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Qualitative Research On Scientific Merit Essay
Qualitative: Scientific Merit
Consequently, qualitative research approach emerges from the philosophical belief that truth is
socially constructed and subjective to individual experiences associated with critical theory,
constructivism, interpretatism, and naturalistic paradigms (Feilzer, 2010; Ponterotto, 2010; Ryan,
Coughlan, & Cronin, 2007; Scotland, 2012; Venkatesh, Brown, & Bala, 2013; Vishnevsky &
Beanlands, 2004). Paradigms are the philosophical underpinning that guides qualitative research
methodology as result evaluating scientific merit slightly differs from the quantitative methodology.
As a result, the scientific merit of qualitative lies in the credibility (trustworthiness), dependability
(consistency), transferability (applicability), and comfirmability (verification/neutrality) of the data
to answer the research question (Ellis & Levy, 2009; Horsburgh, 2002; Ponterotto, 2010; Ryan,
Coughlan, & Cronin, 2007; Vishnevsky & Beanlands, 2004).
Qualitative research ability to advance the knowledge and contribute and/or develop to theory
comes in credibility through clarifying researchers ' role in the study; purpose/significance of the
study; thick and rich descriptions and/or narratives; multiple data sources; audit trail such as
member–checking and peer evaluations; research methods; and truthfulness/robustness of finding
(Ellis & Levy, 2009; Horsburgh, 2002; Ponterotto, 2010; Ryan, Coughlan, & Cronin, 2007;
Vishnevsky & Beanlands, 2004). Transferability
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Scientific Research: What Is Scientific Research?
What is Scientific Research?
Scientific research has been define in many ways based on different point of view of some
researchers/ philosophers. However, the term research can be understand as a study to learn or gain
new thing or information. According to Cambridge Dictionaries Online, scientific research is
defined as a detailed study of a subject, especially in order to discover (new) information or reach a
(new) understanding. Furthermore, Macmillan Publishers define scientific research as the detailed
study of something to discover new facts, especially in a university or scientific institution. Research
is a process of acknowledge and also as a learning process in presenting new information based on
the study that has been done recently. Research also is the action of making a rigorous and relevant
contribution to knowledge. It can be explained by understanding of a cause and effect relationship of
a given phenomenon or uncovering a new phenomenon. Based on other researcher (
Emery&Cooper) scientific research organized inquiry to provide information for the solution to a
problem. Thus, a careful and systematic investigation in some field of knowledge, undertaken to
establish facts or principles in order to provide a solution ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
The most important role played by Bacon was in two points which he emphasized on experimental
method and its role in scientific discovery, and he also emphasized on role of science in
development of society. In addition, he introduced science as enterprise of State, where the idea
becomes central in the modern communities. The idea that organized inquiry of knowledge is
needed for human progressive have been the main source of inspiration for scientific research in
western world. Francis Bacon, who considered as the master mind of scientific science proposed
that in order to dominate Nature, we must learn how it
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The Scientific Methods Of Research Inquiry
The five scientific methods which include the question, hypotheses, experimentation, data analysis
and conclusion are critical to a scientist because they enable them to have a credible data and
conclusion on their research. It is realized that the usage of this methods are advantageous to
anybody including business people, for as long as one follows the steps they will be sure of getting a
credible outcome at the end of the day. I would emphasize that people should employ this method a
lot because they ensure that one analyzes their hypotheses by experimenting it then finally analyzing
and concluding it thus preventing falsified data. However, it should be stated that an invalid theory
is not a bad thing since it enables the researcher ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Therefore, it requires some testing to ensure that it is not false but is real. Here, the hypotheses
might be the answer to your question or why your guess may be precise. Therefore, the scientists
will clearly state their expectations during an experiment, make an educated guess that might be the
accurate answer to the questions or the observations. It is true to say that it guides the experiment
and must be testable.
Experimentation
The test simply verifies the validity of the hypotheses. Therefore, it is important to calibrate and
design an experiment that measures only one thing a time; this s to enable the scientists to know the
exact result of a particular thing. The scientists usually use two types of variables: the independent
variable which can be changed and the dependent variable which is observed when the independent
variable is changed to make the correct analysis (Tutor, 2017). The variables are used to determine
and show how dependent variables were affected by the independent variables. Moreover, the use of
control enables the researcher to be aware of the happenings that occur when no changes are made.
The most important aspect of this method is ensuring that the experiment was done should be
repeated severally and should give the same results because if it does not, the research is considered
invalid. Through experimentations, data is collected before, during and after an investigation by
scientists.
Analysis
During the completion
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The Impact Of Scientific Research On The Development And...
1. While trying to define what research really is, it proves itself to be a very broad and open concept
(Shuttleworth, 2008). Shuttleworth (2008) says, "...the definition of research includes any gathering
of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge." (p. 1). Things like reading books,
surfing the web, and watching the news are all forms of research (Shuttleworth, 2008). On the other
hand, the scientific definition for research is more planned and concise (Shuttleworth, 2008).
Research within science involves solving and or answering a specific problem (Shuttleworth, 2008).
2. Social and scientific research is important in the development and advancement of society
(University). In scientific research, the experiment and variables are more controlled and
systematically tested where as social research is dynamic and harder to control variables
(University). Scientific research involves solving and or answering a specific problem in some
systematic way, the scientific method (Shuttleworth, 2008).
3. Applied and basic research does have key differences (Stanovich, 2007). In applied research is to
find a specific answer to a specific answer (Stanovich, 2007). Basic research adheres to its own
name focuses on "basic" principles and theories (Stanovich, 2007). Both of these research methods
are similar within the aspect of their long time goal (Stanovich, 2007). Basic and applied research
has proved to create important breakthroughs within science
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Scientific Research On The Criminal Justice Arena
Scientific research in the criminal justice arena serves various purposes and has different points.
There are five points to scientific research. The five points of scientific research that will be
discussed in this paper are question, hypothesis, experimentation, data analysis, and conclusion.
Research can provide useful and exciting insights into community problems and how police
agencies operate. It can reveal potentially useful programs and strategies for dealing with problems.
It can show which programs are successful and which are not. It can suggest new strategies to deal
with old issues. It can provide information needed to improve existing programs. And it can inform
the public and elected officials. (Vito, Tewksbury, & Kunselman ... Show more content on
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A hypothesis is often defined as an educated guess because it is almost always informed by what
you already know about the topic (Harris, 2008). A hypothesis always consists of variables, or
groupings of specific attributes of what you are looking to solve. There are dependent and
independent variables within a hypothesis, or in layman terms, cause and effect. In short, the
independent variable is the cause and the dependent variable is the effect (Maxfield, Michael, &
Babbie 2008). For example, in the above paragraph we questioned the effect of the lack of law
enforcement training on unlawful arrests, so from this question we can create a hypothesis. A good
hypothesis on this would be; Police officers that lack proper training are more likely to unlawfully
arrest a citizen than a police officer who does not lack proper training. In this hypothesis, the
independent variable or cause is the lack of police officer training while the dependent variable or
effect is the possibility of it leading to unlawful arrests.
Once the hypothesis has been formed, experimentation can begin. Experimentation is the third step
in the scientific research process. The experiment is designed to test the generated hypothesis and
either supports or refutes it. The experiment takes the independent and dependent variables and tests
them by manipulating the independent variable. As the independent variable is manipulated, the
dependent variable is measured (Harris, 2008). In the training
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Mock Scientific Research Paper
Mock Scientific Research Paper: The Effect of an Experimental Drug on Numbers of Mice
Offspring Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of an experimental
drug on the number of offspring a mother mouse has. The question asked was: "Does the
experimental drug affect the number of the offspring a mouse has?" The hypothesis was: "If the
experimental drug is given to mother mice, then the number of offspring in their litters will change
because of the chemicals in the drugs." Methods First, the experimental group of ten mice is given
the drug (Group A), and the control group of another ten mice is not (Group B). Next, both groups
are impregnated and have their litters of mice. Lastly, The numbers of mice in the litters
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Kuhn's Efficacy In Scientific Research
In his paper, Kuhn discusses how measurement has functioned in physical science, normal and crisis
state, and what the source of its special efficacy has been. Here a measurement always produces an
actual number.
Our image of physical science is determined by science texts. The representation of scientific
measurement in these books is often misleading. Results of measurements are often displayed in
tables. These measurements seem to have the function to confirm the theory.
However, providing evidence is not their objective. The authority of the scientists is enough to
convince people of the theory.
Another function of measurement is that of exploration. We believe that we can derive laws and
theories from results of measurements. Results of measurements owe their special efficacy to this
believe. However, this believe is based on a myth. Tables are included in scientific texts to establish
what the author means by reasonable agreement between theory and measurement.
Although science texts sketch a different image, just a small fraction of measurements, in normal
and abnormal science, are motivated by a desire to confirm an ... Show more content on
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The results of these measurements are presented in textbooks as facts to which the scientist must
make his theory fit. However, in scientific practice the roles are reversed: theory leads measurement.
