Ethiopia forest & water management ashish ku sharma


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Forest Conservation and water management

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Ethiopia forest & water management ashish ku sharma

  1. 1. Forest Management with Water conservation in EthiopiaThe image of a community is fundamentally important to its economic well-being. If all places look alike, theres no reason to go anywhere. 1Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  2. 2. Forest Management with Water conservation in Ethiopia TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No.Executive Summary ……………………………………………………… 3Introduction ………………………………………………………………. 3Endangered Species / Red Book Entry………………………………….. 4Geography & Location – Ethiopia……………………………………….. 5Biodiversity & Vegetation- ……………………………………………….. 6Forest & Its Management………………………………………………… 7Current Status of Forests ………………………………………………… 7Hypothesis, Plan and Implementation…………………………………… 9Rain water harvesting from forest shed……………….………………… 10SWOT Analysis …………………………………………………………… 10Observation ……………………………………………………………….. 11Conclusion………………………………………………………………… 13Bibliography………………………………………………………………. 14 2Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  3. 3. Forest Management with Water conservation in EthiopiaEXECUTIVE SUMMARYWith broad latitudinal and altitudinal ranges, Ethiopia encompasses an extraordinary numberof ecological zones, which in turn host rare and endangered species and high rates ofendemism. In combination with its importance as a center of genetic and agriculturaldiversity, the conservation of Ethiopia’s biodiversity is an issue of global importance. Withthe second-largest population in Africa, limited capacity to manage natural resources, andwidespread land degradation, however, Ethiopia also faces many serious challenges to effortsto conserve its biodiversity and forests.For more than 20 years, natural resource institutions in Ethiopia have faced frequentrestructuring, with the only relatively stable institution (since 1995) being the EnvironmentalProtection Authority (EPA). These changes have presented challenges, as building stablerelationships and long-term planning are critical to conservation efforts. For example, inrecognition of the critical state and serious threats facing Ethiopian wildlife, the EthiopianWildlife Conservation Organization, previously a semi-autonomous organization under theMinistry of Agriculture and Rural Development, was reduced to a section under the NaturalResources department in 2005 and then regained its name and increased authority to overseethe wildlife in Ethiopia in June 2008. Although this most recent change may be positive inthat it can help solidify national level wildlife planning, it is representative of the shifting ofauthorities that have plagued the sector in the recent past.INTRODUCTIONIn developing countries like Ethiopia there is no doubt that one has to utilize natural, socialand cultural resources to alleviate poverty. Using Information Technology is one of thecommon tools to enable movement of peoples towards the Policy and strategy of growth ofthe country. On the controversial part the Ethiopian forest have become the crucial part ofcountry due to overgrazing, deforestation, and poor agricultural practices have contributed tosoil erosion so severe, particularly in the Tigray and Eritrea regions, that substantial areas of 3Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  4. 4. Forest Management with Water conservation in Ethiopiafarmland have been lost to cultivation. As of 1994, 600,000 acres of arable land were washedaway each year. The combined effects of severe drought and a 17-year civil war have alsoadded to Ethiopias environmental problems. Ethiopias forests are also endangered. Eachyear, the nation loses 340 square miles of forest land. Its forests and woodland decreased by3.4% between 1983 and 1993. Major causes are due to personal needs, such as for fuel,hunting, agriculture, and at times for religious reasons. The main causes of deforestationin Ethiopia are shifting agriculture, livestock production and fuel in drier areas. Thegovernment did not begin afforestation and soil conservation programs until the early 1970s.The nations water supply is also at risk. Access to safe drinking water is available to 12% ofthe rural population and 81% of city dwellers. Ethiopia has 110 cubic kilometres ofrenewable water resources with 86% used in agriculture. The nations cities produce 1.3million tons of solid waste per year.ENDANGERED SPECIES / RED LIST ENTRYAbout 5% of Ethiopias total land area is protected. In 2001, 35 of Ethiopias 255 mammalspecies were threatened. Of 626 bird species, 20 were endangered. One type of reptile in atotal of 188 species and 125 plants in a total of 6,500 were also threatened with extinction.Endangered species in Ethiopia include the simian fox, African wild ass, Tora hartebeest,Swaynes hartebeest, Waliaibex (found only in Ethiopia), waldrapp, green sea turtle, andhawksbill turtle. Ethiopia comprise of Tropical forest with 13,000,000 ha of total areacovering land. Ethiopia has some 1408 known species of amphibians, birds, mammals andreptiles according to figures from the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Of these, 7.0%are endemic, meaning they exist in no other country, and 4.6% are threatened. Ethiopia ishome to at least 6603 species of vascular plants, of which 15.1% are endemic. 