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The Use of Iconoclasm in the Middle East as a Method of...
Throughout human history power imbalances have been prevalent in almost every civilization. One
method of controlling people as well as power is to control how much knowledge gets out to the
masses. This paper examines how iconoclasm is used in the Middle East as a method of controlling
popular opinions and thoughts on race,sex and many other important details of everyday life.
Iconoclasm is the systemic destruction of religious or cultural pieces of artwork for political or
religious reasons. The destruction of artifacts can rewrite cultural history and change opinions on
how the history of a nation is perceived. This also results in extensive loss of cultural history which
can never be recovered. The Middle East is of particular interest in this research paper as it has been
in the news recently for such acts. Most Middle Eastern countries have Islam listed as their official
religion. In Islam it is forbidden to show the face of Allah, the God of Islam, in any form of artwork.
It is also seen as taboo to have any living creatures such as humans or animals depicted in a mosque,
the Islamic place of worship. As such, many buildings which have been converted into mosques
have been defaced to suit the proper Islamic code. One such incident of this happening is the Hagia
Sophia in Istanbul. Once a Roman Catholic church, it was converted into a mosque after the conquer
of the Byzantine Empire by the Ottoman Turks and all mosaics depicting Jesus, His mother and
saints were
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The Destruction Of Visual Representations Of Religion
What is iconoclasm? Iconoclasm can be defined: the destruction of visual representations of
religion. The word is Greek for "image smashing." More specifically meaning: the impulse to
destroy images for political and religious purposes. This is due to the rejection of what the art piece
represents. The controversy involving iconoclasm is the fear that people will worship the image
represented instead of the object it represents. A reason for Iconoclasts (those who reject images) to
follow iconoclasm comes from the second of the Ten Commandments, which discusses not
worshipping the image of an idol rather than the idol itself [idol meaning God] (Icons and
Iconoclasm, Iconoclastic Controversies, The Ten–Commandments). Iconoclasm started in ... Show
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Sa'im al–Dahr did not like this display of devotion, so he defaced the Sphinx by destroying the nose.
He was later executed for vandalism (Epic World History, Iconoclastic Controversy, ISIS and
Iconoclasm, What Happened). The Taliban demolished Buddha's of Bamiyan in 2001 because they
were seen as idols. The destruction of the statues was a political movement. The United Nations sent
money to restore the statues, meanwhile Taliban children were dying because of sanctions against
Afghanistan, but the UN was more concerned with statues than people. Greek and Roman statues
are thought to be missing their arms and heads to prevent worship of the statues rather than god.
Pope Gregory the Great thought the Greek/Roman statues lost all power because you do not know
what god the statues represents, and therefore cannot be worshipped (Why Extreme Islamists). The
terrorist group ISIS who has destroyed many artifacts in Syria and Iran shows modern iconoclasm.
The Bagdad Museum's website now reads "2015: ISIS destroys what is left of ancient history."
Statues in the Mosul Museum have been jackhammered, books have been burned, Nimrud was
bulldozed, and the Tomb of Jonah was blown up. Beheading is not getting the desired reaction
anymore, so why not destroy cultural artifacts? It is rumored that ISIS and Al–Qaeda have sold
some artifacts on the black market to fund their activities. Most Muslims think the
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How Did Constantine Influence The Byzantine Empire
The Byzantines inherited the Roman Empire and became the continuation of it in the East during the
Late Antiquity and Middle Age periodization's. Its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the
"Roman Empire" and to themselves as "Romans". As such, it survived almost a millennium after the
fall of its Western counterpart and continued to thrive during the Middle Ages. During the majority
of its existence, the Byzantine Empire was a powerhouse economically, culturally and military–
wise. Emperor Constantine in particular introduced many important changes that helped influence
this. Constantine completely reorganized the empire and founded a new city on the site of the
ancient city of Byzantium and named it Constantinople. This city became the capital city of the
Byzantine Empire and survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire and
continued to exist until it eventually fell to the Ottoman Turks, which in turn ended the Byzantine
Empire. Constantinople was also strategically situated as it stood at the crossroads of Europe and
Asia. Here, the commerce between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean could be strictly regulated.
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Christianity was legalized and was the preferred religion of choice under Constantine I as he
supported the religion with several privileges. It eventually became the Empire's official state
religion while other religious practices were banned. During the 8th and early 9th centuries, the
empire was also dominated by controversy and religious division for a century over Iconoclasm. All
forms of religious imagery (icons) were banned throughout the empire by Leo and Constantine,
which led to revolts by supporters of icons (iconodules). Overall, the controversy surrounding
Iconoclasm led to further alienation of the East from
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Empress Theodora Research Paper
Empress Theodora, the Paphlagonian bride, and wife of the emperor, Theophilos, experienced a
similar saintly transformation to Irene. She shares many similarities with Irene including being an
iconophile married to iconoclast, a regent for her son, ending the second iconoclasm and also was
involved in a questionable plot. Her parents came from the Village of Ebissa where some
documentation suggests that Theodora experienced an iconophile education, despite the resurface of
iconoclastic practices between 815–842. Theodora became Theophilos' bride in 830 and her married
life is characterized by a devotion to icons, which supposedly divided the emperor and empress. As
an emperor, Theophilos supported the continued iconoclasm. Despite little evidence ... Show more
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Once Theodora comes into power, she is able to end iconoclasm and restore the use of icons. The
empress is able to undertake this task because the Byzantine army suffered so many losses at
Amorion, including prominent officers being taken prisoners. These officers were avid supporters of
iconoclasm but without their support – the movement crumbles. In addition after Theophilos' death,
Theodora starts the rumor that the emperor converted from iconoclastic beliefs because of fever
dreams of persecution. With these two elements combined, individuals no longer see iconoclasm as
a method to strengthen the empire but instead, results in suffering. In this capacity, Theodora is able
to convert iconoclasts but also shows a contemporary attempt to erase the less pious actions of the
emperor and transform Theodora into a saintly figure. This is manifested in the Menologion of Basil
II, where Theodora (fig. 3) is shown in a nondescript gold ground, clothed in the imperial purple
costume, with a golden sash inlaid with various brilliant colors and crown. In her hands, Theodora
holds an icon of Christ and her gesture is one of blessing. There are numerous similarities between
Irene and Theodora. Each is shown in their imperial garment but are adorned with iconography
denoted their sacred status. In this capacity, Theodora was emphasized as a saint to eradicate
iconoclastic actions of his husband, his military failings and focus attention away from the anxiety
of the declining kingdom. By ending the second iconoclasm, Theodora becomes a symbol of hope, a
restorer of the icon and to the old ways of the powerful Byzantine
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Diabetes And Monomani Case Study
Monomania: Her monomania for sugar resulted in her being diagnosed with diabetes. Motley: The
motley of colors on Ryan's shirt was not pleasing to his teacher, whom was colorblind. Volition:
Britney's mom thought that her friends influenced her to steal the pair of jeans, but it was an act of
volition on Britney's part. Depravity: Some people believe that the death penalty is a great depravity.
Unadulterated: The saline solution was unadulterated until my lab partner added sulfuric acid.
Acquiesce: Her acquiesce to the problem resulted in the problem becoming worse. Corpulent:
Because the cat was corpulent, it couldn't run from the dog fast enough. Factitious: Most of our food
has factitious ingredients in them that are hard to pronounce.
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Images In Byzantine Church Essay
how were images used in byzantine worship? –Christians in Byzantine prayed to Christ, Virgin
Mary, and saints –images of them were known as icons –viewed with some apprehension from the
Church –Mosaic prohibition of religious images followed by the persecution of Christians –refused
to venerate images of Roman emperors –medival art: began with mosaics –decorating the walls and
domes of churches –fresco wall–paintings –the holy image panel–paintings –developed in the
monasteries of the eastern church why were they suppressed during iconoclasm –Emperor Leo III in
726 –banned the worship of icons and encouraged the persecution of those who venerated images –
religious images of icons came under scrutiny by religious and imperial authorities
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Byzantine Iconoclasm
Iconoclastic policies aimed to stop the use of icons or religious images to worship and glorify the
God. There was two period in the history of Byzantine Empire when imperial and religious
authorities opposed the use of icons or religious images. The first iconoclasm was in the beginning
of 730, and the second one between 814 and 842. Images became the items of cult implying beliefs
in their animations. Iconoclasts believed that use of icons was a violation of the Old Testament.
They felt that by using images, there was a possibility of idolatry. As stated by a traditional view,
Byzantine iconoclasm instituted an abolition of icons by Emperor Leo III and this abolition went on
even under those who succeeded him (Spielvogel, 233). There was a widespread persecution of
those who supported the worship of images and destruction of the icons. ... Show more content on
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This led to the growth of divergence between the Western and Eastern traditions as well as easing
the elimination of Byzantine control in parts of Italy. The nature and origin of Byzantine Emperor
Leo III's policy of iconoclasm are controversial and obscure. He was very religious and became
convinced that religious images and relics were representing the disrespectful items of veneration in
services of worship. Nevertheless, iconoclastic views of various bishops from western Asia had
some effect on him. Consequently, in 729 he started to speak against the usage of sacred pictures. In
730, he made iconoclasm policy official in his empire and ordered the destruction and removal of
sacred images in churches. This led to the removal of Patriarch Germanus who did not agree with
his new policy and appointing of another patriarch. He employed penalties against those who did not
observe the
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The Purposeful Destruction Of Images
The Purposeful Destruction of Images Throughout the ages art has been subject to selective
destruction and spoliation. It has been taken by conquering peoples as spoils of war, put to material
re–use, and been subject to iconoclasm. Iconoclasm has been used as a means of not only purposeful
forgetting, but, also the preservation of memory as a warning to others motivated diversely by
ideology, religion, and politics. One artifact subject to iconoclasm is the painted portrait of
Septimius Severus and his family in which one face was scraped out leaving the other three
members untouched for political reasons and a demonstration of power. Another artifact affected by
iconoclasm is a famous Byzantine icon, the Virgin Hodegetria, which was taken to be the Virgin and
Christ Child by western Europe for religious purposes. "Breaking" the image in this figurative
manner gave little to no meaning to the original icon and stole its value in history. Another "victim"
of iconoclasm is a panel that once belonged to an arch of Marcus Aurelius that now adorns the arch
of Constantine (Elsner, p. 212). These three artifacts have all been purposefully altered in diverse
ways for different reasons, however, the fact remains that they have all faced damnatio memoriae,
spolia, and/or iconoclasm. Iconoclasm has been described in many ways, the most known definition
comes from Gardner 's Art through the Ages: A Global History by Fred Kleiner, iconoclasm is "the
destruction of religious or sacred
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Byzantine Iconoclasm
I will be choosing to write a traditional research paper for my final project. The topic of my paper
will be the treatment of figural images in Islam as compared to Christianity. To begin the paper, I
will give an overview of what the majority of Muslims and Christians believe about images and
why. The main focus of my paper will be on Iconoclasm and how certain factions of each group are
opposed to and even destroy figural imagery. I will briefly discuss the Byzantine Iconoclasm and the
dispute between the Iconoclasts and Iconodules; providing a brief overview of the arguments from
each side. I will describe how Muslims who are not against images have similar arguments to the
Iconodules of the Byzantine Iconoclasm. I will analyze early instances
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Cave Paintings Such As Those At Lascaux And Altamira
What are common motifs found in cave paintings such as those at Lascaux and Altamira?
Summarize the current theories about their original meaning and purpose Cave paintings are seen
now in our society is a snapshot of just what they people during that time cherished when it comes
to prehistoric art. The Lascaux brought about many things and showed historians what the
appreciated most during that time. In this cave, there were many depicted cows, bulls, and dear
along the natural ledges of the rock, where the smooth white limestone of the ceiling and upper wall
meets a rougher surface below. All of this is a great example of what the humans during that time
saw and thought of importance, the many animals that they came across and what they looked like, I
think it paved the way for other people to see just how dangerous they can be large. The Altamira
was another example of many animists that the humans came across overall, the many details of the
animal 's legs and also a depiction of humans and their interactions with the animals. Now there are
many theories out there that go into detail about the originals, meaning, and purpose of these cave
paintings, I will now share a couple that I think is significant. The first one had to do with how the
cave paintings might be products, both of rites to strengthen clan bonds and ceremonies to enhance
the fertility if animals used for food. The second one is hoof prints, patterns of animal feces, and
hide colorings were recorded and
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The First Amendment Speaks On The Freedoms Of Religion
Hannah Bing
Judy Hatcher
WRIT 3037
17 October 2016
Free Art The First Amendment speaks on the freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly and
petition; so important, they found their place in the US Constitution. Even with these freedoms
meaning so much to the majority of America, somehow today we still encounter differences in
political and religious views that seem to provoke people to act violently against a piece of art or
even physically against the artist that created it such as in the recent case of artist Illma Gore. Often
the violent action of destroying a work of art is "more offensive" than the image itself. We should
allow artists free reign of subject matter as well as style and work together to prevent art desecration
and violence through education of the arts. Censorship is the result of the fear of art. When the fear
of art turns into iconoclasm or, rejection of a valued belief system, that fear becomes lack of
government funding, desecration, and physical violence.