Without a theory, no conclusions can be drawn from the results of measurements. Furthermore,
theory plays a role in reducing scatter in the results of measurements or in testing the reliability of
existing instruments or manipulative techniques. Finally, theory and experiment can also guide each
other in areas new to both. Although measurements are led by theory, measurements are necessary
because they can create consensus among scientists. Even if there is a substantial amount of theory,
science cannot survive on guesses based on
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Explain How Scientific Method And How It Relates To Human...
Scientific method and how it relate to human services research.
Scientific method refers to a method investigation and study used by researchers to identify a
problem or a situation, observe associated variables, and gather necessary data needed to reach
conclusions about the problem. The scientific researchers apply the scientific method to investigate
cause and effect relationships (Anastas, 2012). The scientific method is based on measurable and
empirical evidence subject to certain principles of reasoning. Human services research utilizes the
scientific method as they try to explain how changes take place in human beings throughout their
life.
The aim of human services research is to explain, describe, and predict various changes that occur
throughout an individual's lifespan. The Scientific method relates to human services ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
The methods can help in obtaining data towards findings solutions to the problem of poor housing
facilities. Quantitative research can be used to give an insight on whether an intervention influences
an outcome of an organization. The quantitative research can be used in understanding the general
experiences of various people to develop a theory (Singh, 2006).
Mixed method research
It involves the use of both qualitative and quantitative research while conducting a scientific study.
The combination of the two research methods provides a superior understanding of a situation or a
research problem. A mixed methodology is generally the process of collecting, examining, and
combining both qualitative and quantitative information obtained in a single study or in multiple
series of scientific research. The example of research on poor housing facilities in a community can
involve the combination of the methods of research I human services field (Cozby et al., 1989).
Summary of how scientifically sound research can help support the function of human
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The Scientific Importance With Human Sexuality Research
1.) What is the scientific method? Explain its importance with human sexuality research:
The scientific method is research of assumptions, scientifically to see if they are true or false. It is
important in human sexuality research because first, people might be afraid to be honest about
answers if they think that they're being judged. Sex is a very interesting topic, but people often think
they're being judged and it is hard to open up. There are two scientific goals of sexology:
understanding and predicting behavior. (pp.30). The scientific method is important research because
it is free from bias. The scientific method is more based on facts, rather than opinions.
2.) Review the various research techniques (i.e. experimental research, surveys, case studies, and
participant–observer research) found in Chapter Two. Scenario––– If you were going to conduct
research on the sexual activity of suburban teens, which two (2) techniques do you feel would be
most successful and why?:
I think the first method that I would use would be a survey. A survey is :Data pertaining to sexual
attitudes and behaviors derived from relatively large groups of people by means of questionnaires or
interview.(pp.32). There are many ways you can do a survey, for example, it can be done by; paper
pencil, telephone, computerized or face to face interviews. I think that this would be successful
because if the survey is anonymous, they will feel more comfortable answering. I also think this
would be the
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Evaluation Of Scientific Research Methods Essay
EVALUATION OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHODS
St. Cloud State University
Abstract
This term paper evaluates the formats of different type of research papers available today. The
additional knowledge for the comparison have been gained from the textbook Research
Methodology: A Step–by–step Guide for Beginners – Fourth Edition (2014) with the available types
of research papers and research methodologies. This paper includes the types of research paper and
presents the appropriate suggestion. The paper will help the faculty member of Information
Assurance to improve the format of available research paper format. This term paper will also add to
the available knowledge base of MSIA community.
Introduction
This paper summarizes the types of research papers used widely in the science world. These papers
can be categorized into Qualitative, Quantitative, Statistical and Experimental researchers.
The scientific research paper different from other research paper as they involve more numeric
calculation and hence statistical and experimental research method are widely popular. In this paper,
we will discuss how different research methodologies are incorporated to write the research papers
for scientific work.
SETTING OBJECTIVE
The first and most important step in the research study is the formulation of a research problem. A
clear statements of research problem will help to develop an effective research. The main purpose of
formulating a research
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Should the Animals Be Used for Scientific Research?
Abstract
This research paper discusses the opposition side of my chosen topic "Should the animals be used
for scientific research". It will evidently elucidate why it is malicious for the animals to be used as
scientific research. Animals cannot be compared to humans when it comes to finding out what
product or drug is competent for human to use, because animals and humans have different
hormones. It is also been proven with the drug thalidomide, that even though it has been tested on
thousands of animals it was not a good alternative for human choose.
Should the animals be used for scientific research?
According to American Anti–Vivisection Society 100 million animals are used every year in the
United States as models in biological ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Animals react differently than humans to many substances, rendering many tests pointless. Some
drugs have had to be withdrawn, despite testing, so therefore I honestly don't think animal testing is
relevant. Instead of using these poor animals for researches, scientist and researchers should use
computer model, syntactic skin and leaves as a better alternative.
According to Natasha Bantwal, one of the most famous examples when it comes to danger of
animals experimentation would have to be the thalidomide tragedy of the 60's and 70's (Bantwal
2010). I did a little research on the drug thalidomide, and found out that it was tested on thousands,
and thousands of animals and was to be an a amazing sedative for breastfeeding and will allegedly
caused no harm to either the mother nor the child, but come to find out thousands of children whose
mothers had used thalidomide were born with severe deformities.
Another good example of the dangers of animal testing is Clioquinol, which was also supposed to be
safely tested on animals and later on had a severely adverse impact on humans. Manufactures in the
70's in Japan, it was marketed as a wonder drug for providing relief from diarrhea. Not only did it
not work on humans, but it even cause diarrhea in them! As a result of this drug being administered
to the public, thousands of cases of paralysis and blindness and thousands of death cases occurred
all over. The main ethical argument against animal
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The Theories Of A Scientific Research
It comes in no surprise that only those theories which make accurate predictions as well as fitting
the empirical data count as being adequate and deemed 'good' science. In relation to the confusion
associated with the unobservable mechanisms, anti–realist offer the view that just because the
concepts of observable and unobservable are vague, it does not automatically mean they are not
useful or false (Okasha 2002). The dependence of observation in proposing theory makes it hard and
sometimes even impossible to come up conclusively falsify theories all the time. Not to mention that
observable and unobservable mechanisms are not that difference after all (Okasha 2002).
Correspondingly, as long as they are able to clarify and explain phenomena, all we need to do is to
choose the best available. Once we have a theory in hand, as a result, we should have certain ability
to predict the future, which is one of the key motivations for performing scientific research. Model
is one of the most popular methods adopted by researchers to predict the future. The models of
animal flocking behaviour, San Fransisco Bay model, and climate model are just few of the models
which are regularly used to represent and explain the world in a simplified and mathematical way
(Smith 2008; Weisberg 2013). Due to its countless applicable properties, the use of models is not
limited to science only. After all, there are numerous advantages including the reduction in costs, the
ability to examine effect of
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Work: Scientific Method and Exploratory Research
Analytical research is a type of research that utilises critical thinking to find out facts about a given
topic and from the answers obtained develop new and useful ways of doing things. Critical thinking
is a method of thinking that puts assumptions into question to decide whether a given claim is true
or false.
When writing an analytical research paper, you must perform a variety of tasks beforehand. The first
step is to formulate a thesis and then gather your sources that will be used. The sources should then
be evaluated for accuracy. Everything should then be meticulously documented. There are many
topics that can be used for this purpose. The list includes animal rights, minimum wage, vaccines,
climate change, immigration, obesity, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Argumentative topics
Abortion – is it the best method for unwanted pregnancies.
Plastic surgery – is it really necessary? And is it safe?
Smoking Should be Banned
The internet – the best thing since the invention of the television.
Breast feeding should be a must for the first 6 months of a child.
Should artistes be given special government subsidies?
Gambling should be legal the world over.
Is domestic violence increasing or is it all in the mind of the supposed victims?
Animal experimentation should be legalized.
Is finger print checking at airports of certain nationalities a human rights violation?
Human cloning – Do we want a duplicate?
* Should we do more to deal with the problem of domestic violence, or is the problem exaggerated?
* We are becoming overwhelmingly dependent on computers. Is this dependence on computers a
good thing or should we be more suspicious of their benefits?
* Is there too much of commercialism in the Internet?
* Technology makes communication easier in today 's world. Many people choose to work at home
in front of a computer screen. What danger does the society face depending on computer screens
rather than face–to–face contact as the main means of communication? Are we the prisoners of the
progress?
* Should the animals be used for scientific research? Is it humanly?