4.9% ofEthiopia is protected under IUCN categories I-V. Endangered species from forest is asfollows. 4Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  5. 5. Forest Management with Water conservation in Ethiopia Native tree species 1,027 Number of tree species in IUCN red list Critically Endangered 0 Endangered 1 Vulnerable 21 Vascular Plant Species, 2004 0 Total 6603 Species Threatened 22 No. of Endangered & Threaten species of EthiopiaSpecies biodiversity in Ethiopia includes 280 mammals, 861 birds, 201 reptiles, and morethan 6,000 plants with high rates of endemism. According to the International Union for theConservation of Nature’s (IUCN’s) 2007 “red list” of these species, Ethiopia has 6 that arecritically endangered, 23 endangered, and 70 vulnerable. Nine national parks, 4 wildlifesanctuaries, 7 wildlife reserves, and 18 controlled-hunting areas have been established inEthiopia to protect and conserve its valuable biodiversity assets. Of these, however, only two,Simien National Park and Awash National Park, have been officially gazetted. Protectedareas in Ethiopia also have suffered from inadequate security, staffing, and equipment,leading to many cases where their status is little more than nominal and providing noprotection for their fauna and flora.ETHIOPIA – GEOGRAPHY AND LOCATIONForests and woodlands in Africa occupy an estimated 650 million hectares (ha) or 21.8percent of the land area of this continent. These account for 16.8 percent of the global forestcover. Many of the forests are severely fragmented due to the encroachment of an expandinghuman population, leading to demand for firewood and extensive conversion of land toagricultural use. The distribution of forests and woodlands varies from one sub-region to theother, with Northern Africa having the least forest cover while Central Africa. 5Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  6. 6. Forest Management with Water conservation in EthiopiaEthiopia covers a total area of 1 221 895 km2 between latitudes 3°30’N and 18°N andlongitudes 33°E and 48°E in the north-eastern horn of Africa. The heart of the country isformed by a vast mountain mass between 2 100 and 2 500 m altitude with some peaks risingto 4 500 m. The massif is divided into twodeeply carved out plateaus (CentralEthiopian and Galla-Somali) by the RiftValley, in which lie several lakes in thesouth and the Awash River in the north, ariver vital for the irrigation of theextensive plains leading to the Red Seaand Somalia.BIODIVERSITY AND VEGITATONThe forests and woodlands of Africa are home to large numbers of flora and fauna species,many of which are African endemics; moreover, many of these populations have come underthreat in the last several decades, chiefly due to the human population explosion on thecontinent. Besides the outright loss of large amounts of habitat, the fragmentation ofhabitat of woodlands and forests has placed great stress upon populations of fauna thatrequire sizable home ranges, such as the endangered Painted Hunting Dog and Cheetah.Vegetation in Ethiopia is comprised of four main biomes, which are found across thecountry’s regions.  The first biome is savanna, consisting of montane tropical vegetation with dense, forests and rich undergrowth and drier savannas and tropical dry forests mixed with grassland at lower elevations of the Western and Eastern Highlands. 6Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  7. 7. Forest Management with Water conservation in Ethiopia  The second biome is comprised of mountain vegetation, mostly montane and temperate grasslands, covering the higher altitudes of the Western and Eastern Highlands.  The third biome is made up of tropical thickets and wooded steppe, and is found in the Rift Valley and Eastern Lowlands.  