other such skills) by yourself with the help of the Internet and good book supplements. Be prepared to be asked in detail question at the interview though - so be careful that you write only what you really know well. • Highlight the fact that you are young, rearing to go and are ready to work hard to prove yourself; many employers love the enthusiasm of the young and the go-go approach which is very good for the company. 18
  45. 45. How to Create Curriculum Vitae • Highlight the fact that you are a fast learner and that you are looking forward to start your career in a established and famous company such as X (the company you are applying for), and an excellent learning experience. • Offer to get additional training (naming the duration) if the job entails it without any deliverables. exact courses with their interference to the job MAKING THE MOST OF YOUR QUALIFICATIONS AND TRAINING ON YOUR CV The more work experience you have, the lower down the Qualifications and Training section will come in your CV. This could explain why many people feel this section should be little more than a list. The truth is that these details add value to your CV, but only if you tailor the information appropriately. We will now look at a variety of educational backgrounds. Whichever you fall into, you need to order your qualifications and training in reverse chronological order, including: • • • • The schools, colleges and universities you attended. The qualifications you've gained and the dates you attained them. Subjects you've trained in and level of achievement. Professional memberships. If you left school at 16 or 18 years, include details of all examinations that you took and passed. List them in order of grades achieved. If your grades weren't that great, leave them out rather than risk damaging the impression the employer is building up of you. Never include exams that you failed, as these can be checked up on at a later date. If you've completed a degree, and passed it, there's no need to include details of exams taken at 16 or 18 years of age. The degree qualification supersedes these on your CV. If you've a postgraduate qualification, include your graduate and postgraduate qualifications. Don't include earlier exams. If you did a postgraduate research qualification, or studied in a subject relevant to your work area, it might be worth adding a line or two about your specific line of interest. 19
  46. 46. How to Create Curriculum Vitae If you're in the middle of a qualification, such as an Open University or part-time degree, include all the details above, but replace the dates with a word such as 'current' or 'ongoing'. Position this at the top of the list. If you're a recent graduate, there's no need to include details of exams you took previously at the age of 16 or 18 years. If you're looking for your first job, or first job on your career path (as opposed to vacation or temporary work), it can be worth including some more details of your study if they're relevant to the work you're seeking. So, you could include a list of the units you took, or a line or two about a research project you individually selected and fulfilled. If you failed a qualification, it's still worth including a line about the degree even if you didn't complete it. This explains what you were during that time period. So simply include the institution and title of the degree, together with dates you started and finished studying. You can write something along the lines of Studied towards … This shows that you were accepted onto the programme, even if you didn't complete. But be prepared to explain the reasons for this if asked at an interview. Professional qualifications come under the same section, yet should be divided from academic qualifications by a line break. Include any qualification that you had to gain by examination, such as a Certificate. Also list membership of professional associations if you had to sit an examination to join. Professional training should also be separated from the above by a line break. If you've had to complete a lot of seminar days in similar areas, don't list them all, but mention the area you've trained in –e.g., CAD, CAM, and Mechatroncis. If the training has been presented by a widely recognized body, do mention this. 20
  47. 47. Group Discussion m o c Chapter . r a m u Group Discussion Contents k p e w w Introduction Group Discussion versus debate How to face GD Points to remember General GD Topics Social topics Political topics Management education topics Economic topics BPO GD Topics a n . w e d v 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1
  48. 48. Group Discussion INTRODUCTION Many companies conduct group discussion after the written test so as to check on your interactive skills and how good you are at communicating with other people. The GD is to check how you behave, participate and contribute in a group, how much importance do you give to the group objective as well as your own, how well do you listen to viewpoints of others and how open-minded are you in accepting views contrary to your own. The aspects which make up a GD are verbal communication, non-verbal behavior, and conformation to norms, decision-making ability and cooperation. You should try to be as true as possible to these aspects. m o c Here's how most group discussions work • • • . r a m u Normally groups of 8-10 candidates are formed into a leaderless group, and are given a specific situation to analyze and discuss within a given time limit ( 15- 20 min). The group may be given a case study and asked to come out with