* Should the cigarettes
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Critical Thinking Vs Scientific Research
Scientific Method & Critical Thinking Paper Consider a world where no one asked questions and no
one did any research: how would we be able to figure out new information without these key
components? With critical thinking and scientific research we get some of the answers of certain
phenomenon. According to King, critical thinking is "the process of thinking deeply and actively,
asking questions, and evaluating the evidence." (2013, p. 3). While scientific method is "how
psychologists gain knowledge about mind and behavior." (2013, p.13). Though these two terms have
different definitions they are both needed to find our new evidence about science. In order to go
through the scientific method you need have critical thinking to understand what ... Show more
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Psychologists use five steps of research to use scientific method: observations, hypotheses, test the
hypotheses, making a conclusion, and analyzing conclusion. In order to understand scientific
method better I will go through each step with examples from the American Journal of Public
Health. First we start off with observation, which involves critical thinking. The curious researchers
notice alcohol ads and wonder if the rise in the ads affects the public. Second the researchers form a
hypothesis; in this case they believe that "alcohol advertising influences underage drinking." (2010,
p. 555). Third we begin to test whether or not there is a correlation between alcohol ads and
underage drinking, which in this study they obtained television viewership data from Nielsen Media
Research (NMR) for each alcohol ad appearing on a national cable net– work from 2001 to 2006 to
get information on their topic (2010, p. 556). Fourth is drawing of a conclusion, researchers will
look at the data they have collected. For this study almost all alcohol ads appeared in time slots with
audiences made up of 30% or fewer underage viewers (2010, p. 558). Last we evaluate the
conclusions, which according to King "never ends." (2013, p. 16). This is the most important since it
determines what all the data collected from the research actually means
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Scientific Ethics And Scientific Research
Scientific research is a broad range of activities undertaken in systematic ways to advance
knowledge and understandings. It benefits society based on the expectation that researches are
conducted honestly, accurately and fairly. According to the conventional view, scientific research is
a highly logical process, conducted objectively by scientists, inspected by peer scrutiny. However, it
is not unusual that researchers fail to fulfill the expectation, which will be considered as scientific
misconduct. Currently, scientific misconduct is defined as "fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in
proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results".
1. Fabrication, sometimes referred as "dry labbing", is an intentional behavior to make up results for
experiments that never occurs, which considered as highly unethical.
2. Falsification is defined as publishing misleading facts of experimentations or results, researchers
wilfully distort results to support hypothesis.
3. Plagiarism is often referred to pass other person's ideas, results or words without giving
appropriate credit.
These misconducts have significant effects. They will waste money and other resources, might even
pose potential risk to human health. In recent scandals such as Haruko Obokata's falsified results in
STAP cells and Jan Hendrik Schön's fabricated results in semiconductors, misconducts are not only
debarred those scientists, also damaged the pristine image of science and
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Positionality: Scientific Method and Research
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In Partnership with University of Wales, Lampeter
A Critical Review of My Positionality and Its Impact On The Research I Undertake
Business Research Methods
MBA2010–L–A1
Submitted By: – Suraj Rai
Student ID: – 072078 – 77
University ID: – 27003380
Abstract
In this paper I have tried to explain the concept of positionality and its various parameters like emic
and etic, positivist, interpretivist, empiricist and rationalist, constructivist and reductionist. Then, I
tried to analyze my positionality on the basis of these points and how these will effect on the
research that I select and the methodologies that I choose. Society in which I grew up, religion,
beliefs, norms and values that I accepted, race, language, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
In other words, who I am determines, to a large extent, what I want to study.'
I am, as a researcher, a product of who I am as a person, and who I am as a person is a result of my
race, class, gender, and sexuality. I am the researcher I am because I have experienced life in a
certain manner. Additionally, what I believe about research cannot be separated from who I am
(Harding, 1987).
Mehra (2002) explains further –'A researcher's personal beliefs and values are reflected not only in
the choice of methodology and interpretation of findings, but also in the choice of a research topic.
In other words, what we believe in determines what we want to study.'
Positivism verses Interpretivism Approach:
"Interpretive research begins and ends with the biography and self of the researcher." (Denzin, 1989,
p.12). The positivist researcher is not affected by the subject of the research because he makes
generalizations. (Saunders, 2003 p. 83). When the investigator is a positivist, he tends to use
methods like experiments, surveys and field studies to generate data. In this approach, the
interviewer is more likely to be an outsider which means that the investigator does not have any
relation with the study group.
From the other point of view, interpretivism is about opinions, views and perceptions the people
experience in every day life. For example, people interpretation happens according to the situation
in which they experiences; which means the way
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Scientific Revolution Research Paper
The Scientific Revolution was a period in 17th century Europe in which people were trying to
explore the "unknowable". Scientists, philosophers, physicist, and others were trying to understand
what could be measured and observable. During this time, many ideas and discoveries were made.
The scientific method, physics, and alchemy were discovered. René Descarte believed that
everything through formulas, they only needed to be discovered, and "invented" deductive reasoning
– or using a formula to predict a phenomenon. Francis Bacon that people should be able to carefully
observe and notice how things worked. He also came up with inductive reasoning – using the
phenomenon to predict the formula – and the empirical method – this involved gathering
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Social Scientific Research On The Human Or Social World
1. Social scientific research is pretty much based on theories. Social scientists examine relationships
among phenomena in the human or social world (). Research methods of cultural theories have two
types of empirical reseach. One is survey research and the other is experimental research. Survey
research conducts surveys of people to find out what actions they are taking and why ().
Experimental research conducts experiments to see what things influence people's actions (). There
are four major schools of different types of theory that have been developed in order to do research.
First is post positivist. The goal of this approach is to explain, predict and control (). Its strength is
that it is ordered and it is structured. Its weakness is that it can lead to assumptions because it is
shared by more than one conscioius mind (). Second, is the hermeneutic theory. The goal of this
approach is to understand how and why actions happen in the world (). Its strength is that it can
show things from a different perspective. Its weakness is that is can possibly be bias because people
construct an image of reality based from their own prefrences and culture. Third, is critical theory.
The goal of this approach is to restructure the social world to overcome the dominant social order to
achieve desired values (). The strength about this is that it challenges exisiting ways and attempts to
organize the social world on one fair accord. The downfall with this theory is that the lense of
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Scientific Method and Research Essay
1. Describe what C. Wright Mills meant by the term Sociological Imagination. C. Wright Mills
believed you should take a look at oneself and compare it to the bigger picture which is "Society."
Mills wanted people to view the world as an outsider looking in on the problems of the social order
rather than looking into oneself for answers. Mills also believed that individuals take for granted his
or her own lifestyle and what they feel should be acceptable within all of society. Belief systems
vary throughout the world – however, Mills deemed that when the populace was able to take a more
analytical examination, discerning from themselves, dealing with societal problems would be more
beneficial to all.
2. Describe the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
This methodology is comprised of trial and error as well as cause effect. The latter of the Scientific
Method is a result of experience and/or observation.
i. Defining the problem. What is the question or problem you need to solve? Who, what, where,
when, which, why or how? ii. Review the literature. Research can be conducted by the use of
external sources, i.e. Internet, books, interviews, pictures, focus groups, and historical accounts just
to name a few. iii. Formulating the hypothesis. A hypothesis is an educated guess about what you are
researching. A hypothesis should be put together in a manner that is helping you to answer your
original question. Variables are included within a hypothesis so that the research is done fairly –
these variables are usually formed to be independent, dependent and controlled. iv. Selecting the
research, design, and then collecting as well as analyzing data.
This means that information that is assembled must be reliable, legitimate, and have a consistent
result. Taking in account what the person may be researching, a survey may be taken by asking other
people a number of questions. Inquiring to how a person thinks or feels about something particularly
can assist in creating charts, graphs, and quantitative (numerical) research. Qualitative research is an
observation of what goes on around you within the environment. Once all research data is collected,
an
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Evaluation Of A Good Scientific Research
A good scientific research requires explicit regularization, systemization and coordination of the
process of observation, recording and analysis (Ghauri and Gronhang, 2005). Appraising research
studies is important because it helps to find out if the research methods and results are valid enough
to obtain important information (Fowkes and Fulton, 1991). Some criteria proposed by Lincoln and
Guba (1985) used to assess the trustworthiness of qualitative research are credibility, transferability
and dependability. Critical evaluation of the study in Mateji et al. (2008) shows that various
strategies were adopted in data collection, analysis and interpretation like triangulation and
prolonged engagement to enhance the validity and quality of the study.
Interviews have gradually become the main procedure for data collection associated with qualitative
studies (Englander, 2012) and are believed to provide a deeper understanding of the different views,
beliefs and experiences of study participants (Gill et al., 2008). Following the steps of qualitative
research, two central themes were identified in the study in Mateji et al. (2008) and include negative
relationship with gynecologists and curative focused treatment.
Summary of key themes
Establishing a set of strategies to enhance the quality of research helps researchers to effectively
manage bias and reactivity so legitimizing the findings of the research (Padget, 1998). One of the
strategies adopted by the authors in
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Scientific Revolution Research Paper
This week's blog entry involves the Scientific Revolution. The Scientific Revolution would come to
shape the modern understanding of science. During the time of the Scientific Revolution, the term
science did not yet exist. During the revolution, the term used before science was natural
philosophy. The Scientific Revolution took place within Europe during the years 1500 – 1700. Some
argue that the revolution began with the man named Nicolaus Copernicus, with his theories of a sun
centered universe. A heavy influence of the Scientific Revolution was the translations of the
philosophers of old during the Renaissance. The theories and idea's of past philosophers would
influence the thoughts and idea's of people during the Scientific Revolution.
