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One Problem - Water for Bangladesh

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One Problem - Water for Bangladesh

  1. 1. Lauren ―Brooke‖ Allen, Jacob Alpuerto, Kerstin Alander, Krystal Arend, Ashley Attanucci, Victoria Baughn, Min Beto, Jessica Buckner, Shelby Brant, Raymond ―Cruz‖ St. Peter, Randi Belz, Eric Ables, Thomas Berezoski BESC 201 Fall 2011
  2. 2. (Dr. D‘s Lectures)
  3. 3. • Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan 2008 Ministry of Environment and Forests Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, September 2008 • Dr. D‘s lectures • Haggett, Peter (2002) [2002]. "The Indian Subcontinent". Encyclopedia of World Geography. New York: Marshall Cavendish. pp. 2, 634. ISBN 0761473084. OCLC 46578454. Retrieved 2008-05-02 • http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/atlas/qt/climateBangla/htm • http://beta.adb.org/countries/bangladesh/main • http://buddingplanet.com/plastic-bags-causing-flooding-problems • http://chrisy58.wordpress.com/2010/03/21/how-the-west-poisoned-bangladesh/ • http://frozen-momentz.blogspot.com/2009/10/glimpse-of-mangrove-sunderbans.html • http://phys4.harvard.edu/~wilson/arsenic/pictures/arsenic_project_pictures2.html • http://seetell.jp/en/1154 • http://smeagol.terrace.qld.edu.au/intranet/curriculum/geography/yr9webquest/hazard.htm • http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/arsenic/index.cfm • http://wn.com/Economy_of_Bangladesh • http://www.adb.org/Documents/CEAs/BAN/BAN-CEA-Jul2004.pdf • http://www.adb.org/Documents/Fact_Sheets/BAN.pdf • http://www.amarlondon.com/gandc.php • http://www.bmj.com/content/322/7287/626.full • http://www.indexmundi.com/bangladesh/gdp.html • http://www.insituarsenic.org/principle.html • http://www.nktravelandtourism.com/gallary/jaf1.php • http://www.pmo.gov.bd/pmolib/legalms/pdf/National-Policy-4-Arsenic-Mitigation-2004.pdf • http://www.source.irc.nl/page/32583 • http://www.touriffictravels.com/destinations/bangladesh/ • http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/Arsenic.pdf • http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/RURAL_Water_Sanitation_and_Hygiene.pdf • http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/wes_420.htm • http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/bangladesh_35701.html • http://www.worldbank.org.bd/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/BANGLADESHEXTN/0,,menuPK:295769~pagePK:141132~piPK:141107~theSitePK: 295760,00.html • https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bg.html • Roland, B (January 6, 2005). "Bangladesh Garments Aim to Compete". BBC. Retrieved January 1, 2010 • Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. Globalization and Diversity: Geography of a Changing World, 3rd Ed. Pearson Education, Inc. 2011
  4. 4. • 16th Century: Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area of Bangladesh • Eventually the British came to dominate the region and it became part of British India • Also in Dutch possession • 1947: West Pakistan and East Bengal (both primarily Muslim) separated from India (largely Hindu) and jointly became the new country of Pakistan • 1955: East Bengal became East Pakistan • The awkward arrangement of a two-part country with its territorial units separated by 1600 km left the Bengalis marginalized and dissatisfied • 1971: East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan • Renamed Bangladesh
  5. 5. • Country‘s population: 158,570,535 as of July 2011 • 7th most populated country in the world • Overpopulation is a key issue • Hugely dense populations • The ―largest poorest nation‖ • Main language: Bengali • World‘s 9th most spoken language
  6. 6. • 850 females for every 1,000 males • Males are the selective favored sex • Creates problems in health care and nutrition of women • Difficult for women to get jobs
  7. 7. • Primarily deepened plateau • Most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas • Mostly flat alluvial plain • Hilly in southeast • More than 18,500 acres of swampland in the Sunderbans region have been submerged because of 3.3 foot rise in sea level • A 2007 report from the Indian government suggest that up to 7 million people could be displaced from coastal areas by the end of the century
  8. 8. Elevation Extremes: Lowest Point– Indian Ocean (0m) Highest Point—Keokradong (1,230m) Border Countries: India and Burma Right on the Tropic of Cancer—the northern tropic
  9. 9. The Chittagong Hill Tracts Tea Garden in Jaflong Ganges Delta Sunderbans
