Market Application Landscape                                    Graphics             Hi-Fi                 Digital        ...
Why ZigBee? • Standard in a fragmented market    – Many proprietary solutions, interoperability issues • Low Power consump...
ZigBee -Target Markets                                                                      •    TV                       ...
ZigBee Technology Adoption Curve                  Gap     Evangelize   Technology   Early Adopters   Mature Market   Lagga...
ZigBee Rate of Adoption                                  Market Matures             Home Control Adoption   Volume        ...
Standards Expectations                              This will satisfy                              all requirements  Marke...
Market Size – Low Data Rate (No                                                                    )                      ...
Market Segmentation 2002 - 2006           Segment Market Share 2002                                                    •In...
Some Details - Home Controls   • Energy Management is going to be a key aspect   • Even if we are to ignore the Building A...
• Founding Members                                   • Associate Members         – Cisco                                  ...
Internet Home Alliance Survey Findings Zigbee can provide or help provide 3 of the 5 top features customers wantin a conne...
Connected Home Pilot Programs                           Energy Management               OnStar at Home            • June t...
Home NetworkingHome appliances will complement additional Zigbee markets                                      Volume Compa...
Market Requirements   •   Global licence free ISM band operation   •   Unrestricted geographic use   •   RF penetration th...
Market Requirements, cont...   •   10k-115.2kbps data throughput   •   10-75m coverage range (home/garden)   •   Support f...
ZigBee - General Characteristics •   Data rates of 250 kbps and 20 kbps •   Star topology, peer to peer possible •   255 d...
ZigBee Alliance - IEEE - CustomerRelationship                                                            Customer         ...
Range Estimation (Meters)                          0dBm 10dBm 20dBm         250kbps                             10        ...
Network Topology                      Network coordinator                      Network node                      IEEE node...
Other Network Forms                                           Network coordinator                 Ad-hoc network          ...
Supported Traffic Types   • Periodic data      – Application defined rate   • Intermittent      – Basic communication   • ...
The Network Coordinator  • Transmits network beacons  • Sets up a network  • Manages network nodes  • Stores network node ...
The Network Node  • Is generally battery powered  • Searches for available networks  • Transfers data from its application...
Stack System Requirements   • 8-bit µC, e.g. 80c51   • Full protocol stack <32k   • Simple node only stack ~4k   • Coordin...
The ZigBee Alliance
Some Participants     CompXsSemiconductors      26
Standardization Challenge  How do we make a protocol a standard?   • ZigBee Alliance created with companies who share a   ...
ZigBee vs BluetoothCompetition or Complementary?
But ZigBee is Bluetooth is Best                                    Better For :                       IF : • Ad-hoc networ...
Air Interface:    ZigBee                  Bluetooth    DSSS                    FHSS    11 chips/ symbol        1 M Symbol ...
ZigBee Protocol Stack   Size/Complexity                             Application                       Application Interfac...
Bluetooth Protocol Stack Size/Complexity                                                                                  ...
Timing Considerations                 ZigBee:                 • New slave enumeration = 30ms typically                 • S...
Initial Enumeration             ZigBee        Bluetooth             Coordinator    CoordinatorSemiconductors              ...
Power Considerations   ZigBee                            Bluetooth   • 2+ years from ‘normal’          • Power model as a ...
Battery Life & Latency in a                 Lightswitch                 • Bluetooth would either :                    – ke...
To reduce latency, Bluetooth would:• The two devices must stay within 60 us (~1/10 of a hop)• 30ppm crystals => could incr...
To reduce power consumption, Bluetooth   would     • Undertake Bluetooth inquiry procedure when light switch       operate...
Light switch Conclusion   • ZigBee radio using DSSS need only perform CSMA     before transmitting, a delay of only 200 us...
Solution Prices                 ZigBee:                 • Price 2003 - $6                 • Price 2005 - $1.5-2.5         ...
Conclusion• ZigBee and Bluetooth are two solutions for two application  areasSemiconductors                               ...
ZigBee in Building Automation  • Existing solutions are either:     – Power Line Carrier based (PLC)          • Expensive ...
ZigBee - Bluetooth - PLC Comparison                 ZigBee    Bluetooth   PLC  Cost (BOM)     $5        $10         $15-$4...