The fourth biome is desert steppe vegetation, covering areas of the Danakil PlainNatural Resources – small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas,hydropowerFOREST AND ITS MANAGEMENTEthiopia covers 109,631,000 (ha) of land area with 13,000,000 (ha) (11.86%) of forest area.Total measure of forest is of tropical type, this type occurs roughly within the latitudes 28degrees north or south of the equator zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic ofCapricorn. Ethiopia lost an average of 140,900 hectares of forest per year. This share makes itto loss its forest by rate of 0.93%.Where in 2005 this rate has been decreased by 10.36 % perannum. Due to the lack of knowledge for using the resources, Ethiopia has lost its 14% offorest so far which are also known as home for some 6603 species out of which 7 % areendemic (exist in no other country). Ethiopia had lost 3.6% of its forest and woodland habitat.The forest and the woodland is 100% owned by the public of Ethiopia. Out of which 3.8% isused in production purpose and the remaining 96.2% by other purpose which also takes shareof deforestation. Till 2004 there were 7 world heritage sites for the protection, conservationand monitoring of species. As per IUCN protection VI category plan total 11.86 % land hadbeen kept for the protection of all living biodiversity as protected area.Deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas fromwater-intensive farming and poor management are the main cause for losing forest with suchhigh rate. There were many international agreements that Ethiopia has made e.g. Biodiversityconservation, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea.for the protection, conservation and to sustain the natural environment. 7Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  8. 8. Forest Management with Water conservation in EthiopiaCURRENT STATUS OF ETHIOPIAN FORESTTrees, woodlands, and forests can be seen as an environment’s lungs. They play a crucial rolein tempering the effects of climate and help protect vital water catchments. Trees provide awide range of products, including food and fruit, fodder for livestock, and medicines for bothpeople and livestock. Forests supply goods of commercial, cultural, and sacred value, andthey comprise a vital safety net in times of need. Most part of Ethiopian economy is based onproducts from forest e.g. coffee which almost takes 30 % of its share. The trees and forests ofEthiopia are under tremendous pressure because of the drastic decline in mature forest coverand the continual pressures of population increase, rudimentary farming techniques, land usecompetition, land tenure, and forest degradation and conversion. The status of the forestresources should be considered at risk. Although deforestation is known to occur in theremaining forested areas of the country, rates of deforestation have been more difficult toestimate. Source Area in Hectares In 2000 In 2005Forest 36,51,935 33,37,988High woodland area 1,00,49,079 96,32,616Plantations 5,09,422 5,09,422Low woodland and shrub land 4,62,97,530 4,62,97,530Other land 5,31,69,093 5,38,99,503Inland Water 8,28,277 8,28,277Total 11,45,05,336 11,45,05,336 Ethiopia Land cover in Ha from 2000 - 2005Although estimates for historical forest cover vary, it has been obvious for centuries that theforests are being depleted. Virtually all household cooking fuel used in rural Ethiopia, whereabout 85 percent of the population lives, comes from solid fuels; rural Ethiopian householdshave depended for centuries on two main types: woody biomass and dung (Mekonnen andKöhlin 2008). 8Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  9. 9. Forest Management with Water conservation in Ethiopia Area in Hecters In 2005 Forest High woodland area Plantations Low woodland and shrubland Other land Inland Water Land area covered in 2005Numerous reports available online discuss the history of forest product use in EthiopiaDeforestation has led to the depletion of soil nutrients, contributing to low agriculturalproductivity and limited domestic food supplies in sub-Saharan Africa (Mekonnen andKöhlin 2008). An indirect result of deforestation is overgrazing. In part, the number of cattlein the country results from the absence of fuel wood (what there was, say, 50 years ago haslargely been removed through human exploitation for fuel and construction), because someEthiopian highlanders use cattle dung as their main source of fuel (UNDPGEF 2005). Thus,fertilizer use in Ethiopia is among the lowest in sub-Saharan Africa.HYPOTHESIS, PLAN & IMPLEMENTATIONEthiopias poverty-stricken economy is based on agriculture, accounting for half of GDP,60% of exports, and 80% of total employment. The agricultural sector suffers from frequentdrought and poor cultivation practices. Under Ethiopias land tenure system, the governmentowns all land and provides long-term leases to the tenants; the system continues to hampergrowth in the industrial sector as entrepreneurs are unable to use land as collateral for loans. 9Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  10. 