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Scientific Method and Desk Research Essay
Assessment activity 1
1. When conducting research on behalf of your organisation or for a client organisation, how will
you determine the most appropriate data sources to use?
In this case the most suitable data source will be a desk research because this information will have
already been gathered, analysed and reported on by other companies. It means that you will not
waste time and money doing what others before you have done.
2. Why are cross checks and cross references necessary?
To ensure the information is correct.
Assessment activity 2
1. What tools would you use to collect and collate data and why would you use them?
2. Why should your desk research include the collection and analysis of data relative to ... Show
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Market value is based on expenditure including sales tax in these outlets; market volume is based on
numbers of outlets.
A Snapshot report is designed to provide instant preliminary market research. Each report provides
an overview of the defined market, including market size, market forecast, segmentation, company
market share along with top–line socio economic data. The data is supplied in both graphical and
tabular format for ease of interpretation and analysis.
There is is a mix of primary and secondary data sources. In addition each market contains an
exclusive 5 year market size forecast.
What's more, our team of international research analysts are always on hand to provide further
assistance where required. It's a level of service you won't find anywhere else.
Secondary Research
All secondary data sets in both local and global languages are derived from a range of sources, from
government statistics to trade magazines. In addition, strong relationships with different companies.
.
Typically an analyst use a minimum of 3 to 4 data points for each table, analysing different aspects
of the market. Full transparency of source data is provided for all secondary sources. Furthermore,
we need to seek written permission from the original source which is quoted in every case,
reinforcing the integrity and robust nature of the data.
Primary Research – Trade Interviews
Once secondary
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Gender Bias And The Scientific Process And Content Of...
Masculine bias infiltrates the scientific process and content of research in several ways. In this
paper, the focus is on masculine bias through research on gender differences in evolutionary and
endocrinological science. Though somewhat outdated examples, Longino and Doell's (L&D) paper
Body, Bias, and Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of Reasoning in Tow Areas of Biological
Science provides a structure of analysis that can be applied to other areas of science. They analyze
the role of facts, evidence, and hypothesis to identify areas vulnerable to masculine bias. L&D posit
that there is a distance between the evidence and the hypothesis the evidence is to confirm. This
distance is a point of entry for masculine bias. In addition, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
At the time, the earth's placement at the center of the universe was central to our uniqueness in the
universe. To say that the earth was not the center of the universe would be to say that humans are not
unique. This ties into the psychological issues of bias in that choosing to keep the earth at the center
of the universe preserved our uniqueness and presented massive roadblocks for the heliocentric
model. Tying this in to evolutionary studies, there is a wide–ranging consensus that males are
largely responsible for the development of the human species. However, L&D point out that this is
likely related to our patriarchal and androcentric beliefs. Last, there are logical issues that arise with
theory choice. L&D explore the issue of evidence, what counts as evidence, and how evidence is
applied to a hypothesis. This is a major factor in the analysis of masculine bias in evolutionary
biology. Diving deeper into the analysis, L&D address facts, evidence, and hypothesis in the
scientific process. This analysis presents areas where values can enter the scientific process. To start,
facts are presented in terms of singular facts, general facts, simple facts, and complex facts. Our
ability to describe the things, or facts, we see in the world are limited by our senses, individual
nervous system, and the language used to describe our experience (Longino & Doell, 208). There is
more going on than we realize either because it
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The Importance of Stupidity in Scientific Research
Essay
1771
The importance of stupidity in scientific research
Martin A. Schwartz
Department of Microbiology, UVA Health System, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA
22908, USA e–mail: maschwartz@virginia.edu
Accepted 9 April 2008 Journal of Cell Science 121, 1771 Published by The Company of Biologists
2008 doi:10.1242/jcs.033340
I recently saw an old friend for the first time in many years. We had been Ph.D. students at the same
time, both studying science, although in different areas. She later dropped out of graduate school,
went to Harvard Law School and is now a senior lawyer for a major environmental organization. At
some point, the conversation turned to why she had left graduate school. To my utter ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
I'm not talking about 'relative stupidity', in which the other students in the class actually read the
material, think about it and ace the exam, whereas you don't. I'm also not talking about bright people
who might be working in areas that don't match their talents. Science involves confronting our
'absolute stupidity'. That kind of stupidity is an existential fact, inherent in our efforts to push our
way into the unknown. Preliminary and thesis exams have the right idea when the faculty committee
pushes until the student starts getting the answers wrong or gives up and says, 'I don't know'. The
point of the exam isn't to see if the student gets all the answers right. If they do, it's the faculty who
failed the exam. The point is to identify the student's weaknesses, partly to see where they need to
invest some effort and partly to see whether the student's knowledge fails at a sufficiently high level
that they are ready to take on a research project. Productive stupidity means being ignorant by
choice. Focusing on important questions puts us in the awkward position of being ignorant. One of
the beautiful things about science is that it allows us to bumble along, getting it wrong time after
time, and feel perfectly fine as long as we learn something each time. No doubt, this can be difficult
for students who are accustomed to getting the answers right. No
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Scientific Naturalism Research Paper Outline
Chunwei.fang
Capstone: Christ and his World
Benjamin.Langford
Spring, 2016
Scientific Naturalism Research Outline
Naturalism is an idea or a faith which is "there are only natural laws run in the world. Generally, it
refers to those who advocate using natural causes or natural principle to explain all phenomena of
philosophy, such as European philosophy of human nature explain people's moral. Naturalism in a
narrow sense formed in the United States in the 1930s. The assumption of philosophical naturalism
was first published in the articles of pre–Socratic philosophers. Thales was known the founder of the
science because he was the first one to give the explanations of the natural events without
considering the supernatural reasons or God factors. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
While it was frequently forgotten by psychologists when they talk in research conversation. Dr.
Brian reported, "There is a well–established outlook in contemporary philosophy known as
naturalism, which asserts that philosophy is continuous with science and which attempts to
formulate and evaluate philosophical theories by using the research findings and investigative means
of the various sciences. Naturalism, in all its variety, is probably the reigning outlook in
contemporary philosophy, and it is especially popular in the philosophy of science and the
philosophy of mind." (Brian, 2)
With the development of technology, people gradually realized what methodology is. They are
willing to use it to understand this world or solve some life's issues. After the World War II, humans
faced a lot of reality problems. Society economy needs to development, but there is any supernatural
way to help humans. Using past experiences to find a solution is the only
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The Impact Of Scientific Research On Academic Research
Introduction
As research student, there is tremendous gratefulness for the tremendous amount of information I
have been introduced to concerning academic research. Often, as an academic student; I have
considered research as merely a discipline consisting of gathering facts, opinions, including,
definitive terms concerning a particular topic of study, moreover, with presentation of those facts to
a professor. In addition, it is appreciative how scientific research contributes to academia, including,
a large existing body of knowledge prevalent within constraints of psychological, sociological, in
addition to, other fields of social science.
Most important, both quantitative and qualitative research methods are fundamental towards
fulfillment of voids; or perhaps, gaps of unknown phenomena from a vast existent body of
knowledge. For example, "research is a systematic process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting
information (Leedy & Ormrod, 2013, p. 2). For example, research does not consist of merely
locating information pertaining to a topic presented within an argumentative stance based entirely on
theories derived from various sources without substantiated evidence utilized in accordance with
research procedures that prove otherwise.
Furthermore, authentic research is not based solely known facts, logical explanations, but
henceforth, an awareness by the researcher that he or she must collect relevant facts and data in
order to determine whether to utilize either
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The Importance Of Animal Testing In Scientific Research
Animals have played an important role alongside humans for a long time, whether it be as our
cuddling companions, humble servants, or amusing entertainers; however, the fellow fauna
inhabitants of earth have had a more crucial hand in the advancement of humanity then one might
think. About every medical advancement in the past one hundred years came about by animal testing
("Forty Reasons"). People are very dependent upon the research and the experiments done on
animals netherless some want to ban testing on animals. Animals should be used in scientific
research because the research saves lives, the researchers care for the animals, and the research is
properly regulated.
What about the poor animals? Normal people do not want to deliberately hurt animals on a regular
basis and neither do those studying the creatures. The poor care of animals in experiments would
result in "unreliable research data"("Animal Testing"). If researchers caused animals stress and place
them in unsuitable habitats, then this would skew the results of their experiment. Scientists want to
eliminate variables in experiments, consequently fickle data because inadequate control of the
environment, would be counterproductive. This is why scientists take good care of their test subjects
and do not cause unnecessary suffering. Additionally, 95% of experiments are done on mice and rats
bred for research. Experiments are not done using stray animals or pets because scientists need to be
able to control
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Analysis Of Kuhn 's Book On Scientific Research
Kuhn's book on Scientific Research offers a widen view on how the research and approach on
different paradigms varies from one scientist approach to another. It is important to acknowledge
that effective research begins even before the scientific community has acquired answers to most
delicate questions like the: composure of universe, interaction of fundamental entities of this
creation, questions that might be asked and techniques employed to seek answers and solutions to
these questions.