Visual artists fell through the gaps and did not receive federal support for their work until the
creation of the NEA or National Endowment for the Arts in 1965. This federal program had little
funding but proved a growing interest in art and art viewing from the public. This demand for art
creates a demand for funds to support venues and museums so they can keep their doors open. A
problem with the NEA is that they provide government funding, which prevents them from being
biased about
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The Cultural And Religious Traditions Of The European...
In an eastern Mediterranean province, a group of pious individuals pray before the elaborate portrait
of a local saint and hero, hoping the image will bestow upon them some semblance of safety and
secure for them a good harvest and protection from the aggressive invaders who continue to threaten
their lands to the south. The individuals know little about the movement stirring in the large city to
the north, which seeks to remove the holy image to which they so ardently pray. From the west,
rumors of a new Creed have made their way to the town, but the grand political and historical
implications of this document are unknown the laity, who, illiterate, have never read the creed to
which their church adheres.
In such an environment, the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Though such controversies alone have many theological and religious implications, they can only be
truly understood in the political and historical context in which they arose.
Religious icons, or images, may include paintings, murals, portraits, or mosaics, which, in the
seventh through ninth centuries, commonly depicted Christ, the likeness of a saint, or a particular
scene from scripture. The dispute over the use of icons and religious imagery in the Church, and the
nature of this use amongst the laity, began in the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantine Empire, in
the late seventh century, with the movement against icons, or the iconoclasm movement, reaching its
height in the mid ninth century. The use of Icons in Christian practice began in the Coptic Church in
Egypt, and spread throughout the Byzantium Empire, developing into a vital form of religious
education and communication for the laity throughout the East. Those who opposed religious
iconography, did so on the basis of scripture, as the practice of icon use was clearly condemned in
Old Testament text. As the use of every religious icon could not be explicitly regulated, it was
difficult for religious and imperial authorities to determine how such icons were used by the public.
Thus, as it was unknown whether the laity prayed before or to the icons in their community, all
religious icons were removed to prevent the risk of unorthodoxy and the potential practice of
idolatry (Brubaker et al., 2011).
The
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Virgin And Child: Beloved Art
Art over the years has evolved with the feelings it evokes. An outstanding piece of art that evoked
many responses is the Virgin (Theotokos and Child enthroned), apse mosaic. The viewpoints have
blossomed from hatred and controversy to form more of a beloved and admiral stand point. This
beautiful piece is located in Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey. It was created in 867 by Patriarch
Photios and the emperors Michael III and Basil I. During the Macedonian dynasty during the middle
Byzantine period. Although this was a mosaic created to pull emotions from its viewers it was not
intentionally created to become controversial. During this time frame this image was considered
dangerous and a conflicting problem with religion. The Christianity community considered this
image against the commandments of religion. EXODUS 20:4–6 "You shall not make for yourself a
carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or
that is in the water under the earth; you ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
When images were created of spiritual beings people began questioning whether or not images
should even be allowed in any place of worship. The question was asked, "Is it appropriate to pray
to an image created by an artist"? The image of the Virgin and Child was created after the
iconoclasm period which made this piece especially important because many art pieces created
before were destroyed. Iconoclasm was a very important and destructive period during the
Byzantine Empire. Many religious pieces were destroyed. Due to this fact it caused an imperial ban
on images. . When the mosaic was unveiled there was a sermon read. "Christ came to us in a flash
and was born in the arms of his mother". The unveiling of this mosaic was after the iconoclasm
period which made this time so special and important. This occasion was a staple in the rebuilding
and recreating of what was lost and
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Iconoclastic Controversy Research Paper
The Iconoclastic Controversy was a dispute over religious images and artifacts in the 8th and 9th
centuries. The Iconoclasts challenged icon worshiping which included the possibility of worshipping
and in the Old Testament's prohibition against religious images in the Ten Commandments. The
iconoclasts claimed that images of religious figures such as Jesus, Saints, and the Virgin Mary were
a parody of true worship and were associated to idol worship ("Iconoclastic Controversy | Byzantine
History."). After all of this, they set out to destroy all images, which lead to the church banning
religious images within the practice of worship, ritual, or sacrament for the next century. The icon
worshippers insisted on the natural symbolism it created for the images as well as the poise created
for the object.
Material expressions in relation to iconoclasm and religious imagery can be extremely crucial for an
individual amongst the Christian church. Some may ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The use of icons, nevertheless, steadily gained in popularity, especially in portions of The Roman
Empire. Towards the end of the 6th century and in the 7th, icons became the object of an officially
encouraged cult, often implying a superstitious belief in their animation ("Iconoclastic Controversy |
Byzantine History."). Although the materialistic expression may be quite controversial, they have
brought a lot more attention to the Christian religion. They had the power of bringing people
together with what was being worshipped, and have also brought amounts us 2 addition branches of
Christianity that include both the Catholic church, and the Orthodox church. Some of these images
are worshipped worldwide throughout the Christian churches for all the right reasons. They bring
the individuals together with the material expression and give them an image to their head such as
Jesus Christ being painted as
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A Schism Was The Cause Of The Great Schism
The Christian church was split between the Pope of Rome and the Patriarch of Constantinople, each
holding different opinions on religious policy, namely ikons. The two branches moved further and
further apart until they became the separate Roman Catholic and Eastarn Orthodox churches in an
event called the Great Schism.
A schism is a religious divide or conflict, and a great one would have great impact on the fate of its
religion. A schism was already forming between the Pope and Patriarch, whose powers were
unbalanced and views were not alike. What finally caused the Great Schism was the issue of ikons–
images of the divine used in worship–and iconoclasm–the disapproval of that practice. The Pope
favored practice with ikons, and would be
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The Word Iconoclasm In The Byzantine Empire
The Word Iconoclasm refers to the destruction of images or hostility towards visual representations
in general. This word more specifically is used for the iconoclastic Controversy that shook the
Byzantine Empire for more than 100 years. The Hostility towards religious representations began in
726 when Emperor Leo publicly opposed the icons. The word icon refers to many different things
today. "It can refer to graphic symbols in our software and to powerful cultural figures."(Dr. Davor
Dzalto). However, the original meaning comes from the Greek meaning for image. In the medieval
era, it meant a religious image on a wooden panel used for prayer and devotion. "More specifically,
icons came to typify the art of the Orthodox Christian Church. ... Show more content on
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Another theory suggests that the prohibition was an attempt to keep the growing wealth and power
of the monasteries. They produced the icons and used them as a primary target of the violence of the
Iconoclastic Controversy. Others say the prohibition was religious, and an attempt to correct the
right practice of worshiping images. Leo the third's prohibition may have been because of the huge
volcanic eruption in 726, thought to have happened because of God's anger over the dedication of
the icons. The original theological basis for iconoclasm was weak, they relied mostly on the Old
Testament prohibition. But it was clear that it was not absolute because God gave instructions on
how to make a three–dimensional Cherubim for the Ark of the Covenant, which was quoted in the
Old Testament, a couple of chapters after the passage that prohibits images. Emperor Constantine V
gave a slightly different theological approach for iconoclasm. He claimed, " He claimed that each
visual representation of Christ necessarily ends in a heresy since Christ, according to generally
accepted Christian dogmas, is simultaneously God and man, united without separation, and any
visual depiction of Christ either separates these natures, representing Christ's humanity alone, or
confuses
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Does Religion Cause Violence In Two Empires
Religion had a large effect on violence that broke out within the two empires. Within Islam, two
sects reigned supreme. The Sunni and the Shiite. The Sunni believe that Muhammad's bloodline is
not the rightful heir to becoming a caliph. Sunni believe that the next Caliph should be voted upon
by the Islamic people based on merit. The Shiite believe that Muhammad's bloodline should reign
supreme and the Caliphates should only follow lineage. This diametrical opposition directed the
Sunni and Shiite to despise one another. Because of these conflicting ideals, riots, attacks, murders,
and bloodshed occurred between the two sects. This raging controversy has continued to modern
day. Christianity in the Byzantine Empire had bloodshed and destruction
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How Did The Bulgars Build The Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire had shrunk considerably due to earlier invasions and plundering by groups
such as Bulgars, Slavs, and Avars. The Bulgars marched on Bulgaria sometime in 670s. They
defeated the Byzantine troops in 681 forcing the Byzantine ruler to acknowledge their new nation.
Avar and Slavs changed the Balkans when they integrated with the locals and imposed their
language and religious cults. They took control of the Balkans away from Byzantine rule and
severed trade and travel between Constantinople and the settlements on the Dalmatian coast. Under
constant attacks by invaders, the already shrunken empire saw many of its towns destroyed,
obliterated or changed. The once bustling open markets, town squares, and theatres were no more.
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Who Was Muhammad's Significance For Islam Research Paper
Who was Muhammad and what is his significance for Islam?
Muhammad or Mohammad was born in 570 CE and died on 8 June in 632 CE is the figure of
Islamic nation and he is identified as their founder by non–Muslims. Muhammad is mostly known
as the "Holy Prophet" to the Muslim nation. He is some what as the final prophet of God to restore
Islam and is believed to be understood by the Muslims to be the original monotheistic faith of
Adam, Abraham, Jesus, and other prophets. Muhammad united Arabia into a one Muslim polity and
made sure that his teachings, practices, and the Quran, formed the basis of Islamic religious belief.
The Muslims had believed that Islam is a faith that have always been here on this earth and that
Islam gradually revealed to humanity by a amount of of prophets, but the final and complete
revelation of this faith was made through the Prophet of Muhammad in the 7th century.
What is the motivation and significance of iconoclasm? ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Iconoclasm is the belief that there shouldn't be any religious pictures or religious monuments
because they are seen as a form of idol worship. People who encourage or support iconoclasm are
called the iconoclasts, a term that comes to applied figuratively to anybody who broken or disdained
the established conventions. People who are revere to the religious images are called iconolaters. In
Christianity, iconoclasm was generally motivated by a literal interpretation of the Ten
Commandments, which had forbid the making and worshipping of graven images. The Statues and
portraits of saints and religious figures were also major in Western church, but some Protestant sects
eventually had rejected them. Islamic nation still bans all icons, and iconoclasm that has played a
role in the conflicts between Muslims and Hindus in
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Essay on Arts in the Time of the Byzantine
I have chosen the apse mosaic in San Vitale (Christ with San Vitale, Bishop
Ecclesius, and two angel, 526–547) and dome Mosaic in the Church of the Dormition
(Christ Pantocrator, ca1090–1100). The apse mosaic was created in early Byzantine
and the dome mosaic was created in middle Byzantine.
The depiction of Christ between the works are quite different. I think the most
observable is the appearance of Christ. From the apse mosaic in San Vitale, we can
see that the Christ is clean–shaven and long–haired. The image of Christ looks like the
Good Shepherd. But from the dome mosaic of Christ Pantocrator, the details on the
Christ's face changed. The Christ became bearded and long–haired. Another change in
the depiction of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Moreover, Justinian had a success of developing the Byzantine
Empire in early Byzantine. People had less conflicts between them and they followed
the religious in Roman Christianity. Hence, they depict the Christ in a smiley face.
But later The Age of Justinian was followed by a political decline, Constantinople
was wracked by religious and political conflict. And Leo III issued a ban on religious
images (Iconoclasm) afterwards. I think people in middle Byzantine may regret for
this and so they depict the Christ in an angry face. They knew that they had shown
disrespectful to the Christ.
The early Byzantine art mainly followed the Roman arts. The work I chose was a
good example. From my chosen work, the Christ was shown as the image of the good
Shepherd and this was the way to shape the Christ in Roman Empire. Also people
kept creating mosaics like the Roman period. For example, Transfiguration of Jesus
also had the same details as my chosen work shown. The middle Byzantine art
became more naturalistic. Let say my chosen work, they created the Christ more
human like. I think artists may wanted to show the realism after the Iconoclasm.
For example, Crucifixion, the mosaic in the church of the Dormition had shown the
work more realistic.
Byzantine art influenced the Russian and Eastern European civilizations. The
subsequent Church architecture and religious art were influenced
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Martin Luther: The Lenten Sermons – March 9, 1522
Had I desired to foment trouble,
I could have brought great bloodshed upon Germany. Martin Luther – 'The Lenten Sermons' –
March 9, 1522.
In this essay I will be outlining some of the ways that the theme of authority emerges in the history
of the Protestant Reformation in Europe in the sixteenth century and linking the events to the
epigraph show above, quoted from a sermon given by the German friar Martin Luther in 1552. In
order to do this, I must fully understand the context of Martin Luther's statement. This will require
developing an understanding of the Protestant Reformation and the iconoclasm that came with it and
the ways that the theme of authority was shown, developed, and destroyed within that society.
It could be said that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Bibliography
Calvin, J. ((1559) 2014). Institutes of the Christian Religion. In L. Prescott, & F. Richards, Ideas of
Authority (pp. 217–218). Milton Keynes: The Open Univeristy.