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Zig bee 1

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Zig bee 1

  1. 1. Market Application Landscape Graphics Hi-Fi Digital Text Internet audio Streaming video Multi-channel video video WAN Long Range GSM/CDMA GPRS/3G LMDS Wi-Fi Wi-Fi5 802.11b LAN 802.11a/HL2 Short Range ZigBee Bluetooth 2 802.15.4 WiMedia Bluetooth 1 802.15.3 802.15.1 PAN Low Data Rate High Data RateSemiconductors 1
  2. 2. Why ZigBee? • Standard in a fragmented market – Many proprietary solutions, interoperability issues • Low Power consumption – Users expect battery to last months to years! • Low Cost • High density of nodes per network • Simple protocol, global implementationSemiconductors 2
  3. 3. ZigBee -Target Markets • TV • VCR • Monitors • DVD • Sensors Industrial & Consumer • CD • Automation Commercial Electronics • Remote • Control PC Peripherals • Mouse Personal Low Data Rate • Keyboard Healthcare Radio Devices • Joystick • Gamepad • Monitors • Diagnostics • Sensors • Security • PETs Home Toys • HVAC • Gameboys Automation • Lighting & • Educational • Closures GamesSemiconductors 3
  4. 4. ZigBee Technology Adoption Curve Gap Evangelize Technology Early Adopters Mature Market Laggards Leaders ZigBee todaySemiconductors 4
  5. 5. ZigBee Rate of Adoption Market Matures Home Control Adoption Volume Industrial Adoption Initial Adoption TimeSemiconductors 5
  6. 6. Standards Expectations This will satisfy all requirements Market Expectations Disillusionment Everything Market is OK Interest Products Builds start to ship Obituaries ZigBee today Written TimeSemiconductors 6
  7. 7. Market Size – Low Data Rate (No ) Low Data Rate Market 600 500 Million units 400 300 Others 200 Industrial Applications 100 Home Environment 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Years Source: ABI, Dataquest, InternalSemiconductors 7
  8. 8. Market Segmentation 2002 - 2006 Segment Market Share 2002 •Industrial Applications will drive initial market 0% •Home Environment will become 48% Home Important Industrial 52% Others • Over time, there will be varied Applications (Other) Segm ent Market Share 2005 18% Home 13% Industrial Others 69%Semiconductors 8
  9. 9. Some Details - Home Controls • Energy Management is going to be a key aspect • Even if we are to ignore the Building Auto and Industrial Markets for a few minutes….Semiconductors 9
  10. 10. • Founding Members • Associate Members – Cisco – ADT Security Services – Metering Technology – GM – Autco Distributing – N.E.W. Customer Service – Invensys – AVAD Companies – The NewPower – Coactive Networks – Qubit Technology Company – CompUSA – Reliant Energy – Panasonic – Connected Lifestyles – Sage Systems – Sears – Echelon – Sempra Energy Connections – emWare – Ucentric Systems • Contributing Members – Gatespace – Visteon – Best Buy – Home Director – Western Digital – Sun – Honeywell – zBox – Info-linc The Connected Home: • The features of a connected home exist today; they are not dreams of tomorrow. This home is connected in the sense that normally independent systems are linked to a centrally controlled system. In a connected home, your home computer, TV, lighting and heating controls, home security system and many appliances within the home can talk to each other via the Internet. These linked systems can be controlled through various devices, including your pager, cellular phone, TV, home PC, PDA, or even your automobile. • More specifically, the connected home offers the following: new forms of entertainment; anywhere, anytime communication with family, friends and coworkers; advanced home control and security; new ways to buy over the Internet; safe and secure e-mail and other communications; and always-on, high speed Internet access - all from reliable providers. Source: Internet Home Alliance the Advantage magazine.Semiconductors 10
  11. 11. Internet Home Alliance Survey Findings Zigbee can provide or help provide 3 of the 5 top features customers wantin a connected home Interest in Individual Features of the Connected Home 100% Zigbee use in thermostat Zigbee sensors eliminate the need to 90% simplifies wiring and run wires throughout the house and connectivity to the Internet 80% make adding a new system to an old house realistic 70% Zigbee’s technical characteristics and cost 60% % of are ideal for DAPrespondents50% applications interested 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Video on Demand Web-based Home Anywhere, Internet control of e-Kitchen Security anytime file heat/HVAC accessSemiconductors Source: Zanthus CEO interview, Internet Home Alliance The Advantage magazine. 11