a solution for a problem. The group may be given a topic and asked to discuss on the same. k p e A panel will observe the proceedings and evaluate the members of the group. GROUP DISCUSSION VERSUS DEBATE e d v Human beings love debates because we like to win and see others lose. A debate is a perfect situation for expressing intense emotions. A GD, however, calls for a lot more maturity and logic. The purpose of a GD, though conducted in a competitive mode, is not to establish you as a winner and others as losers. Its purpose, as far as you are concerned, is to help you come across as a person with sound, logical reasoning and the ability to respect another's viewpoint. a n A critical difference between a GD and a debate is that, while a debate begins with two groups' bids to outwit each other, a discussion is evolutionary; this essentially means participants have the opportunity to refine their views in the course of the discussion. Thus, every member needs to contribute substantially and add to the existing knowledge base instead of pulling each other down. The difference, thus, lies not just in style, but also in the mindset that is required to tackle either challenge. w w w . HOW TO FACE GD A group discussion requires: • • • • • Communication Skills Knowledge and ideas regarding a given subject Leadership and Coordinating Capabilities Interpersonal skills Addressing the group as a whole 2
  49. 49. Group Discussion • Conceptualizing skills: • Communication Skills m o c The first aspect is one's power of expression. In a group discussion, a candidate has to talk effectively so that he is able to convince others. For convincing, one has to speak forcefully and at the same time create an impact by his knowledge of the subject. A candidate who is successful in holding the attention of the audience creates a positive impact. . r a m u It is necessary that you should be precise and clear. As a rule evaluators do not look for the wordage produced. Your knowledge on a given subject, your precision and clarity of thought are the things that are evaluated. Irrelevant talks lead you nowhere. You should speak as much as necessary, neither more nor less. Group discussions are not debating stages. You should be able to convey your thoughts satisfactorily and convincingly before a group of people. Confidence and level headedness in doing so is necessary. These add value to your presentation. • k p e Knowledge and Ideas Regarding a Given Subject Knowledge of the subject under discussion and clarity of ideas are important. Knowledge comes from consistent reading on various topics ranging from science and technology to politics. In-depth knowledge makes one confident and enthusiastic and this in turn, makes one sound convincing and confident. • e d v Leadership and Coordinating Capabilities The basic aim of a group discussion is to judge a candidate's leadership qualities. Ability to take leadership roles and ability to lead, inspire and carry the team along to help them achieve group's objectives. The examiner withdraws and becomes a silent spectator once the discussion starts. A candidate should display tactfulness, skill, understanding and knowledge on varied topics, enterprise, forcefulness and other leadership qualities to motivate and influence other candidates. • Interpersonal skills w w • w . a n Is reflection in the ability of the individual to interact with other members of the group in a brief situation ? Emotional maturity and balance promotes good interpersonal relationships. The person has to be more people centric and less self-centered. Example: To remain cool even when someone provokes you by with personal comment, ability to remain objective, ability to empathize, non-threatening and more of a team player. Addressing the Group as a Whole 3
  50. 50. Group Discussion In a group discussion it is not necessary to address anyone by name. Even otherwise you may not know everyone's names. It better to address the group as a whole. Address the person farthest from you. If he can hear you everyone else too can. Needless to add, as for the interview, attend the group discussion in formal dress. The language used should also be formal, not the language used in normal conversations. For instance, words and phrases like “Yeah” ,yar, chalta hai, I dunno, etc. are out. This is not to say you should use a high sounding, pedantic language. Avoiding both, just use formal, plain and simple language. Mixture of Hindi and English or any other language should be discarded. m o c . r a m u Confidence and coolness while presenting your viewpoint are of help. See that you do not keep repeating a point. Do not use more words than necessary. Do not be superfluous. Try to be specific. Do not exaggerate. • Conceptualizing skills The ability to grasp the situation, take it from the day to day mundane problem level and apply it to a macro level. k p e Example: At the end of the discussion, you could probably summarize the findings in a few sentences that present the overall perspective. Don't be disheartened if you don't make it after your first group discussion. The best possible preparation for a group discussion is to learn from one's past mistakes... e d v POINTS TO REMEMBER 1. Be as natural as possible. Do not try and be someone you are not. Be yourself. 2. A group discussion is your chance to be more vocal. The evaluator wants to hear you speak. 3. Communicate with each and every candidate present. While speaking don't keep looking at a single member. Address the entire group in such a way that everyone feels you are speaking to him or her. 4. Take time to organize your thoughts. Think of what you are going to say. 5. Seek clarification if you have any doubts regarding the subject. 