Grell, O. P., Richards, F., & Woods, K. (2014). Chapter 4: The Protestant Reformation and
iconoclasm. In L. Prescott, & F. Richards, Ideas Of Authority. (pp. 162 – 223). Milton Keynes: The
Open University.
Hogdenberg, F. The Iconoclasm. The Iconoclasm. Rijksprentenkabinet, Rijsmuseum Amsterdam,
Cologne.
Karlstandt, A. ((1522) 2014). On the Abolition of Images and that There Should Be No Beggers
amoung Christians'. In L. Prescott, & F. Richards , Ideas Of Authority (p. 213). Milton Keynes: The
Open University.
Luther, M. ((1522)2014). The Lenten Sermons. In L. Prescott, & F. Richards, Ideas Of Authority (p.
214). MIlton Keynes: The Open Univeristy.
Mochizuki, M. (2014). The Netherlandish Image after Iconoclasm. In L. Prescott, & F. Richards,
Ideas of Authority (p. 221). Milton Keynes: The Open University.
Tanis, J., & Horst, D. ((1993) 2014). Images of Discord: A Graphic Interpretation of the Opening
Decades if the Eighty Years' War. In L. Prescott, & F. Richards, Ideas of Authority (pp. 219–220).
Milton Keynes: The Open
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Iconoclasm: The Destruction Of Ideas
Iconoclasm
The heresy of iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons; translated into English iconoclasm
means "image breaker." Icons were abused by Christians in the early Church, with people attaching
a superstitious value to the image rather than God Himself. This idolatry used icons incorrectly, as
they were only meant to inspire prayer and worship, and not to be worshipped themselves.
Iconoclasts sought to resolve the issue of idolatry by destroying the icons rather than correcting
those who were abusing them. Iconoclasm arose in the 8th century when Byzantine Emperor Leo III
sought to persecute the use of icons in worship in order to appease Byzantine's Muslim neighbors.
Jewish and Muslim religion forbids any images, or artists' interpretations of God, which are what
they saw in icons. With the Muslims aggressively taking over the Holy Land, Emperor Leo III
sought to save his empire from attack by conforming Christianity to reflect more Muslim values and
further centralize the Church. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
While idolatry is wrong so is the destruction of images of God. Along with the destruction of icons
almost always came the persecution of monks, as they were the upholders and often creators of
many iconic images. Relics, shrines, and the bodies of saints were also destroyed by iconoclasts,
believing them to be false idols that were being worshipped. St. John of Damascus and St. Thomas
the Studite were iconophiles, which would literally translate to "icon lovers." They argued against
iconoclasm by saying that icons were forbidden in the Old Testament because at that point God had
not given any representation of Himself in human form, but in the New Testament revealed Himself
through Jesus, His Son, and that because of this revelation icons could be created in Jesus' image
without being considered false
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Iconoclasm Of The Byzantine Church
When it comes to something like the Byzantine worship, Christians in the Byzantine world asked to
Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the saints while looking at images of them on panels which are known
as icons. The veneration of icons was viewed with some apprehension from the Church. This was
because of the Mosaic proscription of religious descriptions and the persecution of Christians who
refused to venerate images of Roman emperors. Iconoclasm that happened was the veto and
obliteration of works of art because they were considered inappropriate in religious contexts. Images
of saints and sacred stories on icons and in churches were destroyed and the people who worshiped
them were persecuted. During this time, the Church leaders were fearful that
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Christian Art: The Development Of Byzantine Art
While the Byzantine culture was expanding from new territory, so was the art depicting Christianity.
The development of the Christian art has been divided by Art historians into three periods based on
its greatest glory. This time period in art is sometimes referred to as "golden ages". The first period
from the "golden ages",Early Byzantine, began in 527 under the rule of Justinian. During this time,
the destruction of images used in religious worship, or iconoclasm, was enforced. The Early
Byzantine era ended in 726 with Leo III as the ruler. Then the Middle Byzantine Era begun during
843 and lasted until 1204 while iconoclasm was no longer enforced, but instead was seen as heresy.
The final Byzantine era, also known as, the Late Byzantine Era began after the recapture of
Constantinople in 1261 and finally ended during 1453.
During the Early Byzantine Era, Byzantine art by the emperor, Justinian, began as recognizable and
with a distinctive style, demolishing the unclear definitions of earlier Christian art. Also, carvings
with ivory were considered important forms of art. The majority of the finest examples date to this
time period. One of them being a plague carved ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The Byzantine land was being conquered, the Church of Rome eventually broke the Byzantine
Orthodox Church, and the Crusade brought reinforcements to fight for the Cross again the Saracens,
known as Muslims, in the Holy Land. Because of all these events taking place, the Byzantine culture
was crumbling, and their way of art was changing as well. During the 14th and 15th century, murals
and iconic paintings were competing to surpass works from the earlier periods. The Church of the
Christ in Chora obtains an example of the masterpieces in the form of a fresco in the side chapel of
the church. The painting itself depicted a biblical scene of Christ and the resurrection of Adam and
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Summary: The Gothic Iconoclasm
Often referred to as Iconoclasm; the act of rejecting, destroying or disowning of religious icons and
idols has been a niche human theme throughout history. From the era of the Byzantine Empire, to
the German Protestants, Christian iconoclasm seems to spring up in nearly every time period. That
being said, instances of the rejection of idols and icons is presented by two rather eloquent texts:
The Gothic Idol: ideology and image–making in medieval art by Michael Camille, as well as, The
Idol in the Age of Art by Suzanne Preston Blier. The first text mentions idols of the twelfth and
thirteenth centuries, while the second focuses on idols of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
In addition, the iconoclastic movement among German Protestants occurred during the sixteenth
century. As such and as mentioned, it is then exceedingly clear that iconoclasm is a theme
throughout religious history. Furthermore, it ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Similar to the Graeco–Roman pagan idols rejected by Christianity, many idols from African
religions were rejected as well. Blier makes this clear in her texts regarding the Portuguese in the
Congo, that African idols were not welcome among Christians. Rather, if was considered blasphemy
to worship such objects as if they were gods. According to Blier (2017), "The scene unfolding in
front of the monarch shows various local Kongo aides in textile wrappers rolled at the waist,
carrying squirming anthropomorphized devil–form idols – some with claw feet – toward a pyre on
which other equally monstrous (and very lively) beings have been secured." (19). This description
makes it exceedingly clear that Christians viewed African pagan idols as satanic, and saw it fit to
burn them. This is yet another example of Christianity's rejection of a more "pagan" way, and
embracement of
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Why Does Art Get Destroyed?
Why does art get destroyed? This essay will examine many different factors that contribute to art
getting destroyed and why these happen. It will look at the various reasons the destruction happened
and the consequences that occurred because of them. This essay will look at both religious and
political reasons art can get destroyed along with the work that has no connection to religion or
politics in how it was destroyed. There are many different reasons why art can get destroyed, some
can be accidental and some can be on purpose. So why does art get destroyed? Monolithic structures
like the Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx have been slowly eroded over thousands of years by the
elements and sands of the desert. Fourteen hundred pieces of art were irreparably damaged in floods
that devastated Florence. Japanese art, an estimated tens of thousands pieces of art, were destroyed
in the great Kanto earthquake and the fire that followed it in 1923. Another earthquake destroyed
Ribeira Palace destroying the library which held around seventy thousand books and manuscripts
along with many pieces of art. In the case of ISIS destroying works of art and historical artefacts in
the Mosul Museum they did it because god willed them to destroy idols depicting Allah put on
display by devil worshippers. They have since gone on to ransack and burn the Mosul library and by
doing so have destroyed thousands of rare books and literature. This isn't all Isis is doing to destroy
the heritage
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Islamic Iconoclasm As The Xx
Islamic Iconoclasm:
Iconoclasm is defined as the XX. It may be carried out in the context of one's religion or against the
icons of another faith, as evinced by Muslim destruction of Christian and pagan idols.
In their papers on Islamic iconoclasm, G.R.D. King and F.B. Flood approach the topic from two
different temporal viewpoints. While King situates his paper within a medieval period and
delineates an evolution of the origins of Islamic iconoclasm and compares it to Byzantine
iconoclasm, Flood extends his arguments to the present and asks how our understanding of the
development of iconoclasm can elucidate contemporary militant groups' iconoclasm. Despite the
temporal disparity, both King and Flood argue that Islamic iconoclasm had more than just religious
considerations and must also be seen in a political and economic context. Additionally, Flood
postulates that in the modern day, museums can function as new means, which inform Islamic
iconoclasm. long, culturally determined, and unchanging tradition of violent iconoclastic acts"
Firstly, both King and Flood agree that opposition to figuration had no liturgical basis in the Qur'an.
Rather, it had its roots in the Traditions of the Prophet, the hadith, a collection of sayings by the
Prophet. It forbids representations as God is considered "inconceivable [and] beyond encompassing
by any artistic repertoire". King suggests that this understanding led to aniconism and motivated acts
of iconoclasm. Additionally, Muslims
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Controversy: The Byzantine Empire
Third response paper The Byzantine Empire, the successor of the Roman empire, is one of many
religious civilizations that existed in the first millennium. While it was a Christian realm,
simultaneous empires were to be found with other religious–political doctrines, such as the Islamic
Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid empire and Buddhist China. This high diversity of beliefs, which
shaped the entire societal and political structure, has undoubtedly influenced each others at a certain
extent, and it was the case of Byzantium, which, after several moments of rise and decline, saw
several political and religious reforms in an effort to centralize worship characteristics and create a
more homogenous population. Perhaps one of the most significant of these refinements and one
feature that displays the relevance of external influence is the beginning of Iconoclasm. Meanwhile,
in the Asian continent, and particularly in China, a new religious–political dogma was emerging,
known as Neo Confucianism. In this paper I shall discuss the iconoclast controversy, as an attempt
to unify religious practices and beliefs, and its ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Iconoclasm is the ban of religious images, statues and icons for religious or political motives. In
Christianity, Iconoclasm was the result of a literal interpretation of the Ten Commandments, which
suggests that worshipping holy figures, pictures or graved images is prohibited. The Byzantines saw
two eras of iconoclasm, the first Iconoclast period was from 726 to 787 CE, when Leo III, the
emperor of Byzantium at that time, ordered the removal of religious images of the Christ, Mary, and
every single form of art representing the divinity in Christianity (fig 1). The second era of debating
either the censorship or the advocacy of religious art was from 814 to 842
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Comparison Of Pop Art, Postmodernism, And World War II
Pop Art, Postmodernism, and World War II
Pop Art, a form of Postmodernism, describes the genre of art during and after WW2. The question I
am exploring within this topic is why did the influence of the time period of World War II create
such sexual and abstract works of art ? The points of view I encountered delivered two basic
positions on the same issue. I studied a web site as well that offered graphics to support and explain
it's position
(http://www.azstarnet.com/~nik/AME/time/popart/index.html )
The idea or actual creation of sexual and abstract images have been around for centuries, Yet the
idea of linking a genre of art works to the times in which they were created doesn't appear as a major
... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
He titles his argument "After the
Orgy " which touches alot on the idea of Pop Art and modernism today, but the main position of the
argument discusses the root of Pop as an orgy. Webster defines the word orgy as, "a gathering
marked by unrestrained indulgence." So I suppose in this case Baudrillard considers the idea of Pop
Art , being sexual and abstract images, as an orgy of the times.
Art critic Roland Barthes explains Pop Art to take the place of machines, "It utilizes the mechanical
process of reproduction: the object itself which in everyday life we incessantly personalize by
incorporating into our individual world the object is, according to Pop
Art everything left over once we have mentally amputated all it's possible themes and uses."
Baudrillard digs deeper into the history of Pop Art to discuss it's motives in terms of religion. He
explains the religion of Pop Art as an iconoclasm, which by definition describes the act to destroy
religious images. He states that iconoclasm is practiced in Pop not by the distruction of religious
images but by the creation of them.
From this I gathered the idea of sexuality in Pop Art was a form of rebellion against religion as well.