  12. 12. Connected Home Pilot Programs Energy Management OnStar at Home • June to October 2001 • To begin Q1 2002 – 300 households – 100 households • Tested the effectiveness of • Integrated OnStar’s Virtual Advisor energy management systems service with home security, control – NewPower initiated and telecommunications components periodic energy curtailments (e.g. raising – Provides an easy to use, the temperature a few consistent interface to control degrees during peak hours) home systems such as lighting, to save money temperature and home security – Individuals could override – Homeowners will be able to the curtailments manually control their home operations or through a Web portal from any, PC, telephone, WAP phone or wireless PDA in addition to OnStar’s PCS serviceSource: Website, Mercer interview.Semiconductors 12
  13. 13. Home NetworkingHome appliances will complement additional Zigbee markets Volume Comparison Between Home Appliances and CE devices 50 (Unit shipments in the US in 2000) 45 40 35 Unit Shipments 30 in 2000 25(in millions) 20 15 10 5 0 Washer/ Micro- A/C Fridge/ Water Cooking Dish- Furnace Cell TV VCR DVD Dryer wave Freezer Heater washer Phone Semiconductors Source: US shipments in 2000 from Appliance Magazine March 2001, Time “Machine of the Year 2000”. 13
  14. 14. Market Requirements • Global licence free ISM band operation • Unrestricted geographic use • RF penetration through walls & ceilings • Automatic/semi-automatic installation • Ability to add or remove devices • Possible voice supportSemiconductors 14
  15. 15. Market Requirements, cont... • 10k-115.2kbps data throughput • 10-75m coverage range (home/garden) • Support for 32-255 nodes • Support for 4 critical devices • 4-100 co-located networks • 0.5-2 year battery life • Up to 5m/sec. (18kmph) permitted mobility • Module cost: $1.5-$2.5 in 2004/5!Semiconductors 15
  16. 16. ZigBee - General Characteristics • Data rates of 250 kbps and 20 kbps • Star topology, peer to peer possible • 255 devices per network • CSMA-CA channel access • Optional Guaranteed Time Slot • Fully handshaked protocol for transfer reliability • Low power (battery life multi-month to years) • Dual PHY (2.4GHz and 868/915 MHz) • Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.1%) • Range: 10m nominal (1-100m based on settings) • Location Aware: Yes, but optionalSemiconductors 16
  17. 17. ZigBee Alliance - IEEE - CustomerRelationship Customer Application Application Interface Network Layer ZigBee Alliance Data Link Layer MAC Layer IEEE MAC Layer PHY Layer ZigBee Silicon Application StackSemiconductors 17
  18. 18. Range Estimation (Meters) 0dBm 10dBm 20dBm 250kbps 10 20 40 Using Firefly TRD/RSI propagation modelSemiconductors 18
  19. 19. Network Topology Network coordinator Network node IEEE node Communications flow Virtual linksSemiconductors 19
  20. 20. Other Network Forms Network coordinator Ad-hoc network Network node Gateway Communications flow Gateway enabled networkSemiconductors 20
  21. 21. Supported Traffic Types • Periodic data – Application defined rate • Intermittent – Basic communication • Repetitive low latency data – Allocation of guaranteed time slotsSemiconductors 21
  22. 22. The Network Coordinator • Transmits network beacons • Sets up a network • Manages network nodes • Stores network node information • Routes messages between paired nodes • Receives constantlySemiconductors 22
  23. 23. The Network Node • Is generally battery powered • Searches for available networks • Transfers data from its application as necessary • Determines whether data is pending • Requests data from the network coordinator • Can sleep for extended periodsSemiconductors 23
  24. 24. Stack System Requirements • 8-bit µC, e.g. 80c51 • Full protocol stack <32k • Simple node only stack ~4k • Coordinators require extra RAM – node device database – transaction table – pairing tableSemiconductors 24
  25. 25. The ZigBee Alliance
  26. 26. Some Participants CompXsSemiconductors 26
  27. 27. Standardization Challenge How do we make a protocol a standard? • ZigBee Alliance created with companies who share a common vision • Alliance initiates need for low data rate W-PAN in IEEE, 802.15.4 is born • Both MAC and PHY proposals win vote in IEEE • Alliance is focussed on: – Upper Layers of stack – Interoperability – Marketing • Keep initial participants limited until spec basics are definedSemiconductors 27
  28. 28. ZigBee vs BluetoothCompetition or Complementary?
