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Intro to comm


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Intro to comm

  1. 1. EmpathyBy Ashley Winters
  2. 2. What is Empathy?“to put yourself in his or her shoes” wu0
  3. 3. Background Info-origin of the word empathy dates back to the 1880’s-German psychologist Theodore Lipps-coined the term “einfuhlung” (in feeling)-then meant to describe the emotional appreciation of another’s feelings-now commonly referred to as process of understanding a person’s subjective experience by vicariously sharing that experience while maintaining an observant stance
  4. 4. Medical FieldEmpathy is commonly referred to in themedical work force because it applies directlyto a characteristic nurses and physicians needto have in order to diagnose and treatpatients.
  5. 5. Differences in Similar Terms• Pity -describes a relationship which separates physician and patient -often condescending and may entail feelings of contempt and rejection• Sympathy -physician experiences feelings as if he or she were the sufferer -shared feelings• Empathy -“borrows” another’s feelings to observe, feel, and understand but not to take them upon ourselves
  6. 6. DYAMOND’S CONTRIBUTION (1949)-empathetic person canimaginatively take the role ofanother and can understand andaccurately predict the person’sthoughts, feelings, and actions
  7. 7. Evolution-term originally believed by all researchers to be innate and impossible to acquire-either born with it or not-now considered teachable and learnable by some-named as essential learning objective by the American Association of Medical Colleges
  8. 8. American Association of Medical Colleges Could Be Referring To. . .Clinical Empathy-expanded defintion of empathy which includes-emotive: ability to imagine patient’s emotions and perspectives-moral: the physician’s internal motivation to empathize-cognitive: intellectual ability to identify and understand patient’s emotions and perspectives-behavioral: ability to convey understanding of those emotions and perspectives back to the patient
  9. 9. Behavioral Empathy-empathy mediates helping behaviors or volunteering (nursing)-associated with higher life statistics, well being, and health promotion-volunteerism provides man-power, saves money, and is the backbone of many organizations
  10. 10. Measurement of Empathy-more than 20 different ways to measure-very difficult to measure-most studies use paper and pencil self evaluations Popular Ones Include:-Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)-Empathy Construct Rating Scale (ECRS)-Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale
  11. 11. Study-Hogan Empathy Scale and Adjective Check List Empathy Scale-tested 43 adults-ages 63-96-both test results showed mean score of older generations was lower than that of the younger
  12. 12. Medical Models“The Four Habits Model” (Permenente Medical Group) -Invest in the beginning, Elicit the patient’s perspective, Demonstrate empathy, Invest in the end“The Four E’s” ( Bayer Institute for Health Care Communication) -Engage, Empathize, Educate, Enlist“The PEARLS” (American Academy on Physician and Patient) -Partnership, Empathy, Apology, Respect, Legitimization, Support
  13. 13. Key Steps to Effective Empathy -Frederic Platt--Recognizing presence of strong feelings in the clinical setting (fear, grief, anger, disappointment)-Pausing to imagine how the patient might be feeling-Stating your perception of the patient’s feeling (I can Imagine that must be…) (It sounds like you’re upset about…)-Legitimizing that feeling-Respecting the patient’s effort to cope with the predicament-Offering support and partnership (I’m committed to work with you to…) (Let’s see what we can do together to…)
  14. 14. 5 Types of Empathetic Responses1) reflective: “I can see that you are…” “You seem to be…about this”2) legitimizing: involves putting yourself in the other person’s place “I can understand why you’re feeling…”3) supportive: suggests that you want to help in a constructive way “I’ll be here if you have any questions or need any advice”4) partnership building: suggests that you would like to work as a team to solve the problem “We’ll work together to do what’s best”5) respectful: expresses admiration for the way in which the patient is dealing with the situation “You are coping well with this”
  15. 15. 5 Different States of Empathy-different names for each term-different ideas behind each name-each is part of the mosaic that creates empathy as a whole, even though some ideas seem conflictingEmpathy As A. . .
  16. 16. 1) Human Trait-innate-natural ability-cannot be taught but can be identified, reinforced, and refined
  17. 17. 2) Professional Trait-learned communication skill-comprised of cognitive and behavioral ideas used to convey understanding of clients reality back to him or her-learned phenomenon-emotional distance-appropriate professional response-objectivity-therapeutic role
  18. 18. 3) Communications Process-goal is to leave the client feeling understood-can be non-verbal (mentioned later)-3 primary stages a)empathy potential b)empathy expressed c)empathy recieved
  19. 19. 4) Caring-understanding of a situation and compulsion ti act because of experience of understanding-goal is to alleviate emotional sufferinga)identification: losing consciousness of self and becoming engrossed in the experience/ situation of anotherb)introjection: emotionally experiencing what another is feelingc)detachment: responsiveness to sufferingd)patient response: physical needs met or emotional suffering alleviated
  20. 20. 5) Special Relationship-reciprocal relationship to develop over time-consists of 3 sequential stages a)initiating b)building c)sustaining
  21. 21. Types of Non-Verbal Empathy-tone of voice (lowered, sympathetic)-facial expression (concerned)-touch (caring, reassuring)
  22. 22. Ways to Improve Empathy-review videotaped encounters-do what feels comfortable-develop styles that match your personality
  23. 23. Barriers to Giving Empathy-“there is not enough time during the visit to give empathy”-“giving empathy is emotionally exhausting for me”-“I don’t want to open that Pandora’s box”-“I’m concerned that if I use all my empathy at work I won’t have anything left for family”-“I haven’t had enough training in empathetic communication”
  24. 24. Tying It All Together With Obama g&feature=related
  25. 25. ReferencesAn Introduction to Empathy (n.d.). Lifelong Independent Veterinary Education. Retrieved December 7, 2009, from, T. H. (2003). An Overview of Empathy. A Focus on Patient-Centered Care and Office Practice Management, 7. Retrieved from, D., & Olson, J. (2001). Clarification of conceptualizations of empathy. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35(3), 317-325. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01848.x.May, B., & Alligood, M. (2000). BASIC EMPATHY IN OLDER ADULTS: CONCEPTUALIZATION, MEASUREMENT, AND APPLICATION. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 21(4), 375-386. doi: 10.1080/016/28400247997.Mehrabian, A., & Epstein, N. (1972). A measure of emotional empathy. Journal of Personality. Retrieved from, K., & Baernstein, A. (2006). Educating for Empathy. JGIM: Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(5), 524-530. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00443.x.