Baudrillard discusses the rebellion of the Iconolaters (Pop Artists) who gained insight to those who
represented or pretended to represent God and at the same time hid under false appearance to cover
up the
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Cult Of Gods Research Paper
As hinted above, devotion, iconoclasm, and preservation efforts are intricately entwined with
processes that happen before, during, and after the performances that the perspective party
participates in. In each environment, the object takes on new meanings and significances due to the
discourses surrounding it and the subjectivities of the people who possess it. Moreover, preservation
often engages in the same processes that religious iconoclasts did and do by creating new narratives
of the objects and relegating necessary performances with the object. Apart from just merely the
smashing of objects or gods, by removing these objects out of their original socio–historical
contexts, the objects are destroyed, literally and/or figuratively, ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
Moreover, instead of religious narratives, moderns have modern narratives based on specific
conceptualizations of history, humanism, and secularism. No longer about a history of a particular
group of people as with the Jewish or Islamic narratives, modern discourse is often developed in
terms of human history, human civilization, and human progress. In A Secular Age, Charles Taylor
argues that modern secularity was a parallel development of a "purely self–sufficient humanism" for
the first time in history, clarifying "I mean by this a humanism accepting no final goals beyond
human flourishing, nor any allegiance to anything else beyond this flourishing. Of no previous
society was this true" (18). Before the modern era, Taylor argues, human beings were never on top;
gods were the ones who were dominant and worthy of devotion, for only with their benefice would
humans be able to flourish (Taylor 18). However, secularity now places humans on the pedestal,
further intensifying the disenchantment of the secular age by displacing
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The Terror Of Terror And Violence
In July of 2014, ISIS blew up a Muslim shrine as an act of terror and violence. Again they attempted
to terrorize the local people of Iraq when they blew up another ancient mosque later the same
month. The ISIS terrorist group is an extremist Muslim organization that is capitalizing off the fear
and confusion of the Syrian Civil War. For the past five years, ISIS has waged war on the Syrian
government as well as any other group that does not conform to their extreme ways of life. Their
tactics for control are aggressive and extreme; public beheading, fear mongering, and destruction of
local historical and religious sites. The destruction of these sites is done in an iconoclastic manor;
yet, they also use the destruction to push their ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
ISIS is known for their hatred of religious and ethnic groups that do not conform to their extreme
ways. Christian and the Sunni Muslims are the two main targets for the ISIS terror attacks. Their
attacks have no limits. In Beirut, a fifth–century Roman Catholic monastery was destroyed by ISIS
while in Mosul the suspected tomb of Jonah the prophet was blown up (). Also in Mosul, a mosque
and shrine devoted to Prophet Jirjis was also blown up as an act of terror. It's clear that ISIS has no
specific target other than those that disagree with their platform and extreme views. They use the
destruction of images as an attempt to scare locals into subjecting to their laws. ISIS recognizes the
power that these images hold on people and they are trying to exploit that. Similarly, the government
of France and Russia used images and their powers to spread propaganda. While ISIS uses the
images of destruction and violence more so than Russia and France, the similarities can be seen in
the effort to control the common people. What makes this form of iconoclasm so different is that it
deviates from the "normal" iconoclasm that took place early in religious history. Early forms of
iconoclasm destroyed images because of the fear and power that they have and create. As Freedberg
states, "It [iconoclasm] opens realms of power and fear that we may sense but cannot quite grasp.
When the iconoclast
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Iconoclasm In Greek Art
Iconoclasm is often defined as the destruction or regulation of images. These images are typically
religious icons and are worshiped by many thousands of people. Sculptures, paintings, and any type
of artwork depicting a religious or godlike figure are be seen as blasphemous to iconoclasts who
believe that people worship the images and not the figures themselves. In today's world, these
precious artworks are being destroyed by terrorist groups such as ISIS. These beautifully crafted
artworks deserve to be protected from this destruction and remain on this earth for years to come, to
be seen by generations but in reality, there isn't much we can do to stop these attacks. Iconoclasm in
its literal interpretation means "image breaking" and the
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Art History: Mesopotami Land Between Two Rivers
Sean Franklin
Art History Final Paper
4/22/2016
Art History
Five thousand years ago there was a place the greeks would later name Mesopotamia. Literally
translated as "land between two rivers". These two rivers were the Tigris and the Euphrates. It was
also called the fertile crescent or the cradle of civilization. It is very convenient for early
civilizations to have access to clean water, as they obviously could not ship it in from elsewhere
until the advent of aqueducts. So this land between two rivers was one of the most prosperous and
active back in the time period. At different times, it was ruled by the Sumerians, the Akkadians, the
Babylonians, the Assyrians, and the Persians. They lived close to the natural world, and so their
depictions ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
He gave the western half to his son Honorius. The eastern half was given to his son Arcadius, and
this land would become known as Byzantium. The two kingdoms considered themselves roman
though spoke roman in the west, and greek and the east. The western Roman empire was repeatedly
attacked by barbarians, Goths, Franks, and Huns. Rome was sacked multiple times, and a lot of
great art and recorded thought was lost setting humanity back hundreds of years. Under the weight
of this turmoil only 81 years after the death of Theodosius, the western roman empire ceased to exist
and split into several countries. The one unifying force left was the catholic church and the pope.
The Byzantine empire would, however, last another thousand years. In 730 AD emperor, Leo the
third initiated a movement called iconoclasm based on a strict interpretation of the ten
commandments. He forbade the making and worship of divine images. The iconoclasts sought the
removal and destruction paintings and sculptures. After iconoclasm ended, byzantine was limited to
copying "approved" images. Back in Rome Pope Gregory rejected iconoclasm and declared it
heretical. As a result, artist in the west had more creative freedom. The church was the major patron
of the arts, and so most medieval art had divinely inspired themes. The Western artist was interested
in creating the visionary experience, over time their art became more realistic in its portrayal of
people and the natural world. Images gained depth for the first
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Iconoclasm In The Byzantine Empire
When researching iconoclasm during the Byzantine Empire and today's Middle East, one can easily
see the end result of the two ages is similar – the destruction of valuable religious artwork. However
it is important to analyze the reasons and intent behind the destruction. By doing this, a person can
better understand the motivation for the artwork's destruction and even determine if history should
treat the two eras differently.
With respect to the Byzantine era, the reason behind the destruction of icons was a theological
debate within the Christian religion. During this time, the creation of icons was believed to be
divinely inspired by God. Iconophiles, those that like and approve of icons, were devout Christian's
who prayed at an icon because of what it represented – God. However Iconoclasts, those who work
to destroy icons, were also devout Christians. Iconoclasts feared that in praying before the icons
Christians were actually worshiping the icons. They were concerned that Iconophiles believed the
icons had the ability to perform miracles. In this way the use of icons became idol worship and was
against God's commandment and must be destroyed. In fact, when ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
For Isis, iconoclasm is motivated by hate and politics. Specifically, as noted in the Anderson article,
they want to destroy the physical evidence "that any other faith worth valuing existed before their
own." This devaluation of another faith's artifacts minimizes that specific religion and, more
importantly, the people who practice it. Also, as stated in the article by Chitwood, ISIS destroys
religious artifacts to combat "shirk" which the sin of worshipping anything other than Allah. Even
more alarmingly, Chitwood links iconoclasm to the toppling of the World Trade Center as it was an
act against the idolatry of Western
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The Triumph Of The Eastern Orthodoxy In 726 AD
The triumph of the Eastern Orthodoxy In 726 AD, there was a massive eruption by the Santorini
Volcano. The Agean Sea was filled with tsunamis, ash, and volcanic rock that caused the sea to boil.
It was the largest eruption Europe had seen in over 2000 years. Right now you're probably
wondering how this has anything to do with the subject at hand. This is the story of how an eruption
sparked one of the biggest debates in the history of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
The eruption of Santorini and the invading Muslims caused the emperor to change Christian history.
Emperor Leo III of Constantinople saw this eruption as a sign that God was angry with the empire.
Leo was confused by this and wondered why God was angry with him while He continued to allow
the Muslims to invade Christian territories. The emperor had a theory that since the Muslims were
iconoclastic, which means they were against the images of religious figures such as a painting of
Jesus. Leo thought that since the Muslims weren't using images, God had been favoring them since
the Christian church did use images. So Leo had the image of Jesus, that was placed in front of ...
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This caused Shirley2 patriarch Germanos I of Constantinople. Greece immediately rebelled and
Emperor Leo was forced to lead a fleet against the Greeks instead of against Muslims. Pope Gregory
II and a council of bishops claimed the Emperor's iconoclasm a heresy and they excommunicated
him. The emperor sent fleet against Rome but it sank. Emperor Leo, incensed against the Pope,
would not send aid to defend Europe (in fact, he had enough threats closer to home that he probably
could not, but now he would not). Estranged from the imperial might of Constantinople, Pope
Gregory had to call upon Charles Martel, the Frankish king, to fight back the Muslims and hem
them in
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Richard Powers Iconoclasm
Richard Powers once said "The history of art is the history of iconoclasm, the history of some new
voice saying that everything you know is wrong." What does Mr. Powers mean by this statement?
To understand what he means we first have to go back and look at what iconoclasm means.
Iconoclasm means the doctrine or practice of an iconoclast, which in turn means a person who
criticizes or opposes widely accepted practices and beliefs. To further understand the statement said
by Mr. Powers we will also have to look at the history of iconoclasm, current iconoclastic events,
study when the desire of preservation of icons becomes a form of worship, and whether the worship
of the icon is the same as worshiping the beliefs or practices they represent. ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
This question in itself brings up a whole new polemic. Many would say the worshiping of what the
artwork stands for would be constant praise or constantly bringing up the work. Others would
believe that when the practices the artworks represent would become a form of worship. Yet, others
would believe that a mixture of other two groups is a sure sign of worship. But, can someone
worship a piece of artwork and not worship the practices it represents? Personally I believe that it
can happen that a person can worship the artwork but not the practices. While in other situations the
person can worship the practices and not agree or worship the work itself. What does it really mean
to worship an artwork rather than what it embodies? How far would the worship of the work go until
it would be considered idolatry? To some worshiping an artwork is to constantly praise it and use it
as a reference when looking at the quality of other works done. To worship a piece rather than to
worship the beliefs it represents is to hold that piece in high regards but not agree with the practices
or beliefs shown in the piece or to not care for those beliefs or practices. Yet, to idolize a work
would be to believe that the work being worshipped is a manifestation of a god, or to believe that the
work has all the power and believe that it speaks to people to do things. Many will say that idolizing
an artwork or object and worshiping the object without regards for the purpose of the work are the
same thing. In some cases that line between idolizing a work and worshiping the work without
regards to the purpose or back story are sometimes blurred when certain things come into play. For
example, both ideas hold high regards for the work yet idolizing the work ties it to a religion,
practice, or belief. While the other simply does not care for the belief,
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The Destructive Effects Of Iconoclasm During The Byzantine...
Makoto Emura 3/22/2015 The Destructive Effects of Iconoclasm during the Byzantine Empire In
the 4th century, the Roman Empire underwent major changes, becoming the Byzantine Empire. The
Roman religion was replaced by Christianity, specifically the Eastern Orthodox Church, as the new
state religion. Artists helped to spread this new religion by building churches and producing
manuscripts. The artists imagined what religious figures looked like to portray them in art. But the
Church criticized the visual representation of figures at certain periods during the Byzantine Era.
Artists lost their creative freedom during these periods, called iconoclasm. The Early Byzantine Era
ended when the first iconoclasm occurred. One manuscript created during the Early Byzantine Era
was the Rossano Gospels (Image 1). The Rossano Gospels is written in Medieval Greek during the
6th century, and was discovered in Rossano, Italy. The parchment medium was colored slightly
purple with a rare dye to proclaim the importance of the document. Over time, it turned red. The
document is big – 12 x 10.5 inches. As an illuminated manuscript, it is filled with colorful
illustrations. Image 1 shows Christ in Washing of the Feet and Last Supper. The identity of Christ is
easily discernable with his clothes and the golden circle behind his head. To add even more
emphasis, everyone around is looking toward him. Below the illustration are four Old Testament
authors pointing up. The text below them explains what
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Between Cult And Culture: Islamic Iconoclasm
Finbarr Barry Flood discusses Islamic Iconoclasm in his article "Between Cult and Culture:
Bamiyan, Islamic Iconoclasm, and the Museum". Flood discusses the clashes that the iconoclast
Islamic world has with the modern western world and wants to change the reader's perception of
Islamic iconoclasm. There were two main goals of his article, one is the Islamic iconoclasm has
occurred for awhile throughout history, and two, that much of the iconoclasm steams from political
aspects, rather than theological aspects. Flood decides to focus on Afghanistan and India in his text.
Flood explains how most opposition of images in Islam come not from the religion's main book of
the Qu'ran, but of the Hadith and Traditions of the Profit where it is explained and believed that
figuration ties a muslim to polytheism and idolatry. However, many early Islamic artwork included
figurations, notably the coins with the heads of rulers which were seen by many people of their land.
Figuration was also found in palaces and mosques. In the medieval Islamic world, attitudes towards
figuration changed from person to person and over time with different rulers. ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
He argues that most iconoclasm throughout history wheather Islamic, Byzantinum, or Catholic
involves defacing the individual so that the artwork does not disappear, but loses value. Islamic
iconoclast want artwork to lose value in the sense that they are not idolous anymore; they want to
destroy the symbol that the art piece represents, not to disrespect the skills of the
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Controversy In Byzantine Art
Byzantine art is the art of the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantine is the first Christian emperor of
the Roman Empire. The art style in the Byzantine was mainly concerned with the religious
expression. That religious expression specifically includes the translation of Church theology into
artistic terms. Byzantine art began with decorating the walls and domes of the churches. In the
Constantinople, the art was the icon which represents the holy images. This was developed in the
monasteries of the church. The icons illustrate the religious or patriotic stories from the bible. In the
Byzantine people were making images but a controversy broke between the people during the
eighteen centuries. These people start opposing the icon–making. Iconoclasm "image–breaking" is
the prohibition and destruction of work of visual art, usually because they considered it
inappropriate in the religious context. Iconoclast, who reject images, objected the icon veneration.