He goes back to the classics of science such as the writings of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Galileo, Newton
etc., where most of the early eighteenth and nineteenth century science had based their research.
That consisted as a ground of intensifying the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Although both of them are scientist, here we are confronted with the thought that we as human
beings have our own ideas and we develop them within a circle of people that share the same
thoughts as us. We limit ourselves to other assumptions and ideas and when faced with these ideas
we are restricted to our knowledge to accept an opinion which is different from our own. Usually we
are open to interpret the world around us the way we see it which offers a conform for us and our
surroundings.
Another point that the book addresses best is the observance of existing paradigms from scientists.
Kuhn calls these as anomalies, and when they build up to validate one another, a new paradigm will
emerge and the old paradigm bursts. These shifts are mostly known as scientific revolutions, which
help us realize that the surroundings around us are different from what we are used to. For example,
X–Rays were discovered by mistake, attesting that from an anomaly we came to discover new
valuable apparatus that are necessary to the human beings nowadays, this discovery put scientists to
work and understand how X–Rays could be used.
The author explains that these anomalies help us understand new theories and adapt to them, but one
things that he emphasizes mostly in this book is the
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Scientific Revolution Research Paper
The Scientific Revolution
Have you ever thought when the humanity stepped into a new era of its history? It happened during
The Scientific Revolution when humans' views on nature and the world were drastically transformed
with the help of discoveries in the field of physics, science, mathematics chemistry, biology, and
astronomy. That period of the history was very important for humanity because of the collapse of the
ancient–medieval picture of the world, new scientific discoveries and the interaction between
science and other social institutions.
The biggest achievement in the Scientific Revolution was the collapse of the ancient–medieval
picture of the world. The new ideology was created, which helped to create the modern science. In
antiquity, the focus was on natural and cosmic life; during the Renaissance, there was a focus on
understanding the world through Humanism and the role of the person in the world. After all,
Descartes's philosophy, which was the foundations of the scientific method, did not deny the
creation of the world by God. However, it claimed that from that moment the world began to
develop with its internal laws. The next contributions to science were new scientific inventions.
Humans' views on nature were radically changed with the help of discoveries in the field of
mathematics, science, physics, and astronomy.The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
On the whole, the Scientific Revolution consisted of internal and external factors, which interacted
with each other. The interaction between science and other social institutions was among the
external factors. Furthermore, that interaction influenced on the reassessment of people's values and
ideals in culture. In addition, the changes in the social structures happened, which led a
fundamentally new people's needs appear. People started thinking deeper about values in economic,
religion, politics, spirit, and
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The Importance Of Animal Testing In Scientific Research...
Humans are animals. In a behavioral and emotional aspect, these two species share the same
characteristics. But, what makes humans differ from the rest of the animal kingdom is the ability to
think critically, morally and act rationally. As time goes on, humans are becoming more intelligent
than before. Because of their curiosity, during the ancient greeks humans began to conduct
experiments on animals so that they can learn more about their body and other species. Even till
nowadays, there's scientific research that involves animals. However, are these research still
necessary for the advancement of science for human beings? Should animal experimentation still be
allowed in scientific studies? My stand on this debatable topic is no. Animal experimentation should
not be allowed because it is inapplicable, inhumane, and there's better alternative.
The definition of animal experimentation is about scientists manipulating variables to observe
behavioral or biological changes on nonhuman animals in order to conclude an outcome that can
possibly help the advancement of knowledge for human beings which is known as animal testing.
Nowadays, almost every product such as cosmetics products, household cleaning products and
medication etc. that we use in daily life has been tested on animals before being introduced into the
market. Without a doubt, we as humans did learn a lots of information about other species and our
own through animal testing. However, according to Noah Berlatsky,
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Scientific Vitality Research Paper
The pursuit of Scientific Vitality is one that can only be characterized by the innate quality of human
curiosity. Ranging from the azure color of the sky to the sounds of firetrucks, the moment we enter
this world, our mind is constantly flooded with information, many of which we do not fully
understand. I had always accredited myself of my curious nature. Even a simple trip to Costco
presented to me an opportunity to question close to everything in existence. What made 4K
televisions so mesmerizing as they repeatedly played the same mountainous scenery in an
inexhaustible cycle of crisp cinematography? What biological miracle had constructed the heavenly
dust glistening on the churros of the food court? Why did the paltry amount of free samples
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Understanding The Components Of Scientific Research
Understanding the components of scientific research assists in being able to read scientific research
documents correctly, evaluate the methods that are used, and decide whether the conclusions
reached are rational. Exploratory research involves many things, in particular, case studies and the
psychobiography, content analysis, and archival research. Research, in itself, can seem to be an
elusive form of representation. These components to proper research will be further explained.
One part of the exploratory research process is that of a case study. The definition of what makes up
a case study is really dependent on the particular textual definition or even, upon the researcher.
Depending on the type of text one reads, the definition of what constitutes a case study can differ.
One definition would be that a case study is a concentrated focus on a specific topic (Trochim, &
Donnelly, 2008). Freud, the original developer of the case study, used them as his foundational
belief of psychoanalysis. Whereas Piaget used the case study as a way to study how children
progressed over time. Another is that it is a method of observation in which you focus on a person,
group or entity (Cozby, 2012).
Case studies are typically used when a person, group or entity holds a rare or unusual quality or
circumstance that is considered significant. For instance, the article "Adolescents and
'Autographics': Reading and Writing Coming–of–Age Graphic Novels" (Hughes et al., 2011)
presents a case
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James Watson Impact On Scientific Research
Science has changed the world around us. Whether the discovery was for the benefit of medicine or
agricultural each scientist has made some kind of impact on scientific research. These discoveries
and answers can make either a small or large impact but most importantly, it evolves the study
science in some way. Scientists devote their lives to their research and studies to discover the
unknown mysteries of the world. The famous duo scientists Francis Crick and James Watson who
both discovered the double stranded helix some centuries ago discovered the greatest impact on
science in the biology and field.
The early life of James Dewey Watson was a long road before he met Francis Crick and changed
alpha structure of DNA. James Dewey Watson was ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Watson and Crick both met in 1951 at Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge. There
they both worked together and found their similar interest in DNA. It was said in an article Watson
and Crick used the research of Johann Friedrich Miescher who discovered the DNA molecule itself
(Dham). They also included research from Erwin Chargaff who discovered that DNA consisted of
bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine (Wade). Those bases fit together like a puzzle piece
and they fit in the DNA like steps on a ladder. Levene's polynucleotide model was also used in the
research of the structure of DNA (Pray). By using the crucially important X–ray crystallography
work by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, the came up with the three–dimensional structure
(Mcelheny 41). The crystallography revealed the spiral boarder of the DNA ladder. Watson and
Crick used their research put together puzzles of each research and came up with the correct double
helix structure for DNA (Puri). Watson and Crick used cardboard cutouts representing the individual
chemical components of adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine and other subunits. Watson and
Crick shifted molecules around to figure out the puzzle. They both decided to make new cardboard
cutouts to different atomic configuration of the bases to see if it would make a difference and it did
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Scientific Revolution And Enlightenment Research Paper
The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment were times of new ideas and imagination. The
Scientific Revolution lasted from 1543 to roughly 1700 while the Enlightenment period lasted from
around 1685 to about 1815. Throughout this time, astronomers, physicists, mathematicians, and
philosophers dominated the thinking about science and life. Their ideas gave influence to modern
thinkers and their impact helps with today's new ideas and developments.
The Scientific Revolution sparked from the Renaissance and the "medieval view of the universe"
(231) that previously governed the views of the people. Three key people in the Scientific
Revolution were Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler. Nicolaus Copernicus
was "a Polish astronomer"(233) ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
A few examples of Enlightenment thinkers, also known as, philosophes, are Sir Francis Bacon, René
Descartes, Jean Jacques Rousseau and Montesquieu. Sir Francis Bacon developed the Inductive
Method, which "regarded sense data as the foundation of knowledge"(238). The Inductive Method,
or the Scientific Method which is defined as "careful observation of nature and the systematic
accumulation of data, drawing general laws from the knowledge of particulars, and testing these
laws through constant experimentation"(238). Bacon's ways of thinking helped René Descartes, who
later became known as "the founder of modern philosophy"(238) develop the Deductive Method.
Descartes applied "mathematical reasoning to philosophical problems" so that he would achieve the
same certainty as geometry(238). Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote The Social Contract which discussed
political freedom that later impacted America's Founding Fathers. Montesquieu wrote about how,
"the study of political and social behavior ...must be undertaken in relation to geographic, economic
and historic conditions"(246). Montesquieu's ideas make him a "forerunner of modern sociology"
(246). HIs work helped show the limits of absolute monarchy. Many modern sociologists base their
work on ideas that Montesquieu. America also used his thoughts on separation of powers, individual
liberty and religious
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The Importance Of Stupidity In Scientific Research By...