  29. 29. But ZigBee is Bluetooth is Best Better For : IF : • Ad-hoc networks between • The Network is static capable devices • Lots of devices • Handsfree audio • Infrequently used • Screen graphics, • Small Data Packets pictures… • File transferSemiconductors 29
  30. 30. Air Interface: ZigBee Bluetooth DSSS FHSS 11 chips/ symbol 1 M Symbol / second 62.5 K symbols/s 4 Bits/ symbol Peak Information Rate Peak Information Rate ~720 Kbit/second ~128 Kbit/secondSemiconductors 30
  31. 31. ZigBee Protocol Stack Size/Complexity Application Application Interface Network Layer Data Link Layer MAC Layer MAC Layer PHY Layer ZigBee Silicon Application StackSemiconductors 31
  32. 32. Bluetooth Protocol Stack Size/Complexity User Interface l a Cv t es dae H Fax sse d o C e o Nv d a Cv Service ll a C puo G m cr e n o t I e gasse Mv pul a D r Discovery l r r t gn kr o w e N - i Telephony OBEX Protocol t Control Protocol RFCOMM HOST i (Serial Port) ec o V L2CAP i Host Control Interface Link Manager Link Controller MODULE Baseband RF Bluetooth Silicon Applications StackSemiconductors 32
  33. 33. Timing Considerations ZigBee: • New slave enumeration = 30ms typically • Sleeping slave changing to active = 15ms typically • Active slave channel access time = 15ms typically Bluetooth: • New slave enumeration = >3s • Sleeping slave changing to active = 3s typically • Active slave channel access time = 2ms typically ZigBee protocol is optimized for timing critical applicationsSemiconductors 33
  34. 34. Initial Enumeration ZigBee Bluetooth Coordinator CoordinatorSemiconductors 34
  35. 35. Power Considerations ZigBee Bluetooth • 2+ years from ‘normal’ • Power model as a mobile batteries phone (regular charging) • Designed to optimise slave • Designed to maximise ad- power requirements hoc functionality Application example of a light switch with respect to latency and power consumption …...Semiconductors 35
  36. 36. Battery Life & Latency in a Lightswitch • Bluetooth would either : – keep a counter running so that it could predict which hop frequency the light would have reached or – use the inquiry procedure to find the light each time the switch was operated.Semiconductors 36
  37. 37. To reduce latency, Bluetooth would:• The two devices must stay within 60 us (~1/10 of a hop)• 30ppm crystals => could increase at 60us per second.• Devices communicate once a second to track each others clocks.• Possibly could be improved by a factor of 100.• The devices would then need to communicate once every 100 seconds to maintain synchronisation.• => 900 communications / day with no information transfer• + perhaps 4 communications on demand• 99.5% Battery Power wasted Semiconductors 37
  38. 38. To reduce power consumption, Bluetooth would • Undertake Bluetooth inquiry procedure when light switch operated • May typically take 10 seconds using Bluetooth 1.1 ? • Much Better In Bluetooth 1.2 – possibly reduced to tens of ms BUT – Not all requirements have been adopted yetSemiconductors 38
  39. 39. Light switch Conclusion • ZigBee radio using DSSS need only perform CSMA before transmitting, a delay of only 200 us (Radio wake up time) • In the case of a light switch, ZigBee offers longer battery life and lower latency than a Bluetooth equivalent.Semiconductors 39
  40. 40. Solution Prices ZigBee: • Price 2003 - $6 • Price 2005 - $1.5-2.5 Bluetooth: • Price Now - $10 • Price 2005 - $5 Two different solutions optimised for different applications…...Semiconductors 41
  41. 41. Conclusion• ZigBee and Bluetooth are two solutions for two application areasSemiconductors 42
  42. 42. ZigBee in Building Automation • Existing solutions are either: – Power Line Carrier based (PLC) • Expensive ($15 - $40 BOM) • Restricted to where there is existing power lines • No mobility • Interference from noisy inductance into the system (adding a fan, etc.) • Security issues, PLC goes outside the home • Interoperability is questionable – Or proprietary • Interoperability among various manufacturers • Cost • Existing RF solutions have limited capabilitiesSemiconductors 43
  43. 43. ZigBee - Bluetooth - PLC Comparison ZigBee Bluetooth PLC Cost (BOM) $5 $10 $15-$40 Power years hours N/A Data Rate 250Kbps 720Kbps 3/10 Mbps Complexity Low Medium High Density 255 + 7 20-250 Interop Yes Yes No Ease of Use Simple Moderate Restrictive Latency 15ms >3s <15ms Interference Low High High Security High High LowSemiconductors 44

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