The major controversy took place between 726 and 730. Confronting all controversial scenario,
Emperor Leo III imposed iconoclasm. He ordered the destruction of all images of saints and stories
which were present in the church at that time. There had been many previous theological disputes
over visual representations, their theological foundations, and legitimacy. There were many reasons
that build up the controversies so high to impose iconoclasm. Some historians believe that by
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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The Use Of Iconoclasm In The Middle East As A Method Of...

  • 1. The Use of Iconoclasm in the Middle East as a Method of... Throughout human history power imbalances have been prevalent in almost every civilization. One method of controlling people as well as power is to control how much knowledge gets out to the masses. This paper examines how iconoclasm is used in the Middle East as a method of controlling popular opinions and thoughts on race,sex and many other important details of everyday life. Iconoclasm is the systemic destruction of religious or cultural pieces of artwork for political or religious reasons. The destruction of artifacts can rewrite cultural history and change opinions on how the history of a nation is perceived. This also results in extensive loss of cultural history which can never be recovered. The Middle East is of particular interest in this research paper as it has been in the news recently for such acts. Most Middle Eastern countries have Islam listed as their official religion. In Islam it is forbidden to show the face of Allah, the God of Islam, in any form of artwork. It is also seen as taboo to have any living creatures such as humans or animals depicted in a mosque, the Islamic place of worship. As such, many buildings which have been converted into mosques have been defaced to suit the proper Islamic code. One such incident of this happening is the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. Once a Roman Catholic church, it was converted into a mosque after the conquer of the Byzantine Empire by the Ottoman Turks and all mosaics depicting Jesus, His mother and saints were ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. The Destruction Of Visual Representations Of Religion What is iconoclasm? Iconoclasm can be defined: the destruction of visual representations of religion. The word is Greek for "image smashing." More specifically meaning: the impulse to destroy images for political and religious purposes. This is due to the rejection of what the art piece represents. The controversy involving iconoclasm is the fear that people will worship the image represented instead of the object it represents. A reason for Iconoclasts (those who reject images) to follow iconoclasm comes from the second of the Ten Commandments, which discusses not worshipping the image of an idol rather than the idol itself [idol meaning God] (Icons and Iconoclasm, Iconoclastic Controversies, The Ten–Commandments). Iconoclasm started in ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Sa'im al–Dahr did not like this display of devotion, so he defaced the Sphinx by destroying the nose. He was later executed for vandalism (Epic World History, Iconoclastic Controversy, ISIS and Iconoclasm, What Happened). The Taliban demolished Buddha's of Bamiyan in 2001 because they were seen as idols. The destruction of the statues was a political movement. The United Nations sent money to restore the statues, meanwhile Taliban children were dying because of sanctions against Afghanistan, but the UN was more concerned with statues than people. Greek and Roman statues are thought to be missing their arms and heads to prevent worship of the statues rather than god. Pope Gregory the Great thought the Greek/Roman statues lost all power because you do not know what god the statues represents, and therefore cannot be worshipped (Why Extreme Islamists). The terrorist group ISIS who has destroyed many artifacts in Syria and Iran shows modern iconoclasm. The Bagdad Museum's website now reads "2015: ISIS destroys what is left of ancient history." Statues in the Mosul Museum have been jackhammered, books have been burned, Nimrud was bulldozed, and the Tomb of Jonah was blown up. Beheading is not getting the desired reaction anymore, so why not destroy cultural artifacts? It is rumored that ISIS and Al–Qaeda have sold some artifacts on the black market to fund their activities. Most Muslims think the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. How Did Constantine Influence The Byzantine Empire The Byzantines inherited the Roman Empire and became the continuation of it in the East during the Late Antiquity and Middle Age periodization's. Its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the "Roman Empire" and to themselves as "Romans". As such, it survived almost a millennium after the fall of its Western counterpart and continued to thrive during the Middle Ages. During the majority of its existence, the Byzantine Empire was a powerhouse economically, culturally and military– wise. Emperor Constantine in particular introduced many important changes that helped influence this. Constantine completely reorganized the empire and founded a new city on the site of the ancient city of Byzantium and named it Constantinople. This city became the capital city of the Byzantine Empire and survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire and continued to exist until it eventually fell to the Ottoman Turks, which in turn ended the Byzantine Empire. Constantinople was also strategically situated as it stood at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Here, the commerce between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean could be strictly regulated. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Christianity was legalized and was the preferred religion of choice under Constantine I as he supported the religion with several privileges. It eventually became the Empire's official state religion while other religious practices were banned. During the 8th and early 9th centuries, the empire was also dominated by controversy and religious division for a century over Iconoclasm. All forms of religious imagery (icons) were banned throughout the empire by Leo and Constantine, which led to revolts by supporters of icons (iconodules). Overall, the controversy surrounding Iconoclasm led to further alienation of the East from ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. Empress Theodora Research Paper Empress Theodora, the Paphlagonian bride, and wife of the emperor, Theophilos, experienced a similar saintly transformation to Irene. She shares many similarities with Irene including being an iconophile married to iconoclast, a regent for her son, ending the second iconoclasm and also was involved in a questionable plot. Her parents came from the Village of Ebissa where some documentation suggests that Theodora experienced an iconophile education, despite the resurface of iconoclastic practices between 815–842. Theodora became Theophilos' bride in 830 and her married life is characterized by a devotion to icons, which supposedly divided the emperor and empress. As an emperor, Theophilos supported the continued iconoclasm. Despite little evidence ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Once Theodora comes into power, she is able to end iconoclasm and restore the use of icons. The empress is able to undertake this task because the Byzantine army suffered so many losses at Amorion, including prominent officers being taken prisoners. These officers were avid supporters of iconoclasm but without their support – the movement crumbles. In addition after Theophilos' death, Theodora starts the rumor that the emperor converted from iconoclastic beliefs because of fever dreams of persecution. With these two elements combined, individuals no longer see iconoclasm as a method to strengthen the empire but instead, results in suffering. In this capacity, Theodora is able to convert iconoclasts but also shows a contemporary attempt to erase the less pious actions of the emperor and transform Theodora into a saintly figure. This is manifested in the Menologion of Basil II, where Theodora (fig. 3) is shown in a nondescript gold ground, clothed in the imperial purple costume, with a golden sash inlaid with various brilliant colors and crown. In her hands, Theodora holds an icon of Christ and her gesture is one of blessing. There are numerous similarities between Irene and Theodora. Each is shown in their imperial garment but are adorned with iconography denoted their sacred status. In this capacity, Theodora was emphasized as a saint to eradicate iconoclastic actions of his husband, his military failings and focus attention away from the anxiety of the declining kingdom. By ending the second iconoclasm, Theodora becomes a symbol of hope, a restorer of the icon and to the old ways of the powerful Byzantine ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Diabetes And Monomani Case Study Monomania: Her monomania for sugar resulted in her being diagnosed with diabetes. Motley: The motley of colors on Ryan's shirt was not pleasing to his teacher, whom was colorblind. Volition: Britney's mom thought that her friends influenced her to steal the pair of jeans, but it was an act of volition on Britney's part. Depravity: Some people believe that the death penalty is a great depravity. Unadulterated: The saline solution was unadulterated until my lab partner added sulfuric acid. Acquiesce: Her acquiesce to the problem resulted in the problem becoming worse. Corpulent: Because the cat was corpulent, it couldn't run from the dog fast enough. Factitious: Most of our food has factitious ingredients in them that are hard to pronounce. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. Images In Byzantine Church Essay how were images used in byzantine worship? –Christians in Byzantine prayed to Christ, Virgin Mary, and saints –images of them were known as icons –viewed with some apprehension from the Church –Mosaic prohibition of religious images followed by the persecution of Christians –refused to venerate images of Roman emperors –medival art: began with mosaics –decorating the walls and domes of churches –fresco wall–paintings –the holy image panel–paintings –developed in the monasteries of the eastern church why were they suppressed during iconoclasm –Emperor Leo III in 726 –banned the worship of icons and encouraged the persecution of those who venerated images – religious images of icons came under scrutiny by religious and imperial authorities ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. Byzantine Iconoclasm Iconoclastic policies aimed to stop the use of icons or religious images to worship and glorify the God. There was two period in the history of Byzantine Empire when imperial and religious authorities opposed the use of icons or religious images. The first iconoclasm was in the beginning of 730, and the second one between 814 and 842. Images became the items of cult implying beliefs in their animations. Iconoclasts believed that use of icons was a violation of the Old Testament. They felt that by using images, there was a possibility of idolatry. As stated by a traditional view, Byzantine iconoclasm instituted an abolition of icons by Emperor Leo III and this abolition went on even under those who succeeded him (Spielvogel, 233). There was a widespread persecution of those who supported the worship of images and destruction of the icons. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This led to the growth of divergence between the Western and Eastern traditions as well as easing the elimination of Byzantine control in parts of Italy. The nature and origin of Byzantine Emperor Leo III's policy of iconoclasm are controversial and obscure. He was very religious and became convinced that religious images and relics were representing the disrespectful items of veneration in services of worship. Nevertheless, iconoclastic views of various bishops from western Asia had some effect on him. Consequently, in 729 he started to speak against the usage of sacred pictures. In 730, he made iconoclasm policy official in his empire and ordered the destruction and removal of sacred images in churches. This led to the removal of Patriarch Germanus who did not agree with his new policy and appointing of another patriarch. He employed penalties against those who did not observe the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. The Purposeful Destruction Of Images The Purposeful Destruction of Images Throughout the ages art has been subject to selective destruction and spoliation. It has been taken by conquering peoples as spoils of war, put to material re–use, and been subject to iconoclasm. Iconoclasm has been used as a means of not only purposeful forgetting, but, also the preservation of memory as a warning to others motivated diversely by ideology, religion, and politics. One artifact subject to iconoclasm is the painted portrait of Septimius Severus and his family in which one face was scraped out leaving the other three members untouched for political reasons and a demonstration of power. Another artifact affected by iconoclasm is a famous Byzantine icon, the Virgin Hodegetria, which was taken to be the Virgin and Christ Child by western Europe for religious purposes. "Breaking" the image in this figurative manner gave little to no meaning to the original icon and stole its value in history. Another "victim" of iconoclasm is a panel that once belonged to an arch of Marcus Aurelius that now adorns the arch of Constantine (Elsner, p. 212). These three artifacts have all been purposefully altered in diverse ways for different reasons, however, the fact remains that they have all faced damnatio memoriae, spolia, and/or iconoclasm. Iconoclasm has been described in many ways, the most known definition comes from Gardner 's Art through the Ages: A Global History by Fred Kleiner, iconoclasm is "the destruction of religious or sacred ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. Byzantine Iconoclasm I will be choosing to write a traditional research paper for my final project. The topic of my paper will be the treatment of figural images in Islam as compared to Christianity. To begin the paper, I will give an overview of what the majority of Muslims and Christians believe about images and why. The main focus of my paper will be on Iconoclasm and how certain factions of each group are opposed to and even destroy figural imagery. I will briefly discuss the Byzantine Iconoclasm and the dispute between the Iconoclasts and Iconodules; providing a brief overview of the arguments from each side. I will describe how Muslims who are not against images have similar arguments to the Iconodules of the Byzantine Iconoclasm. I will analyze early instances ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. Cave Paintings Such As Those At Lascaux And Altamira What are common motifs found in cave paintings such as those at Lascaux and Altamira? Summarize the current theories about their original meaning and purpose Cave paintings are seen now in our society is a snapshot of just what they people during that time cherished when it comes to prehistoric art. The Lascaux brought about many things and showed historians what the appreciated most during that time. In this cave, there were many depicted cows, bulls, and dear along the natural ledges of the rock, where the smooth white limestone of the ceiling and upper wall meets a rougher surface below. All of this is a great example of what the humans during that time saw and thought of importance, the many animals that they came across and what they looked like, I think it paved the way for other people to see just how dangerous they can be large. The Altamira was another example of many animists that the humans came across overall, the many details of the animal 's legs and also a depiction of humans and their interactions with the animals. Now there are many theories out there that go into detail about the originals, meaning, and purpose of these cave paintings, I will now share a couple that I think is significant. The first one had to do with how the cave paintings might be products, both of rites to strengthen clan bonds and ceremonies to enhance the fertility if animals used for food. The second one is hoof prints, patterns of animal feces, and hide colorings were recorded and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20.