The article of Martin A. Schwartz entitled "The Importance of Stupidity in Scientific Research" is
really an interesting and honest essay. Nowadays, whenever people encounter the term "stupidity"
from someone, we always equate it with something negative but as I read this article, I came into a
realization that it also has a positive side of feeling or being called stupid. This article has a good
argument which focuses on its main point that it is normal to have the feeling of stupidity whenever
we do a research on something. It is the way of logical research to be totally new, something that
investigates an area that nobody has possessed the capacity to investigate earlier. Furthermore, in
that capacity, it makes you feel stupid when you were ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Likewise, difficulty in making a significant research is naturally experienced by a researcher. As we
all know, it is difficult to do great research, and it is really difficult to do the sort of research that
truly matters. This is on the grounds that exploration characteristically requires moving into the
obscure. It is like asking questions such as "Is the topic right? Are the techniques systematic? Does
the test configuration truly answer the question?" Nevertheless, we will only be able to know all the
answers in these questions after we are able to get the result because it determines the success of the
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For Me, Scientific Research Was Like A Drug. The More I
For me, scientific research was like a drug. The more I immersed myself in it, the more my mind
wanted it. Before I knew it, I was an addict. But, instead of experiencing the negative side effects
that coincide with substance abuse, research has been a long–lasting positive journey of discovering
who I am and how the world around me functions. Being a first–generation college student, the
pressure for pursuing a career in medicine was high. Despite my passion for biology and science in
general, I knew early on that becoming a medical doctor was never an option for me because I
lacked the passion for that career path. Luckily, I was fortunate enough to stumble into thrilling
research experiences that, over time, ignited to everlasting ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
My research project used forward genetic approach to generate fusion–defective mutants. Although
UV radiation has been used as a method for generating mutants in Chlamydomonas, we utilized
random insertion using a linearized plasmid with an antibiotic cassette. The advantage of using this
approach is that, unlike UV–generated mutagenesis, this method could allow for the use of
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques to find the insertion site and locate the gene, which
when disturbed by the cassette, was responsible for the phenotype of interest. In my case, because I
was interested in finding the genes responsible for gamete fusion, I was focused on finding mutants
that could not mate.
There were many obstacles that I had to overcome while working on this project. To begin with,
transforming Chlamydomonas using the glass–beads method was not efficient. To overcome that,
multiple transformations were performed to accommodate for the low efficiency. However, later on,
a collaboration effort with another lab was accomplished, improving the transformation efficiency of
Chlamydomonas through electroporation. Moreover, because insertions were random, large
populations of mutants that were generated either bore insertions in sequences, such as intergenic
regions, that did not contribute significantly to the function of any gene, or generated undesirable
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Scientific Research Article Review : Building Better...
Armand, Michel, and J–M. Tarascon. "Building Better Batteries." Nature, vol. 451, no. 7179,
(2008): 652–657. This article discusses how researchers must find a sustainable way of providing
better batteries to match modern lifestyle changes in our present day. The main claim in this article
is that researchers need to build a new battery and it must focus on being cheap and safe. This first
reason they provide is lithium ion batteries need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Through
research, they found out lithium ion batteries are not the best option for electric cars. They provide
another reason, through scientific lab experiments, that alternatives to the lithium battery need to be
explored. Through these lab experiments, the metals ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
With this article, I plan to provide solutions for making the battery better by car industries and
government funding further research. This source works in conjunction with my other source, "How
Improved Batteries Will Make Electric Car Vehicles Competitive", and provides similar reasons as
to why the electric car battery needs to be improved. I plan to find more articles on ways to promote
future research towards batteries. Brand, Stephan, et al. "Hybrid and Electric Low–Noise Cars
Cause an Increase in Traffic Accidents Involving Vulnerable Road Users in Urban Areas."
International Journal of Injury Control & Safety Promotion, vol. 20, no. 4, Dec. 2013, pp. 339–341.
EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/17457300.2012.733714. This article discusses how electric and hybrid
cars cause an increase in the amount of traffic accidents in urban areas. The main claim is that if
more hybrid and electrics are produced, the more traffic accidents will occur. To make this
argument, they provided two reasons. The first reason is cars with engines that produce no sound
leads to more accidents. To support this reason, they found out through car testing that sound
coming from the engine is produced when cars travel at high speeds. These sounds serve as warning
signals to those who are crossing the street, like pedestrians and bicyclists. The second reason is that
older people and children are endangered. To support this reason, they provided data and surveys
with
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Phenomenology: Scientific Method and Research
Phenomenology as Research Method by Beverley Campbell,
Victoria University of Technology
Outline of the paper
This paper is an account, the interweaving, of the narrative of the writing of my own thesis using a
phenomenological approach, with my developing interest in phenomenology as research method.
My study of personal transformation provides the context for these reflections on phenomenology as
research method. I have spoken in other forums about the content of the research; in this paper I
want to do something different. The focus for this paper is on the possibilities and dilemmas for
higher degree studies encountered as I learnt to use a phenomenological approach. Firstly I will give
a brief account of the study and then ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The naming of these seven metaphors in turn provided a lens through which to interpret the
frameworks or metaphors for literacy which were predominant in the thinking of Bill, as the student
and Nancy, as the tutor. Another way I used metaphor was to frame the whole thesis in terms of the
dominant metaphor life as narrative. There is a body of literature which works from and extends this
metaphor (Epston & White 1989, Salmon 1985). Finally metaphor was used as an analytical tool in
the interpretive process to help identify seven metaphors and several other major themes arising
from Bills narrative and the interview texts which were analyzed at length. It is not the purpose of
this paper to outline either the metaphors in the literature or the metaphors for change which were
identified.
Paradigm shifts
Any exploration of phenomenology as research method needs to be set in a wider context of
research and what Kuhn (1970) calls a paradigm shift. The research paradigm shift is only part of a
larger paradigmatic shift which is taking place in the Western World in the late twentieth century.
The move from modernity to post–modernity, from nationalism to globalization, from cultural
supremacy of one group over others to the concept of multi–culturalism and the acknowledgment of
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Evaluation Of A Research Topic Using Various Scientific...
Reflection: Action Research There are many ways to approach on solving a research topic using
various scientific methods. Research methods are mainly use in decision making that guide the
researchers to develop and test out their hypothesis to their study. Action research is a type of
applied research that uses systemic approach to evaluate and observe countless solutions to a
problem. Action research is most likely to be used in educational setting, where educators to find
and use applicable information to solve and improve an issue in a collaborative setting (Creswell,
2005). Action research is unique since it can be done in collaboration with educators with similar
goal and mind set. Action research uses mixed method study where it includes both qualitative and
quantitative data. The usage of systemic approach along with scientific method it enables
researchers to gather unbiased information during data gather and decision making.