6. Don't start speaking until you have clearly understood and analyzed the subject. 7. Work out various strategies to help you make an entry: initiate the discussion or agree with someone else's point and then move onto express your views. 8. Opening the discussion is not the only way of gaining attention and recognition. If you do not give valuable insights during the discussion, all your efforts of initiating the discussion will be in vain. 9. Your body language says a lot about you - your gestures and mannerisms are more likely to reflect your attitude than what you say. 10. Language skills are important only to the effect as to how you get your points across clearly and fluently. 11. Be assertive not dominating; try to maintain a balanced tone in your discussion and analysis. w w w . a n 4
  51. 51. Group Discussion 12. Don't lose your cool if anyone says anything you object to. The key is to stay objective: Don't take the discussion personally. 13. Always be polite: Try to avoid using extreme phrases like: `I strongly object' or `I disagree'. Instead try phrases like: `I would like to share my views on…' or `One difference between your point and mine…' or I beg to differ with you 14. Brush up on your leadership skills; motivate the other members of the team to speak (this surely does not mean that the only thing that you do in the GD is to say let us hear what the young lady with the blue scarf has to say, or Raju, let us hear your views - Essentially be subtle), and listen to their views. Be receptive to others' opinions and do not be abrasive or aggressive. 15. If you have a group of like-minded friends, you can have a mock group discussion where you can learn from each other through giving and receiving feedback. 16. Apart from the above points, the panel will also judge team members for their alertness and presence of mind, problem-solving abilities, ability to work as a team without alienating certain members, and creativity. 17. Don't interrupt a speaker when the session is on. Try to score by increasing your size, not by cutting others short. 18. A GD is a formal occasion where slang is to avoided. m o c k p e . r a m u GENERAL GD TOPICS e d v Group Discussion Topics For Freshers .. • Does India need a dictator? • Is India moving away from a secularist state? • US war on Iraq-justified or not. • Role of UN in peacekeeping. • Position of Women in modern era. • Is it right to advertise more and more about the cricket game ? • Balance between professionalism and family. • Effect of cinema on Youth • Education in India compared to Foreign countries. • is china a threat to Indian industry • India or west , which is the land of opportunities • Is China a threat to the Indian software industry. • Role of UN in Peace keeping w w w . a n 5
  52. 52. Group Discussion • Is it necessary to ban cold drinks like COCO COLA, Pepsi etc. in India. • What is the effect of movies on youth. is it good or bad? • Environment-Whose Responsibility. • Present state of Indian Cricket team. • Love marriage/Arranged marriage. • Advantages of Co-education. • How to deal with international terrorism. • Should we pursue our policy of dialogue with Pakistan? • Is peace and non-violence outdated concepts? • Examinations - has it killed education • Is Philosophy just a theoretical concept ? • Is China better than India in software. • Should SONIA Gandhi be made the PM • Government contribution to IT • Is Globalization Really Necessary? • What shall we do about our ever-increasing Population? • Why cant we be world players in industry as we are in software? • Fashion contests degrade womanhood • Is dependence on calculators a good thing ? • Should the public sector be privatized? w . r a m u e d v a n . k p e m o c SOCIAL TOPICS • Secularism has become a tool to justify the wrongs done by the minorities. • Are Big Dams Necessary? w w • Films are corrupting the Indian Youth • Dowry systems may look bad, but are an integral part of India. • We are not serious about saving Wildlife/Environment • The education system needs serious reforms • The impact of abroad channels on our psyche 6
  53. 53. Group Discussion • Showing Violence and Crimes should not be allowed in films and on television. • What should India strive for- Westernization or modernization? m o c POLITICAL TOPICS • India should go for the presidential form of democracy. • Reserving seats for women in Panchayat has not only been a farce but has distracted from developing a more genuine voice of women. . r a m u • Have the nuclear tests of 1998 benefited or harmed India? • Voters, not, political parties are responsible for the criminalization of politics. • Is reservation on the basis of caste system right thing? k p e MANAGEMENT EDUCATION TOPICS • Is good job better than business ? • business is a war!!! • The Rush for MBA is really a rush for big money • Managerial skills learnt in the classroom can never match those learnt from experience • Democracy is hampering India progress • Hard Working or Smart working? • Management education is nothing but a glorified non sense. • MBA in India is highly overrated. • Religion is a private affair and should be of no concern for the state w a n . w e d v • Do professional managers have a chance in our family run businesses? • Decreasing defense expenditure and increasing social expenditure is the need of the hour • Is education necessary to run business ? w ECONOMIC TOPICS 7