  • 21. The First Amendment Speaks On The Freedoms Of Religion Hannah Bing Judy Hatcher WRIT 3037 17 October 2016 Free Art The First Amendment speaks on the freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly and petition; so important, they found their place in the US Constitution. Even with these freedoms meaning so much to the majority of America, somehow today we still encounter differences in political and religious views that seem to provoke people to act violently against a piece of art or even physically against the artist that created it such as in the recent case of artist Illma Gore. Often the violent action of destroying a work of art is "more offensive" than the image itself. We should allow artists free reign of subject matter as well as style and work together to prevent art desecration and violence through education of the arts. Censorship is the result of the fear of art. When the fear of art turns into iconoclasm or, rejection of a valued belief system, that fear becomes lack of government funding, desecration, and physical violence. Visual artists fell through the gaps and did not receive federal support for their work until the creation of the NEA or National Endowment for the Arts in 1965. This federal program had little funding but proved a growing interest in art and art viewing from the public. This demand for art creates a demand for funds to support venues and museums so they can keep their doors open. A problem with the NEA is that they provide government funding, which prevents them from being biased about ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22.
  • 23. The Cultural And Religious Traditions Of The European... In an eastern Mediterranean province, a group of pious individuals pray before the elaborate portrait of a local saint and hero, hoping the image will bestow upon them some semblance of safety and secure for them a good harvest and protection from the aggressive invaders who continue to threaten their lands to the south. The individuals know little about the movement stirring in the large city to the north, which seeks to remove the holy image to which they so ardently pray. From the west, rumors of a new Creed have made their way to the town, but the grand political and historical implications of this document are unknown the laity, who, illiterate, have never read the creed to which their church adheres. In such an environment, the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Though such controversies alone have many theological and religious implications, they can only be truly understood in the political and historical context in which they arose. Religious icons, or images, may include paintings, murals, portraits, or mosaics, which, in the seventh through ninth centuries, commonly depicted Christ, the likeness of a saint, or a particular scene from scripture. The dispute over the use of icons and religious imagery in the Church, and the nature of this use amongst the laity, began in the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantine Empire, in the late seventh century, with the movement against icons, or the iconoclasm movement, reaching its height in the mid ninth century. The use of Icons in Christian practice began in the Coptic Church in Egypt, and spread throughout the Byzantium Empire, developing into a vital form of religious education and communication for the laity throughout the East. Those who opposed religious iconography, did so on the basis of scripture, as the practice of icon use was clearly condemned in Old Testament text. As the use of every religious icon could not be explicitly regulated, it was difficult for religious and imperial authorities to determine how such icons were used by the public. Thus, as it was unknown whether the laity prayed before or to the icons in their community, all religious icons were removed to prevent the risk of unorthodoxy and the potential practice of idolatry (Brubaker et al., 2011). The ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24.
  • 25. Virgin And Child: Beloved Art Art over the years has evolved with the feelings it evokes. An outstanding piece of art that evoked many responses is the Virgin (Theotokos and Child enthroned), apse mosaic. The viewpoints have blossomed from hatred and controversy to form more of a beloved and admiral stand point. This beautiful piece is located in Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey. It was created in 867 by Patriarch Photios and the emperors Michael III and Basil I. During the Macedonian dynasty during the middle Byzantine period. Although this was a mosaic created to pull emotions from its viewers it was not intentionally created to become controversial. During this time frame this image was considered dangerous and a conflicting problem with religion. The Christianity community considered this image against the commandments of religion. EXODUS 20:4–6 "You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... When images were created of spiritual beings people began questioning whether or not images should even be allowed in any place of worship. The question was asked, "Is it appropriate to pray to an image created by an artist"? The image of the Virgin and Child was created after the iconoclasm period which made this piece especially important because many art pieces created before were destroyed. Iconoclasm was a very important and destructive period during the Byzantine Empire. Many religious pieces were destroyed. Due to this fact it caused an imperial ban on images. . When the mosaic was unveiled there was a sermon read. "Christ came to us in a flash and was born in the arms of his mother". The unveiling of this mosaic was after the iconoclasm period which made this time so special and important. This occasion was a staple in the rebuilding and recreating of what was lost and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26.
  • 27. Iconoclastic Controversy Research Paper The Iconoclastic Controversy was a dispute over religious images and artifacts in the 8th and 9th centuries. The Iconoclasts challenged icon worshiping which included the possibility of worshipping and in the Old Testament's prohibition against religious images in the Ten Commandments. The iconoclasts claimed that images of religious figures such as Jesus, Saints, and the Virgin Mary were a parody of true worship and were associated to idol worship ("Iconoclastic Controversy | Byzantine History."). After all of this, they set out to destroy all images, which lead to the church banning religious images within the practice of worship, ritual, or sacrament for the next century. The icon worshippers insisted on the natural symbolism it created for the images as well as the poise created for the object. Material expressions in relation to iconoclasm and religious imagery can be extremely crucial for an individual amongst the Christian church. Some may ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The use of icons, nevertheless, steadily gained in popularity, especially in portions of The Roman Empire. Towards the end of the 6th century and in the 7th, icons became the object of an officially encouraged cult, often implying a superstitious belief in their animation ("Iconoclastic Controversy | Byzantine History."). Although the materialistic expression may be quite controversial, they have brought a lot more attention to the Christian religion. They had the power of bringing people together with what was being worshipped, and have also brought amounts us 2 addition branches of Christianity that include both the Catholic church, and the Orthodox church. Some of these images are worshipped worldwide throughout the Christian churches for all the right reasons. They bring the individuals together with the material expression and give them an image to their head such as Jesus Christ being painted as ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28.
  • 29. A Schism Was The Cause Of The Great Schism The Christian church was split between the Pope of Rome and the Patriarch of Constantinople, each holding different opinions on religious policy, namely ikons. The two branches moved further and further apart until they became the separate Roman Catholic and Eastarn Orthodox churches in an event called the Great Schism. A schism is a religious divide or conflict, and a great one would have great impact on the fate of its religion. A schism was already forming between the Pope and Patriarch, whose powers were unbalanced and views were not alike. What finally caused the Great Schism was the issue of ikons– images of the divine used in worship–and iconoclasm–the disapproval of that practice. The Pope favored practice with ikons, and would be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
  • 31. The Word Iconoclasm In The Byzantine Empire The Word Iconoclasm refers to the destruction of images or hostility towards visual representations in general. This word more specifically is used for the iconoclastic Controversy that shook the Byzantine Empire for more than 100 years. The Hostility towards religious representations began in 726 when Emperor Leo publicly opposed the icons. The word icon refers to many different things today. "It can refer to graphic symbols in our software and to powerful cultural figures."(Dr. Davor Dzalto). However, the original meaning comes from the Greek meaning for image. In the medieval era, it meant a religious image on a wooden panel used for prayer and devotion. "More specifically, icons came to typify the art of the Orthodox Christian Church. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Another theory suggests that the prohibition was an attempt to keep the growing wealth and power of the monasteries. They produced the icons and used them as a primary target of the violence of the Iconoclastic Controversy. Others say the prohibition was religious, and an attempt to correct the right practice of worshiping images. Leo the third's prohibition may have been because of the huge volcanic eruption in 726, thought to have happened because of God's anger over the dedication of the icons. The original theological basis for iconoclasm was weak, they relied mostly on the Old Testament prohibition. But it was clear that it was not absolute because God gave instructions on how to make a three–dimensional Cherubim for the Ark of the Covenant, which was quoted in the Old Testament, a couple of chapters after the passage that prohibits images. Emperor Constantine V gave a slightly different theological approach for iconoclasm. He claimed, " He claimed that each visual representation of Christ necessarily ends in a heresy since Christ, according to generally accepted Christian dogmas, is simultaneously God and man, united without separation, and any visual depiction of Christ either separates these natures, representing Christ's humanity alone, or confuses ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32.
  • 33. Does Religion Cause Violence In Two Empires Religion had a large effect on violence that broke out within the two empires. Within Islam, two sects reigned supreme. The Sunni and the Shiite. The Sunni believe that Muhammad's bloodline is not the rightful heir to becoming a caliph. Sunni believe that the next Caliph should be voted upon by the Islamic people based on merit. The Shiite believe that Muhammad's bloodline should reign supreme and the Caliphates should only follow lineage. This diametrical opposition directed the Sunni and Shiite to despise one another. Because of these conflicting ideals, riots, attacks, murders, and bloodshed occurred between the two sects. This raging controversy has continued to modern day. Christianity in the Byzantine Empire had bloodshed and destruction ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34.
  • 35. How Did The Bulgars Build The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire had shrunk considerably due to earlier invasions and plundering by groups such as Bulgars, Slavs, and Avars. The Bulgars marched on Bulgaria sometime in 670s. They defeated the Byzantine troops in 681 forcing the Byzantine ruler to acknowledge their new nation. Avar and Slavs changed the Balkans when they integrated with the locals and imposed their language and religious cults. They took control of the Balkans away from Byzantine rule and severed trade and travel between Constantinople and the settlements on the Dalmatian coast. Under constant attacks by invaders, the already shrunken empire saw many of its towns destroyed, obliterated or changed. The once bustling open markets, town squares, and theatres were no more. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36.
  • 37. Who Was Muhammad's Significance For Islam Research Paper Who was Muhammad and what is his significance for Islam? Muhammad or Mohammad was born in 570 CE and died on 8 June in 632 CE is the figure of Islamic nation and he is identified as their founder by non–Muslims. Muhammad is mostly known as the "Holy Prophet" to the Muslim nation. He is some what as the final prophet of God to restore Islam and is believed to be understood by the Muslims to be the original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Jesus, and other prophets. Muhammad united Arabia into a one Muslim polity and made sure that his teachings, practices, and the Quran, formed the basis of Islamic religious belief. The Muslims had believed that Islam is a faith that have always been here on this earth and that Islam gradually revealed to humanity by a amount of of prophets, but the final and complete revelation of this faith was made through the Prophet of Muhammad in the 7th century. What is the motivation and significance of iconoclasm? ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Iconoclasm is the belief that there shouldn't be any religious pictures or religious monuments because they are seen as a form of idol worship. People who encourage or support iconoclasm are called the iconoclasts, a term that comes to applied figuratively to anybody who broken or disdained the established conventions. People who are revere to the religious images are called iconolaters. In Christianity, iconoclasm was generally motivated by a literal interpretation of the Ten Commandments, which had forbid the making and worshipping of graven images. The Statues and portraits of saints and religious figures were also major in Western church, but some Protestant sects eventually had rejected them. Islamic nation still bans all icons, and iconoclasm that has played a role in the conflicts between Muslims and Hindus in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38.
  • 39. Essay on Arts in the Time of the Byzantine I have chosen the apse mosaic in San Vitale (Christ with San Vitale, Bishop Ecclesius, and two angel, 526–547) and dome Mosaic in the Church of the Dormition (Christ Pantocrator, ca1090–1100). The apse mosaic was created in early Byzantine and the dome mosaic was created in middle Byzantine. The depiction of Christ between the works are quite different. I think the most observable is the appearance of Christ. From the apse mosaic in San Vitale, we can see that the Christ is clean–shaven and long–haired. The image of Christ looks like the Good Shepherd. But from the dome mosaic of Christ Pantocrator, the details on the Christ's face changed. The Christ became bearded and long–haired. Another change in the depiction of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Moreover, Justinian had a success of developing the Byzantine Empire in early Byzantine. People had less conflicts between them and they followed the religious in Roman Christianity. Hence, they depict the Christ in a smiley face. But later The Age of Justinian was followed by a political decline, Constantinople was wracked by religious and political conflict. And Leo III issued a ban on religious images (Iconoclasm) afterwards. I think people in middle Byzantine may regret for this and so they depict the Christ in an angry face. They knew that they had shown disrespectful to the Christ.
  • 40. The early Byzantine art mainly followed the Roman arts. The work I chose was a good example. From my chosen work, the Christ was shown as the image of the good Shepherd and this was the way to shape the Christ in Roman Empire. Also people kept creating mosaics like the Roman period. For example, Transfiguration of Jesus also had the same details as my chosen work shown. The middle Byzantine art became more naturalistic. Let say my chosen work, they created the Christ more human like. I think artists may wanted to show the realism after the Iconoclasm. For example, Crucifixion, the mosaic in the church of the Dormition had shown the work more realistic. Byzantine art influenced the Russian and Eastern European civilizations. The subsequent Church architecture and religious art were influenced ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 41.