Action research is unlike most research method where it conducted in spiraling cycle. Action
research study is done in four different stages; planning, acting, developing and reflecting. This
method is done in a cyclical process unlike most linear studies. This method allows researchers to
evaluate, observe and reflect that data until a plan is developed with an achievable goal that they
have in place ( Mertler 2006). There are two types of action research design a practical one and a
participatory one. A practical action research
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Qualitative Research On Scientific Merit Essay

  • 1. Qualitative Research On Scientific Merit Essay Qualitative: Scientific Merit Consequently, qualitative research approach emerges from the philosophical belief that truth is socially constructed and subjective to individual experiences associated with critical theory, constructivism, interpretatism, and naturalistic paradigms (Feilzer, 2010; Ponterotto, 2010; Ryan, Coughlan, & Cronin, 2007; Scotland, 2012; Venkatesh, Brown, & Bala, 2013; Vishnevsky & Beanlands, 2004). Paradigms are the philosophical underpinning that guides qualitative research methodology as result evaluating scientific merit slightly differs from the quantitative methodology. As a result, the scientific merit of qualitative lies in the credibility (trustworthiness), dependability (consistency), transferability (applicability), and comfirmability (verification/neutrality) of the data to answer the research question (Ellis & Levy, 2009; Horsburgh, 2002; Ponterotto, 2010; Ryan, Coughlan, & Cronin, 2007; Vishnevsky & Beanlands, 2004). Qualitative research ability to advance the knowledge and contribute and/or develop to theory comes in credibility through clarifying researchers ' role in the study; purpose/significance of the study; thick and rich descriptions and/or narratives; multiple data sources; audit trail such as member–checking and peer evaluations; research methods; and truthfulness/robustness of finding (Ellis & Levy, 2009; Horsburgh, 2002; Ponterotto, 2010; Ryan, Coughlan, & Cronin, 2007; Vishnevsky & Beanlands, 2004). Transferability ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. Scientific Research: What Is Scientific Research? What is Scientific Research? Scientific research has been define in many ways based on different point of view of some researchers/ philosophers. However, the term research can be understand as a study to learn or gain new thing or information. According to Cambridge Dictionaries Online, scientific research is defined as a detailed study of a subject, especially in order to discover (new) information or reach a (new) understanding. Furthermore, Macmillan Publishers define scientific research as the detailed study of something to discover new facts, especially in a university or scientific institution. Research is a process of acknowledge and also as a learning process in presenting new information based on the study that has been done recently. Research also is the action of making a rigorous and relevant contribution to knowledge. It can be explained by understanding of a cause and effect relationship of a given phenomenon or uncovering a new phenomenon. Based on other researcher ( Emery&Cooper) scientific research organized inquiry to provide information for the solution to a problem. Thus, a careful and systematic investigation in some field of knowledge, undertaken to establish facts or principles in order to provide a solution ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The most important role played by Bacon was in two points which he emphasized on experimental method and its role in scientific discovery, and he also emphasized on role of science in development of society. In addition, he introduced science as enterprise of State, where the idea becomes central in the modern communities. The idea that organized inquiry of knowledge is needed for human progressive have been the main source of inspiration for scientific research in western world. Francis Bacon, who considered as the master mind of scientific science proposed that in order to dominate Nature, we must learn how it ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. The Scientific Methods Of Research Inquiry The five scientific methods which include the question, hypotheses, experimentation, data analysis and conclusion are critical to a scientist because they enable them to have a credible data and conclusion on their research. It is realized that the usage of this methods are advantageous to anybody including business people, for as long as one follows the steps they will be sure of getting a credible outcome at the end of the day. I would emphasize that people should employ this method a lot because they ensure that one analyzes their hypotheses by experimenting it then finally analyzing and concluding it thus preventing falsified data. However, it should be stated that an invalid theory is not a bad thing since it enables the researcher ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Therefore, it requires some testing to ensure that it is not false but is real. Here, the hypotheses might be the answer to your question or why your guess may be precise. Therefore, the scientists will clearly state their expectations during an experiment, make an educated guess that might be the accurate answer to the questions or the observations. It is true to say that it guides the experiment and must be testable. Experimentation The test simply verifies the validity of the hypotheses. Therefore, it is important to calibrate and design an experiment that measures only one thing a time; this s to enable the scientists to know the exact result of a particular thing. The scientists usually use two types of variables: the independent variable which can be changed and the dependent variable which is observed when the independent variable is changed to make the correct analysis (Tutor, 2017). The variables are used to determine and show how dependent variables were affected by the independent variables. Moreover, the use of control enables the researcher to be aware of the happenings that occur when no changes are made. The most important aspect of this method is ensuring that the experiment was done should be repeated severally and should give the same results because if it does not, the research is considered invalid. Through experimentations, data is collected before, during and after an investigation by scientists. Analysis During the completion ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. The Impact Of Scientific Research On The Development And... 1. While trying to define what research really is, it proves itself to be a very broad and open concept (Shuttleworth, 2008). Shuttleworth (2008) says, "...the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge." (p. 1). Things like reading books, surfing the web, and watching the news are all forms of research (Shuttleworth, 2008). On the other hand, the scientific definition for research is more planned and concise (Shuttleworth, 2008). Research within science involves solving and or answering a specific problem (Shuttleworth, 2008). 2. Social and scientific research is important in the development and advancement of society (University). In scientific research, the experiment and variables are more controlled and systematically tested where as social research is dynamic and harder to control variables (University). Scientific research involves solving and or answering a specific problem in some systematic way, the scientific method (Shuttleworth, 2008). 3. Applied and basic research does have key differences (Stanovich, 2007). In applied research is to find a specific answer to a specific answer (Stanovich, 2007). Basic research adheres to its own name focuses on "basic" principles and theories (Stanovich, 2007). Both of these research methods are similar within the aspect of their long time goal (Stanovich, 2007). Basic and applied research has proved to create important breakthroughs within science ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Scientific Research On The Criminal Justice Arena Scientific research in the criminal justice arena serves various purposes and has different points. There are five points to scientific research. The five points of scientific research that will be discussed in this paper are question, hypothesis, experimentation, data analysis, and conclusion. Research can provide useful and exciting insights into community problems and how police agencies operate. It can reveal potentially useful programs and strategies for dealing with problems. It can show which programs are successful and which are not. It can suggest new strategies to deal with old issues. It can provide information needed to improve existing programs. And it can inform the public and elected officials. (Vito, Tewksbury, & Kunselman ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... A hypothesis is often defined as an educated guess because it is almost always informed by what you already know about the topic (Harris, 2008). A hypothesis always consists of variables, or groupings of specific attributes of what you are looking to solve. There are dependent and independent variables within a hypothesis, or in layman terms, cause and effect. In short, the independent variable is the cause and the dependent variable is the effect (Maxfield, Michael, & Babbie 2008). For example, in the above paragraph we questioned the effect of the lack of law enforcement training on unlawful arrests, so from this question we can create a hypothesis. A good hypothesis on this would be; Police officers that lack proper training are more likely to unlawfully arrest a citizen than a police officer who does not lack proper training. In this hypothesis, the independent variable or cause is the lack of police officer training while the dependent variable or effect is the possibility of it leading to unlawful arrests. Once the hypothesis has been formed, experimentation can begin. Experimentation is the third step in the scientific research process. The experiment is designed to test the generated hypothesis and either supports or refutes it. The experiment takes the independent and dependent variables and tests them by manipulating the independent variable. As the independent variable is manipulated, the dependent variable is measured (Harris, 2008). In the training ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. Mock Scientific Research Paper Mock Scientific Research Paper: The Effect of an Experimental Drug on Numbers of Mice Offspring Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of an experimental drug on the number of offspring a mother mouse has. The question asked was: "Does the experimental drug affect the number of the offspring a mouse has?" The hypothesis was: "If the experimental drug is given to mother mice, then the number of offspring in their litters will change because of the chemicals in the drugs." Methods First, the experimental group of ten mice is given the drug (Group A), and the control group of another ten mice is not (Group B). Next, both groups are impregnated and have their litters of mice. Lastly, The numbers of mice in the litters ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. Kuhn's Efficacy In Scientific Research In his paper, Kuhn discusses how measurement has functioned in physical science, normal and crisis state, and what the source of its special efficacy has been. Here a measurement always produces an actual number. Our image of physical science is determined by science texts. The representation of scientific measurement in these books is often misleading. Results of measurements are often displayed in tables. These measurements seem to have the function to confirm the theory. However, providing evidence is not their objective. The authority of the scientists is enough to convince people of the theory. Another function of measurement is that of exploration. We believe that we can derive laws and theories from results of measurements. Results of measurements owe their special efficacy to this believe. However, this believe is based on a myth. Tables are included in scientific texts to establish what the author means by reasonable agreement between theory and measurement. Although science texts sketch a different image, just a small fraction of measurements, in normal and abnormal science, are motivated by a desire to confirm an ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The results of these measurements are presented in textbooks as facts to which the scientist must make his theory fit. However, in scientific practice the roles are reversed: theory leads measurement. Without a theory, no conclusions can be drawn from the results of measurements. Furthermore, theory plays a role in reducing scatter in the results of measurements or in testing the reliability of existing instruments or manipulative techniques. Finally, theory and experiment can also guide each other in areas new to both. Although measurements are led by theory, measurements are necessary because they can create consensus among scientists. Even if there is a substantial amount of theory, science cannot survive on guesses based on ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. Explain How Scientific Method And How It Relates To Human... Scientific method and how it relate to human services research. Scientific method refers to a method investigation and study used by researchers to identify a problem or a situation, observe associated variables, and gather necessary data needed to reach conclusions about the problem. The scientific researchers apply the scientific method to investigate cause and effect relationships (Anastas, 2012). The scientific method is based on measurable and empirical evidence subject to certain principles of reasoning. Human services research utilizes the scientific method as they try to explain how changes take place in human beings throughout their life. The aim of human services research is to explain, describe, and predict various changes that occur throughout an individual's lifespan. The Scientific method relates to human services ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The methods can help in obtaining data towards findings solutions to the problem of poor housing facilities. Quantitative research can be used to give an insight on whether an intervention influences an outcome of an organization. The quantitative research can be used in understanding the general experiences of various people to develop a theory (Singh, 2006). Mixed method research It involves the use of both qualitative and quantitative research while conducting a scientific study. The combination of the two research methods provides a superior understanding of a situation or a research problem. A mixed methodology is generally the process of collecting, examining, and combining both qualitative and quantitative information obtained in a single study or in multiple series of scientific research. The example of research on poor housing facilities in a community can involve the combination of the methods of research I human services field (Cozby et al., 1989). Summary of how scientifically sound research can help support the function of human ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. The Scientific Importance With Human Sexuality Research 1.) What is the scientific method? Explain its importance with human sexuality research: The scientific method is research of assumptions, scientifically to see if they are true or false. It is important in human sexuality research because first, people might be afraid to be honest about answers if they think that they're being judged. Sex is a very interesting topic, but people often think they're being judged and it is hard to open up. There are two scientific goals of sexology: understanding and predicting behavior. (pp.30). The scientific method is important research because it is free from bias. The scientific method is more based on facts, rather than opinions. 