  10. 10. • 40% of the population is below poverty line • Labor force is very high—$73.86 million • Unemployment + underemployment = 45% • 5% unemployed • 40% underemployed
  11. 11. • The economy has grown 5-6% per year since 1996 • The country is mainly an agricultural producing economy • Rice is the largest crop • 4th largest rice producers in the world • More than three quarters of Bangladesh‘s export earnings come from the garment industry • Which began attracting foreign investors in the 1980s due to cheap labor and low conversion cost • Bangladesh has been ranked as the 4th largest clothing exporter by the World Trade Organization • 3 million workers employed, 90% are women • Trafficking tier 2 watch list • The government didn‘t handle the convictions properly and people aren‘t afraid to be in trafficking
  12. 12. • Parliamentary democracy • Conventional long form: People‘s Republic of Bangladesh • Conventional short form: Bangladesh • Former: East Bengal, East Pakistan • Capitol: Dhaka • Independence day: 26 March 1971 (from West Pakistan)
  13. 13. • President: President Zillur Rahman • elected by the National Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) • Legislative Branch: unicameral National Parliament • 300 seats (45 reserved for women) • Elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies • Members serve five-year terms • Judicial Branch: • Supreme Court—the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president • Legal System: mixed legal system of mostly English common law and Islamic law
  14. 14. • Regional differences are minor • Three seasons are generally recognized: • Tropical; mild winter (October to March) • Hot, humid summer (March to June) • Humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October) • Annual Precipitation: 75.6 in. • Lowest: 15 in./month • Highest: 22 in./month • Heavy rainfall is characteristic of Bangladesh • Annual rainfall average: 200 centimeters per year • ~80% of rain falls during the monsoon season • Monsoons result from the contrasts between low and high air pressure areas that result from differential heating of land and water • Temperature: • Lowest: 60F • Highest: 95F
  15. 15. • Widely recognized to be highly vulnerable to climate change and natural hazards, prone to • Natural floods • Tornados • Cyclones • Droughts • Summer monsoon season
  16. 16. • Most severe flooding in modern world history • Two-thirds of the country was under water • Destroyed 300,000 houses, 9,700 kilometers of road and 2,700 kilometers of embankment • 1,000 people were killed and 30 million more were made homeless • 135,000 cattle killed • 50 square kilometers of land destroyed and 11,000 kilometers of roads damaged or destroyed
  17. 17. • 1. Unusually high monsoon rains • 2. Himalayas shed an equally, unusually high amount of melt water • 3. Trees that usually would have intercepted rain water were cut down for firewood or to make space for animals
  18. 18. • Exist as natural deposits in the earth or from industrial and agricultural pollution • More than 57 million civilians affected • Significantly lower standards held by Bangladesh • 50 μg/l versus WHO‘s 10 μg/l standard • Largest case of mass-poisoning • 1.12 million tube wells are polluted
  19. 19. • Non-cancer • thickening and discoloration of the skin, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, numbness in hands and feet, partial paralysis, blindness and blackfoot disease • Cancer • bladder, lungs, skin, kidney, nasal passages, liver, and prostate • estimated 40,000 cases of arsenicosis • Cases expected to rise to 2.5 million in next 50 years
  20. 20. Areas Arsenic in Ground Water
  21. 21. Water Pollution Control Ordinance • Enacted in 1970s • Repealed and replaced by Environmental Pollution Control Ordinance of 1977 • Replaced again by Environmental Conservation Act • Replaced yet again by Environmental Conservation Rules of 1997 Bodies of Water Conservation Act 2000 • Protects minor bodies of water as well as large bodies of water • Establishes standards that limits carbon emissions from factories • Contains many loopholes and is insufficient
  22. 22. National Water Policy 1999 • Establishes institutions to purify water • Addresses water rights, allocation and public and private investment • Success depends largely on peoples‘ participation • Ineffective overall Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority (BIWTA) • Minimize pollution by limiting amount of cruising vessel activity • Responsible for maintaining vessels to proper standards to prevent oil leaks into water