  • 42. Martin Luther: The Lenten Sermons – March 9, 1522 Had I desired to foment trouble, I could have brought great bloodshed upon Germany. Martin Luther – 'The Lenten Sermons' – March 9, 1522. In this essay I will be outlining some of the ways that the theme of authority emerges in the history of the Protestant Reformation in Europe in the sixteenth century and linking the events to the epigraph show above, quoted from a sermon given by the German friar Martin Luther in 1552. In order to do this, I must fully understand the context of Martin Luther's statement. This will require developing an understanding of the Protestant Reformation and the iconoclasm that came with it and the ways that the theme of authority was shown, developed, and destroyed within that society. It could be said that ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Bibliography Calvin, J. ((1559) 2014). Institutes of the Christian Religion. In L. Prescott, & F. Richards, Ideas of Authority (pp. 217–218). Milton Keynes: The Open Univeristy. Grell, O. P., Richards, F., & Woods, K. (2014). Chapter 4: The Protestant Reformation and iconoclasm. In L. Prescott, & F. Richards, Ideas Of Authority. (pp. 162 – 223). Milton Keynes: The Open University. Hogdenberg, F. The Iconoclasm. The Iconoclasm. Rijksprentenkabinet, Rijsmuseum Amsterdam, Cologne. Karlstandt, A. ((1522) 2014). On the Abolition of Images and that There Should Be No Beggers amoung Christians'. In L. Prescott, & F. Richards , Ideas Of Authority (p. 213). Milton Keynes: The Open University. Luther, M. ((1522)2014). The Lenten Sermons. In L. Prescott, & F. Richards, Ideas Of Authority (p. 214). MIlton Keynes: The Open Univeristy. Mochizuki, M. (2014). The Netherlandish Image after Iconoclasm. In L. Prescott, & F. Richards, Ideas of Authority (p. 221). Milton Keynes: The Open University. Tanis, J., & Horst, D. ((1993) 2014). Images of Discord: A Graphic Interpretation of the Opening Decades if the Eighty Years' War. In L. Prescott, & F. Richards, Ideas of Authority (pp. 219–220). Milton Keynes: The Open ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 43.
  • 44. Iconoclasm: The Destruction Of Ideas Iconoclasm The heresy of iconoclasm is the destruction of religious icons; translated into English iconoclasm means "image breaker." Icons were abused by Christians in the early Church, with people attaching a superstitious value to the image rather than God Himself. This idolatry used icons incorrectly, as they were only meant to inspire prayer and worship, and not to be worshipped themselves. Iconoclasts sought to resolve the issue of idolatry by destroying the icons rather than correcting those who were abusing them. Iconoclasm arose in the 8th century when Byzantine Emperor Leo III sought to persecute the use of icons in worship in order to appease Byzantine's Muslim neighbors. Jewish and Muslim religion forbids any images, or artists' interpretations of God, which are what they saw in icons. With the Muslims aggressively taking over the Holy Land, Emperor Leo III sought to save his empire from attack by conforming Christianity to reflect more Muslim values and further centralize the Church. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... While idolatry is wrong so is the destruction of images of God. Along with the destruction of icons almost always came the persecution of monks, as they were the upholders and often creators of many iconic images. Relics, shrines, and the bodies of saints were also destroyed by iconoclasts, believing them to be false idols that were being worshipped. St. John of Damascus and St. Thomas the Studite were iconophiles, which would literally translate to "icon lovers." They argued against iconoclasm by saying that icons were forbidden in the Old Testament because at that point God had not given any representation of Himself in human form, but in the New Testament revealed Himself through Jesus, His Son, and that because of this revelation icons could be created in Jesus' image without being considered false ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 45.
  • 46. Iconoclasm Of The Byzantine Church When it comes to something like the Byzantine worship, Christians in the Byzantine world asked to Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the saints while looking at images of them on panels which are known as icons. The veneration of icons was viewed with some apprehension from the Church. This was because of the Mosaic proscription of religious descriptions and the persecution of Christians who refused to venerate images of Roman emperors. Iconoclasm that happened was the veto and obliteration of works of art because they were considered inappropriate in religious contexts. Images of saints and sacred stories on icons and in churches were destroyed and the people who worshiped them were persecuted. During this time, the Church leaders were fearful that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 47.
  • 48. Christian Art: The Development Of Byzantine Art While the Byzantine culture was expanding from new territory, so was the art depicting Christianity. The development of the Christian art has been divided by Art historians into three periods based on its greatest glory. This time period in art is sometimes referred to as "golden ages". The first period from the "golden ages",Early Byzantine, began in 527 under the rule of Justinian. During this time, the destruction of images used in religious worship, or iconoclasm, was enforced. The Early Byzantine era ended in 726 with Leo III as the ruler. Then the Middle Byzantine Era begun during 843 and lasted until 1204 while iconoclasm was no longer enforced, but instead was seen as heresy. The final Byzantine era, also known as, the Late Byzantine Era began after the recapture of Constantinople in 1261 and finally ended during 1453. During the Early Byzantine Era, Byzantine art by the emperor, Justinian, began as recognizable and with a distinctive style, demolishing the unclear definitions of earlier Christian art. Also, carvings with ivory were considered important forms of art. The majority of the finest examples date to this time period. One of them being a plague carved ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The Byzantine land was being conquered, the Church of Rome eventually broke the Byzantine Orthodox Church, and the Crusade brought reinforcements to fight for the Cross again the Saracens, known as Muslims, in the Holy Land. Because of all these events taking place, the Byzantine culture was crumbling, and their way of art was changing as well. During the 14th and 15th century, murals and iconic paintings were competing to surpass works from the earlier periods. The Church of the Christ in Chora obtains an example of the masterpieces in the form of a fresco in the side chapel of the church. The painting itself depicted a biblical scene of Christ and the resurrection of Adam and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 49.
  • 50. Summary: The Gothic Iconoclasm Often referred to as Iconoclasm; the act of rejecting, destroying or disowning of religious icons and idols has been a niche human theme throughout history. From the era of the Byzantine Empire, to the German Protestants, Christian iconoclasm seems to spring up in nearly every time period. That being said, instances of the rejection of idols and icons is presented by two rather eloquent texts: The Gothic Idol: ideology and image–making in medieval art by Michael Camille, as well as, The Idol in the Age of Art by Suzanne Preston Blier. The first text mentions idols of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, while the second focuses on idols of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In addition, the iconoclastic movement among German Protestants occurred during the sixteenth century. As such and as mentioned, it is then exceedingly clear that iconoclasm is a theme throughout religious history. Furthermore, it ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Similar to the Graeco–Roman pagan idols rejected by Christianity, many idols from African religions were rejected as well. Blier makes this clear in her texts regarding the Portuguese in the Congo, that African idols were not welcome among Christians. Rather, if was considered blasphemy to worship such objects as if they were gods. According to Blier (2017), "The scene unfolding in front of the monarch shows various local Kongo aides in textile wrappers rolled at the waist, carrying squirming anthropomorphized devil–form idols – some with claw feet – toward a pyre on which other equally monstrous (and very lively) beings have been secured." (19). This description makes it exceedingly clear that Christians viewed African pagan idols as satanic, and saw it fit to burn them. This is yet another example of Christianity's rejection of a more "pagan" way, and embracement of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 51.
  • 52. Why Does Art Get Destroyed? Why does art get destroyed? This essay will examine many different factors that contribute to art getting destroyed and why these happen. It will look at the various reasons the destruction happened and the consequences that occurred because of them. This essay will look at both religious and political reasons art can get destroyed along with the work that has no connection to religion or politics in how it was destroyed. There are many different reasons why art can get destroyed, some can be accidental and some can be on purpose. So why does art get destroyed? Monolithic structures like the Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx have been slowly eroded over thousands of years by the elements and sands of the desert. Fourteen hundred pieces of art were irreparably damaged in floods that devastated Florence. Japanese art, an estimated tens of thousands pieces of art, were destroyed in the great Kanto earthquake and the fire that followed it in 1923. Another earthquake destroyed Ribeira Palace destroying the library which held around seventy thousand books and manuscripts along with many pieces of art. In the case of ISIS destroying works of art and historical artefacts in the Mosul Museum they did it because god willed them to destroy idols depicting Allah put on display by devil worshippers. They have since gone on to ransack and burn the Mosul library and by doing so have destroyed thousands of rare books and literature. This isn't all Isis is doing to destroy the heritage ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 53.
  • 54. Islamic Iconoclasm As The Xx Islamic Iconoclasm: Iconoclasm is defined as the XX. It may be carried out in the context of one's religion or against the icons of another faith, as evinced by Muslim destruction of Christian and pagan idols. In their papers on Islamic iconoclasm, G.R.D. King and F.B. Flood approach the topic from two different temporal viewpoints. While King situates his paper within a medieval period and delineates an evolution of the origins of Islamic iconoclasm and compares it to Byzantine iconoclasm, Flood extends his arguments to the present and asks how our understanding of the development of iconoclasm can elucidate contemporary militant groups' iconoclasm. Despite the temporal disparity, both King and Flood argue that Islamic iconoclasm had more than just religious considerations and must also be seen in a political and economic context. Additionally, Flood postulates that in the modern day, museums can function as new means, which inform Islamic iconoclasm. long, culturally determined, and unchanging tradition of violent iconoclastic acts" Firstly, both King and Flood agree that opposition to figuration had no liturgical basis in the Qur'an. Rather, it had its roots in the Traditions of the Prophet, the hadith, a collection of sayings by the Prophet. It forbids representations as God is considered "inconceivable [and] beyond encompassing by any artistic repertoire". King suggests that this understanding led to aniconism and motivated acts of iconoclasm. Additionally, Muslims ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 55.
  • 56. Controversy: The Byzantine Empire Third response paper The Byzantine Empire, the successor of the Roman empire, is one of many religious civilizations that existed in the first millennium. While it was a Christian realm, simultaneous empires were to be found with other religious–political doctrines, such as the Islamic Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid empire and Buddhist China. This high diversity of beliefs, which shaped the entire societal and political structure, has undoubtedly influenced each others at a certain extent, and it was the case of Byzantium, which, after several moments of rise and decline, saw several political and religious reforms in an effort to centralize worship characteristics and create a more homogenous population. Perhaps one of the most significant of these refinements and one feature that displays the relevance of external influence is the beginning of Iconoclasm. Meanwhile, in the Asian continent, and particularly in China, a new religious–political dogma was emerging, known as Neo Confucianism. In this paper I shall discuss the iconoclast controversy, as an attempt to unify religious practices and beliefs, and its ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Iconoclasm is the ban of religious images, statues and icons for religious or political motives. In Christianity, Iconoclasm was the result of a literal interpretation of the Ten Commandments, which suggests that worshipping holy figures, pictures or graved images is prohibited. The Byzantines saw two eras of iconoclasm, the first Iconoclast period was from 726 to 787 CE, when Leo III, the emperor of Byzantium at that time, ordered the removal of religious images of the Christ, Mary, and every single form of art representing the divinity in Christianity (fig 1). The second era of debating either the censorship or the advocacy of religious art was from 814 to 842 ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 57.
  • 58. Comparison Of Pop Art, Postmodernism, And World War II Pop Art, Postmodernism, and World War II Pop Art, a form of Postmodernism, describes the genre of art during and after WW2. The question I am exploring within this topic is why did the influence of the time period of World War II create such sexual and abstract works of art ? The points of view I encountered delivered two basic positions on the same issue. I studied a web site as well that offered graphics to support and explain it's position (http://www.azstarnet.com/~nik/AME/time/popart/index.html ) The idea or actual creation of sexual and abstract images have been around for centuries, Yet the idea of linking a genre of art works to the times in which they were created doesn't appear as a major ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... He titles his argument "After the Orgy " which touches alot on the idea of Pop Art and modernism today, but the main position of the argument discusses the root of Pop as an orgy. Webster defines the word orgy as, "a gathering marked by unrestrained indulgence." So I suppose in this case Baudrillard considers the idea of Pop Art , being sexual and abstract images, as an orgy of the times. Art critic Roland Barthes explains Pop Art to take the place of machines, "It utilizes the mechanical process of reproduction: the object itself which in everyday life we incessantly personalize by incorporating into our individual world the object is, according to Pop Art everything left over once we have mentally amputated all it's possible themes and uses." Baudrillard digs deeper into the history of Pop Art to discuss it's motives in terms of religion. He explains the religion of Pop Art as an iconoclasm, which by definition describes the act to destroy religious images. He states that iconoclasm is practiced in Pop not by the distruction of religious images but by the creation of them. From this I gathered the idea of sexuality in Pop Art was a form of rebellion against religion as well. Baudrillard discusses the rebellion of the Iconolaters (Pop Artists) who gained insight to those who represented or pretended to represent God and at the same time hid under false appearance to cover up the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 59.
  • 60. Cult Of Gods Research Paper As hinted above, devotion, iconoclasm, and preservation efforts are intricately entwined with processes that happen before, during, and after the performances that the perspective party participates in. In each environment, the object takes on new meanings and significances due to the discourses surrounding it and the subjectivities of the people who possess it. Moreover, preservation often engages in the same processes that religious iconoclasts did and do by creating new narratives of the objects and relegating necessary performances with the object. Apart from just merely the smashing of objects or gods, by removing these objects out of their original socio–historical contexts, the objects are destroyed, literally and/or figuratively, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Moreover, instead of religious narratives, moderns have modern narratives based on specific conceptualizations of history, humanism, and secularism. No longer about a history of a particular group of people as with the Jewish or Islamic narratives, modern discourse is often developed in terms of human history, human civilization, and human progress. In A Secular Age, Charles Taylor argues that modern secularity was a parallel development of a "purely self–sufficient humanism" for the first time in history, clarifying "I mean by this a humanism accepting no final goals beyond human flourishing, nor any allegiance to anything else beyond this flourishing. Of no previous society was this true" (18). Before the modern era, Taylor argues, human beings were never on top; gods were the ones who were dominant and worthy of devotion, for only with their benefice would humans be able to flourish (Taylor 18). However, secularity now places humans on the pedestal, further intensifying the disenchantment of the secular age by displacing ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 61.