10. Forest Management with Water conservation in EthiopiaDrought struck again late in 2002, leading to a 2% decline in GDP in 2003. Normal weatherpatterns late in 2003 helped agricultural and GDP growth recover in 2004-05.RAINWATER HARVESTING BY FOREST SHED (CANOPY)Considering the other part of the forest which makes almost 88% which is under no direct usecould be used for the conservation of water in the same way it’s been implemented for therain water harvesting from roofs of houses. Though forest is a huge source of natural resourcewhere as considering the access of human for its direct use limits its amount. In tropicalforests the dense canopy layer acts as the roof for forest basement which hardly permits lightto fall on the floor or the basement layer of forest. That canopy layer can also be used as shedfor the collection of water at some common point with further help of collecting technique todump final collection at a storage point. In Ethiopia, water has been considered as the biggestissue for the direct use by public and also for the irrigation. Implementing the waterharvesting by shed method from the mountain & highland forest which will further helps toaccumulate water in single place by the natural slops. Rain water has been considered as thepure form of water for the direct use.Still other natural store process are collecting rainwater from forest like pond, pits, rives andother artificial mode of storing places, But this shed method can save the water amount whichwill get absorbed by soil via capillary method which further may cause flood or marsh area.Collecting this water and transferring it to other place will not only help to come up withproblems like drinking and irrigation but also helps to conserve land and forest by avoidingflood and marsh area conversion.SWOT Analysis - SWOT analysis of Ethiopian Forest planning is to present an analyticalsurvey of the management of planning procedures and the existing planning documents andto evaluate if these procedures and documents are sustainable in the field of conservation andforestry for implementation in Ethiopia. It is also helpful to compare them with the Africannational policy and the directions of development. Main focus is to ensure thecompetitiveness in Africa and to increase the product with high added value. By the help of 10Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  11. 11. Forest Management with Water conservation in Ethiopiastrategic planning tool it is possible to determine the projects Strengths, Opportunity,Weakness, and Threat. Strength Opportunity  Open Source of rain water.  Opportunity for labour work.  A great potential for the water  Starting step for developing further conservation. ideas for forest-water management.  Overcomes the irrigation problems.  Supports the conservation of  Will support the biodiversity. threaten species.  Health improvement by pure water  Low cost of implementation.  Sustainable forest management can be attained.  Possibility to involve the local labor force. Weakness Threat  Implementation requires time.  Data reliability.  Governmental approval.  Political influence and acceptance  Lack of sustainable national policy of project.  Plan predictability of financial  Economic & financial issue resources.  It is also a possibility for local municipalities to promote their economic development and to attract new labor force  Lack of motivation to improve the local energy systems. SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity & Threat) Analysis of projectEstimating the above major area it’s easy to conclude that the water management systemfrom forest opts good strength where as with the help of some governmental authorities itseast to decrease the threat for the success of water management by tropical forest of Ethiopia.OBSERVATIONAs per few previous monitoring based projects like “Global Observations of Forest and LandCover Dynamics” which was developed to improve the quality and availability of remote-sensing observations of forests and land cover at regional and global scales, and to produce 11Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  12. 12. Forest Management with Water conservation in Ethiopiauseful, timely, and validated information from these data for application in land cover/landuse management and research by a wide variety of users. Apart from that the physicalmonitoring method will be also helpful for proper management and decision making. As itsalways easy to make decision based on live scenario instead of making calculation on graphswhen it is about conservation. The project also supports advanced training institutes regionalworkshops, and special conference sessions for young scientists at GOFC-GOLD RegionalNetwork meetings. START’s collaboration with NASA allows NASA and affiliated scientiststo have access to START’s skills for capacity building for research and