  23. 23. National Policy for Arsenic Mitigation • Public awareness (health risks, social factors, and awareness of alternate sources) • Alternative sources (surface water not groundwater, technologies, endeavor piped water systems • Protocols for arsenicosis management (prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation) • Capacity building (monitoring of water, laboratories, and government experts) • Institutional arrangement ( creation of higher and lower committees.) • Research and development ( learn more and develop proposals to regulations)
  24. 24. • UNICEF • United Nations (UN) • Asian Development Bank (ADB) • World Bank
  25. 25. Arsenic Mitigation and Measurement Project: • communication in order to raise awareness of arsenic contamination and its effects • blanket testing of tube-wells • identification of patients with arsenic poisoning (arsenicosis) 
 • providing assistance to obtain safe water supplies • being carried out in 45 out of 264 ‗hot spot‘ upazilas • sub-districts cover 10% of the country and include 20% of the most contaminated areas
  26. 26. Project Achievements: • 3,700 safe water options installed • national arsenic database established • survey of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on arsenic completed in 15 upazilas. • The Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) taking increasing responsibility for identifying and managing arsenicosis patients • Fewer reports of social problems as awareness increases
  27. 27. SHEWA-B Project The Sanitation, Hygiene Education and Water Supply in Bangladesh Project • Aimed to educate the health and economic benefits of proper sanitation, waste disposal and proper hygiene • 4.5 million children to receive hygiene education • Implemented through 10,000 community hygiene promoters across 19 districts in Bangladesh • Installed 20,000 new safe water points across Bangladesh • Reaches 30 million people • 1.5 million school children to achieve safe water and improved sanitation
  28. 28. • Aid since1973 • $12.1 billion loaned • natural resource, agriculture, social infrastructure, transportation and energy • Combat major communicable diseases • Ensure equitable and sustainable access to safe water supply and sanitation • Focus on strengthening municipal management and local resource mobilization • Promote environmental and occupational health
  29. 29. • Governmental support on growth; infrastructure; climate change and disaster management; human and social development • $500 million addressing environmental-related issues • Enhanced access to clean water, better health, hygiene and school • 38% of $3.61 billion portfolio to Infrastructure • 15% toward Education • 11% toward Agriculture/Rural Development
  30. 30. • Co-precipitation/filtration ―Bucket System‖ (Cheng et al. 2004, Env. Sci. Tech.) • Filters arsenic to WHO standards • Contaminated sludge is created. The residual sludge can be de- wateredand buried in restricted areas. It may be also mixed with asphalt and cement and used as road base and construction fills. (Meng et al, 2001) • Small-scale: per household
  31. 31. • None provide long-term sustainable solution • Costly • Filters need frequent replacement • Require specially trained technicians
  32. 32. • Local: community-based (100 to 4,000 households) • Chemical-free • Successfully implemented in West Bengal, India • Promising results, reducing arsenic content from 100-250 mg/l to permissible limit. • Effective, long-lasting and sustainable • Creates no waste or arsenic ―sludge‖ • Easy operation and maintenance • To replace all contaminated wells
  33. 33. • The aquifer is used as a natural biochemical reactor and adsorber. • Removes As. • Also removes Iron and Manganese
  34. 34. • The aerators increase the dissolved oxygen in the groundwater. • This DO oxidizes the harmful As(III) to As(V) • System takes advantage of indigenous bacteria in the groundwater. • Microbes further oxidize the water.
  35. 35. • Newly oxygenated H2O is returned to the aquifer. • The remaining water is kept for general use as As-free water.
  36. 36. • Education • Proper Pump Operation • Protection of water supply • Village plumbers & electricians • Accurate record keepings of maintenance • Requires no additional training • Flood Damage Prevention • Sloped wall built around pump
  37. 37. • Reduces total As concentration to less than WHO guidelines. • No sludge is produced • No chemicals • Cost of operation: 1 USD per day. • Plant can produce 2000 liters of drinkable water per day

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