  • 62. The Terror Of Terror And Violence In July of 2014, ISIS blew up a Muslim shrine as an act of terror and violence. Again they attempted to terrorize the local people of Iraq when they blew up another ancient mosque later the same month. The ISIS terrorist group is an extremist Muslim organization that is capitalizing off the fear and confusion of the Syrian Civil War. For the past five years, ISIS has waged war on the Syrian government as well as any other group that does not conform to their extreme ways of life. Their tactics for control are aggressive and extreme; public beheading, fear mongering, and destruction of local historical and religious sites. The destruction of these sites is done in an iconoclastic manor; yet, they also use the destruction to push their ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... ISIS is known for their hatred of religious and ethnic groups that do not conform to their extreme ways. Christian and the Sunni Muslims are the two main targets for the ISIS terror attacks. Their attacks have no limits. In Beirut, a fifth–century Roman Catholic monastery was destroyed by ISIS while in Mosul the suspected tomb of Jonah the prophet was blown up (). Also in Mosul, a mosque and shrine devoted to Prophet Jirjis was also blown up as an act of terror. It's clear that ISIS has no specific target other than those that disagree with their platform and extreme views. They use the destruction of images as an attempt to scare locals into subjecting to their laws. ISIS recognizes the power that these images hold on people and they are trying to exploit that. Similarly, the government of France and Russia used images and their powers to spread propaganda. While ISIS uses the images of destruction and violence more so than Russia and France, the similarities can be seen in the effort to control the common people. What makes this form of iconoclasm so different is that it deviates from the "normal" iconoclasm that took place early in religious history. Early forms of iconoclasm destroyed images because of the fear and power that they have and create. As Freedberg states, "It [iconoclasm] opens realms of power and fear that we may sense but cannot quite grasp. When the iconoclast ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 63.
  • 64. Iconoclasm In Greek Art Iconoclasm is often defined as the destruction or regulation of images. These images are typically religious icons and are worshiped by many thousands of people. Sculptures, paintings, and any type of artwork depicting a religious or godlike figure are be seen as blasphemous to iconoclasts who believe that people worship the images and not the figures themselves. In today's world, these precious artworks are being destroyed by terrorist groups such as ISIS. These beautifully crafted artworks deserve to be protected from this destruction and remain on this earth for years to come, to be seen by generations but in reality, there isn't much we can do to stop these attacks. Iconoclasm in its literal interpretation means "image breaking" and the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 66. Art History: Mesopotami Land Between Two Rivers Sean Franklin Art History Final Paper 4/22/2016 Art History Five thousand years ago there was a place the greeks would later name Mesopotamia. Literally translated as "land between two rivers". These two rivers were the Tigris and the Euphrates. It was also called the fertile crescent or the cradle of civilization. It is very convenient for early civilizations to have access to clean water, as they obviously could not ship it in from elsewhere until the advent of aqueducts. So this land between two rivers was one of the most prosperous and active back in the time period. At different times, it was ruled by the Sumerians, the Akkadians, the Babylonians, the Assyrians, and the Persians. They lived close to the natural world, and so their depictions ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... He gave the western half to his son Honorius. The eastern half was given to his son Arcadius, and this land would become known as Byzantium. The two kingdoms considered themselves roman though spoke roman in the west, and greek and the east. The western Roman empire was repeatedly attacked by barbarians, Goths, Franks, and Huns. Rome was sacked multiple times, and a lot of great art and recorded thought was lost setting humanity back hundreds of years. Under the weight of this turmoil only 81 years after the death of Theodosius, the western roman empire ceased to exist and split into several countries. The one unifying force left was the catholic church and the pope. The Byzantine empire would, however, last another thousand years. In 730 AD emperor, Leo the third initiated a movement called iconoclasm based on a strict interpretation of the ten commandments. He forbade the making and worship of divine images. The iconoclasts sought the removal and destruction paintings and sculptures. After iconoclasm ended, byzantine was limited to copying "approved" images. Back in Rome Pope Gregory rejected iconoclasm and declared it heretical. As a result, artist in the west had more creative freedom. The church was the major patron of the arts, and so most medieval art had divinely inspired themes. The Western artist was interested in creating the visionary experience, over time their art became more realistic in its portrayal of people and the natural world. Images gained depth for the first ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 68. Iconoclasm In The Byzantine Empire When researching iconoclasm during the Byzantine Empire and today's Middle East, one can easily see the end result of the two ages is similar – the destruction of valuable religious artwork. However it is important to analyze the reasons and intent behind the destruction. By doing this, a person can better understand the motivation for the artwork's destruction and even determine if history should treat the two eras differently. With respect to the Byzantine era, the reason behind the destruction of icons was a theological debate within the Christian religion. During this time, the creation of icons was believed to be divinely inspired by God. Iconophiles, those that like and approve of icons, were devout Christian's who prayed at an icon because of what it represented – God. However Iconoclasts, those who work to destroy icons, were also devout Christians. Iconoclasts feared that in praying before the icons Christians were actually worshiping the icons. They were concerned that Iconophiles believed the icons had the ability to perform miracles. In this way the use of icons became idol worship and was against God's commandment and must be destroyed. In fact, when ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... For Isis, iconoclasm is motivated by hate and politics. Specifically, as noted in the Anderson article, they want to destroy the physical evidence "that any other faith worth valuing existed before their own." This devaluation of another faith's artifacts minimizes that specific religion and, more importantly, the people who practice it. Also, as stated in the article by Chitwood, ISIS destroys religious artifacts to combat "shirk" which the sin of worshipping anything other than Allah. Even more alarmingly, Chitwood links iconoclasm to the toppling of the World Trade Center as it was an act against the idolatry of Western ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 70. The Triumph Of The Eastern Orthodoxy In 726 AD The triumph of the Eastern Orthodoxy In 726 AD, there was a massive eruption by the Santorini Volcano. The Agean Sea was filled with tsunamis, ash, and volcanic rock that caused the sea to boil. It was the largest eruption Europe had seen in over 2000 years. Right now you're probably wondering how this has anything to do with the subject at hand. This is the story of how an eruption sparked one of the biggest debates in the history of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The eruption of Santorini and the invading Muslims caused the emperor to change Christian history. Emperor Leo III of Constantinople saw this eruption as a sign that God was angry with the empire. Leo was confused by this and wondered why God was angry with him while He continued to allow the Muslims to invade Christian territories. The emperor had a theory that since the Muslims were iconoclastic, which means they were against the images of religious figures such as a painting of Jesus. Leo thought that since the Muslims weren't using images, God had been favoring them since the Christian church did use images. So Leo had the image of Jesus, that was placed in front of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This caused Shirley2 patriarch Germanos I of Constantinople. Greece immediately rebelled and Emperor Leo was forced to lead a fleet against the Greeks instead of against Muslims. Pope Gregory II and a council of bishops claimed the Emperor's iconoclasm a heresy and they excommunicated him. The emperor sent fleet against Rome but it sank. Emperor Leo, incensed against the Pope, would not send aid to defend Europe (in fact, he had enough threats closer to home that he probably could not, but now he would not). Estranged from the imperial might of Constantinople, Pope Gregory had to call upon Charles Martel, the Frankish king, to fight back the Muslims and hem them in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 72. Richard Powers Iconoclasm Richard Powers once said "The history of art is the history of iconoclasm, the history of some new voice saying that everything you know is wrong." What does Mr. Powers mean by this statement? To understand what he means we first have to go back and look at what iconoclasm means. Iconoclasm means the doctrine or practice of an iconoclast, which in turn means a person who criticizes or opposes widely accepted practices and beliefs. To further understand the statement said by Mr. Powers we will also have to look at the history of iconoclasm, current iconoclastic events, study when the desire of preservation of icons becomes a form of worship, and whether the worship of the icon is the same as worshiping the beliefs or practices they represent. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This question in itself brings up a whole new polemic. Many would say the worshiping of what the artwork stands for would be constant praise or constantly bringing up the work. Others would believe that when the practices the artworks represent would become a form of worship. Yet, others would believe that a mixture of other two groups is a sure sign of worship. But, can someone worship a piece of artwork and not worship the practices it represents? Personally I believe that it can happen that a person can worship the artwork but not the practices. While in other situations the person can worship the practices and not agree or worship the work itself. What does it really mean to worship an artwork rather than what it embodies? How far would the worship of the work go until it would be considered idolatry? To some worshiping an artwork is to constantly praise it and use it as a reference when looking at the quality of other works done. To worship a piece rather than to worship the beliefs it represents is to hold that piece in high regards but not agree with the practices or beliefs shown in the piece or to not care for those beliefs or practices. Yet, to idolize a work would be to believe that the work being worshipped is a manifestation of a god, or to believe that the work has all the power and believe that it speaks to people to do things. Many will say that idolizing an artwork or object and worshiping the object without regards for the purpose of the work are the same thing. In some cases that line between idolizing a work and worshiping the work without regards to the purpose or back story are sometimes blurred when certain things come into play. For example, both ideas hold high regards for the work yet idolizing the work ties it to a religion, practice, or belief. While the other simply does not care for the belief, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 74. The Destructive Effects Of Iconoclasm During The Byzantine... Makoto Emura 3/22/2015 The Destructive Effects of Iconoclasm during the Byzantine Empire In the 4th century, the Roman Empire underwent major changes, becoming the Byzantine Empire. The Roman religion was replaced by Christianity, specifically the Eastern Orthodox Church, as the new state religion. Artists helped to spread this new religion by building churches and producing manuscripts. The artists imagined what religious figures looked like to portray them in art. But the Church criticized the visual representation of figures at certain periods during the Byzantine Era. Artists lost their creative freedom during these periods, called iconoclasm. The Early Byzantine Era ended when the first iconoclasm occurred. One manuscript created during the Early Byzantine Era was the Rossano Gospels (Image 1). The Rossano Gospels is written in Medieval Greek during the 6th century, and was discovered in Rossano, Italy. The parchment medium was colored slightly purple with a rare dye to proclaim the importance of the document. Over time, it turned red. The document is big – 12 x 10.5 inches. As an illuminated manuscript, it is filled with colorful illustrations. Image 1 shows Christ in Washing of the Feet and Last Supper. The identity of Christ is easily discernable with his clothes and the golden circle behind his head. To add even more emphasis, everyone around is looking toward him. Below the illustration are four Old Testament authors pointing up. The text below them explains what ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 76. Between Cult And Culture: Islamic Iconoclasm Finbarr Barry Flood discusses Islamic Iconoclasm in his article "Between Cult and Culture: Bamiyan, Islamic Iconoclasm, and the Museum". Flood discusses the clashes that the iconoclast Islamic world has with the modern western world and wants to change the reader's perception of Islamic iconoclasm. There were two main goals of his article, one is the Islamic iconoclasm has occurred for awhile throughout history, and two, that much of the iconoclasm steams from political aspects, rather than theological aspects. Flood decides to focus on Afghanistan and India in his text. Flood explains how most opposition of images in Islam come not from the religion's main book of the Qu'ran, but of the Hadith and Traditions of the Profit where it is explained and believed that figuration ties a muslim to polytheism and idolatry. However, many early Islamic artwork included figurations, notably the coins with the heads of rulers which were seen by many people of their land. Figuration was also found in palaces and mosques. In the medieval Islamic world, attitudes towards figuration changed from person to person and over time with different rulers. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... He argues that most iconoclasm throughout history wheather Islamic, Byzantinum, or Catholic involves defacing the individual so that the artwork does not disappear, but loses value. Islamic iconoclast want artwork to lose value in the sense that they are not idolous anymore; they want to destroy the symbol that the art piece represents, not to disrespect the skills of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 78. Controversy In Byzantine Art Byzantine art is the art of the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantine is the first Christian emperor of the Roman Empire. The art style in the Byzantine was mainly concerned with the religious expression. That religious expression specifically includes the translation of Church theology into artistic terms. Byzantine art began with decorating the walls and domes of the churches. In the Constantinople, the art was the icon which represents the holy images. This was developed in the monasteries of the church. The icons illustrate the religious or patriotic stories from the bible. In the Byzantine people were making images but a controversy broke between the people during the eighteen centuries. These people start opposing the icon–making. Iconoclasm "image–breaking" is the prohibition and destruction of work of visual art, usually because they considered it inappropriate in the religious context. Iconoclast, who reject images, objected the icon veneration. The major controversy took place between 726 and 730. Confronting all controversial scenario, Emperor Leo III imposed iconoclasm. He ordered the destruction of all images of saints and stories which were present in the church at that time. There had been many previous theological disputes over visual representations, their theological foundations, and legitimacy. There were many reasons that build up the controversies so high to impose iconoclasm. Some historians believe that by ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...