adaptation to climatechange.The proposed strategy has been developed around the following requirements: o The program must incorporate both global and national level objectives and be capable of providing results at national, regional and global scales. o The information generated by the program must be useful for national level resource planning and management, as well as vulnerability studies and mitigation and adaptation planning. o The monitoring system should utilize data from a variety of sources and allow for in-country analyses where appropriate. o The information generated by the system should have a known and stated accuracy. o Accuracy assessment must be an integral part of the program. Field validation must be an essential component of the accuracy assessment. o The monitoring system should be coupled to, and support an independent vetting of the proposed methodology and be subject to independent peer review. o Data and information generated by the program must be made readily available in a timely fashion to a broad user community. A data system should be developed to serve the information management needs of the program and its data users. 12Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  13. 13. Forest Management with Water conservation in EthiopiaCONCLUSIONSWith the second-largest population in sub-Saharan Africa and with a highly variable climateand landscape, Ethiopia faces many serious challenges to efforts for the conservation of itsbiodiversity and forests. With rare and endangered species of mammals, high rates ofendemism of bird populations, and the largest Afro alpine habitat on the continent, thesuccess of these efforts is critical. USAID, with a strong presence and diverse portfolio in thecountry, is well placed to help with these efforts through direct activities, such as ecotourism,as well as through indirect efforts to strengthen the rule of law or expand alternativelivelihood opportunities in rural areas. At the same time this project for the management offorest and water conservation by forest will also help in providing nourishing nature to theirlocal species and vegetation.There are, however, critical areas that must be addressed like drifting the natural part andmisbalancing the water supply in natures cycle by the government of Ethiopia, and otherdevelopment partners if conservation efforts are to be successful. Of the many threats andactions described in this report, the following three points may best distil the most critical ofthe challenges and point the way to broad actions to allow for specific interventions to meetconservation objectives. 1. Fulfilling the basic need of pure water for the life for the public and irrigation. 2. Helps in conserving the particular part of forest, resource and vegitation by proper monitoring and same water supply also helps avoiding natural fire disaster. 3. Deforestation can be further reduced and implements the afforestation for recovering the damage caused by earning methods. This will further extend and meets the market supply of wood and also recovers the economic loss along with natural. 13Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  14. 14. Forest Management with Water conservation in EthiopiaBIBLIOGRAPHYConservation International. “Biodiversity Hotspots—Eastern Afromontane.” Protection Authority. Conservation Strategy of Ethiopia, Volumes II-IV(1997).Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Forestry Conservation, Development andUtilization Proclamation No. 94/1994 (1994).Environmental Protection Authority. “Environmental Policy of Ethiopia.”Ministry of Agriculture and USAID Ethiopia-Strengthening Land Tenure andAdministration Program (2006).Government of Ethiopia and Other Stakeholders. “Participatory Forest Management,Biodiversity and Livelihoods in Africa.” Proceedings of the International Conference,Addis Ababa (2007).International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN Red List of Endangered Species:Canis simensis. (2007).International Union for Conservation of Nature, Species Survival Commission. “The IUCNRed List of Threatened Species” (2007). (retrieved June 2008).Addis Ababa October-9 2012 – World Bank report on - Ethiopia Climate Project ReceivesAfrica’s First Forestry Carbon Credits under the CDM. 14Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  15. 15. Forest Management with Water conservation in EthiopiaEthiopian Rainforest info for deforestation Resources Institute. “Earth Trends: Biodiversity and Protected Areas—Ethiopia, (2003).GOFC-GOLD global land cover symposium - 15Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (
  16. 16. Forest Management with Water conservation in Ethiopia ETHIOPIA “There can be no greater issue than that of conservation in this world”. 16Prepared by – Ashish Kumar Sharma (