2.) Review the various research techniques (i.e. experimental research, surveys, case studies, and participant–observer research) found in Chapter Two. Scenario––– If you were going to conduct research on the sexual activity of suburban teens, which two (2) techniques do you feel would be most successful and why?: I think the first method that I would use would be a survey. A survey is :Data pertaining to sexual attitudes and behaviors derived from relatively large groups of people by means of questionnaires or interview.(pp.32). There are many ways you can do a survey, for example, it can be done by; paper pencil, telephone, computerized or face to face interviews. I think that this would be successful because if the survey is anonymous, they will feel more comfortable answering. I also think this would be the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 19. Evaluation Of Scientific Research Methods Essay EVALUATION OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHODS St. Cloud State University Abstract This term paper evaluates the formats of different type of research papers available today. The additional knowledge for the comparison have been gained from the textbook Research Methodology: A Step–by–step Guide for Beginners – Fourth Edition (2014) with the available types of research papers and research methodologies. This paper includes the types of research paper and presents the appropriate suggestion. The paper will help the faculty member of Information Assurance to improve the format of available research paper format. This term paper will also add to the available knowledge base of MSIA community. Introduction This paper summarizes the types of research papers used widely in the science world. These papers can be categorized into Qualitative, Quantitative, Statistical and Experimental researchers. The scientific research paper different from other research paper as they involve more numeric calculation and hence statistical and experimental research method are widely popular. In this paper, we will discuss how different research methodologies are incorporated to write the research papers for scientific work. SETTING OBJECTIVE The first and most important step in the research study is the formulation of a research problem. A clear statements of research problem will help to develop an effective research. The main purpose of formulating a research ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 21. Should the Animals Be Used for Scientific Research? Abstract This research paper discusses the opposition side of my chosen topic "Should the animals be used for scientific research". It will evidently elucidate why it is malicious for the animals to be used as scientific research. Animals cannot be compared to humans when it comes to finding out what product or drug is competent for human to use, because animals and humans have different hormones. It is also been proven with the drug thalidomide, that even though it has been tested on thousands of animals it was not a good alternative for human choose. Should the animals be used for scientific research? According to American Anti–Vivisection Society 100 million animals are used every year in the United States as models in biological ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Animals react differently than humans to many substances, rendering many tests pointless. Some drugs have had to be withdrawn, despite testing, so therefore I honestly don't think animal testing is relevant. Instead of using these poor animals for researches, scientist and researchers should use computer model, syntactic skin and leaves as a better alternative. According to Natasha Bantwal, one of the most famous examples when it comes to danger of animals experimentation would have to be the thalidomide tragedy of the 60's and 70's (Bantwal 2010). I did a little research on the drug thalidomide, and found out that it was tested on thousands, and thousands of animals and was to be an a amazing sedative for breastfeeding and will allegedly caused no harm to either the mother nor the child, but come to find out thousands of children whose mothers had used thalidomide were born with severe deformities. Another good example of the dangers of animal testing is Clioquinol, which was also supposed to be safely tested on animals and later on had a severely adverse impact on humans. Manufactures in the 70's in Japan, it was marketed as a wonder drug for providing relief from diarrhea. Not only did it not work on humans, but it even cause diarrhea in them! As a result of this drug being administered to the public, thousands of cases of paralysis and blindness and thousands of death cases occurred all over. The main ethical argument against animal ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 23. The Theories Of A Scientific Research It comes in no surprise that only those theories which make accurate predictions as well as fitting the empirical data count as being adequate and deemed 'good' science. In relation to the confusion associated with the unobservable mechanisms, anti–realist offer the view that just because the concepts of observable and unobservable are vague, it does not automatically mean they are not useful or false (Okasha 2002). The dependence of observation in proposing theory makes it hard and sometimes even impossible to come up conclusively falsify theories all the time. Not to mention that observable and unobservable mechanisms are not that difference after all (Okasha 2002). Correspondingly, as long as they are able to clarify and explain phenomena, all we need to do is to choose the best available. Once we have a theory in hand, as a result, we should have certain ability to predict the future, which is one of the key motivations for performing scientific research. Model is one of the most popular methods adopted by researchers to predict the future. The models of animal flocking behaviour, San Fransisco Bay model, and climate model are just few of the models which are regularly used to represent and explain the world in a simplified and mathematical way (Smith 2008; Weisberg 2013). Due to its countless applicable properties, the use of models is not limited to science only. After all, there are numerous advantages including the reduction in costs, the ability to examine effect of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 25. Work: Scientific Method and Exploratory Research Analytical research is a type of research that utilises critical thinking to find out facts about a given topic and from the answers obtained develop new and useful ways of doing things. Critical thinking is a method of thinking that puts assumptions into question to decide whether a given claim is true or false. When writing an analytical research paper, you must perform a variety of tasks beforehand. The first step is to formulate a thesis and then gather your sources that will be used. The sources should then be evaluated for accuracy. Everything should then be meticulously documented. There are many topics that can be used for this purpose. The list includes animal rights, minimum wage, vaccines, climate change, immigration, obesity, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Argumentative topics Abortion – is it the best method for unwanted pregnancies. Plastic surgery – is it really necessary? And is it safe? Smoking Should be Banned The internet – the best thing since the invention of the television. Breast feeding should be a must for the first 6 months of a child. Should artistes be given special government subsidies? Gambling should be legal the world over. Is domestic violence increasing or is it all in the mind of the supposed victims? Animal experimentation should be legalized. Is finger print checking at airports of certain nationalities a human rights violation? Human cloning – Do we want a duplicate? * Should we do more to deal with the problem of domestic violence, or is the problem exaggerated? * We are becoming overwhelmingly dependent on computers. Is this dependence on computers a good thing or should we be more suspicious of their benefits? * Is there too much of commercialism in the Internet? * Technology makes communication easier in today 's world. Many people choose to work at home in front of a computer screen. What danger does the society face depending on computer screens rather than face–to–face contact as the main means of communication? Are we the prisoners of the progress? * Should the animals be used for scientific research? Is it humanly? * Should the cigarettes ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 27. Critical Thinking Vs Scientific Research Scientific Method & Critical Thinking Paper Consider a world where no one asked questions and no one did any research: how would we be able to figure out new information without these key components? With critical thinking and scientific research we get some of the answers of certain phenomenon. According to King, critical thinking is "the process of thinking deeply and actively, asking questions, and evaluating the evidence." (2013, p. 3). While scientific method is "how psychologists gain knowledge about mind and behavior." (2013, p.13). Though these two terms have different definitions they are both needed to find our new evidence about science. In order to go through the scientific method you need have critical thinking to understand what ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Psychologists use five steps of research to use scientific method: observations, hypotheses, test the hypotheses, making a conclusion, and analyzing conclusion. In order to understand scientific method better I will go through each step with examples from the American Journal of Public Health. First we start off with observation, which involves critical thinking. The curious researchers notice alcohol ads and wonder if the rise in the ads affects the public. Second the researchers form a hypothesis; in this case they believe that "alcohol advertising influences underage drinking." (2010, p. 555). Third we begin to test whether or not there is a correlation between alcohol ads and underage drinking, which in this study they obtained television viewership data from Nielsen Media Research (NMR) for each alcohol ad appearing on a national cable net– work from 2001 to 2006 to get information on their topic (2010, p. 556). Fourth is drawing of a conclusion, researchers will look at the data they have collected. For this study almost all alcohol ads appeared in time slots with audiences made up of 30% or fewer underage viewers (2010, p. 558). Last we evaluate the conclusions, which according to King "never ends." (2013, p. 16). This is the most important since it determines what all the data collected from the research actually means ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 29. Scientific Ethics And Scientific Research Scientific research is a broad range of activities undertaken in systematic ways to advance knowledge and understandings. It benefits society based on the expectation that researches are conducted honestly, accurately and fairly. According to the conventional view, scientific research is a highly logical process, conducted objectively by scientists, inspected by peer scrutiny. However, it is not unusual that researchers fail to fulfill the expectation, which will be considered as scientific misconduct. Currently, scientific misconduct is defined as "fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results". 1. Fabrication, sometimes referred as "dry labbing", is an intentional behavior to make up results for experiments that never occurs, which considered as highly unethical. 2. Falsification is defined as publishing misleading facts of experimentations or results, researchers wilfully distort results to support hypothesis. 3. Plagiarism is often referred to pass other person's ideas, results or words without giving appropriate credit. These misconducts have significant effects. They will waste money and other resources, might even pose potential risk to human health. In recent scandals such as Haruko Obokata's falsified results in STAP cells and Jan Hendrik Schön's fabricated results in semiconductors, misconducts are not only debarred those scientists, also damaged the pristine image of science and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 31. Positionality: Scientific Method and Research [pic] [pic] In Partnership with University of Wales, Lampeter A Critical Review of My Positionality and Its Impact On The Research I Undertake Business Research Methods MBA2010–L–A1 Submitted By: – Suraj Rai Student ID: – 072078 – 77 University ID: – 27003380 Abstract In this paper I have tried to explain the concept of positionality and its various parameters like emic and etic, positivist, interpretivist, empiricist and rationalist, constructivist and reductionist. Then, I tried to analyze my positionality on the basis of these points and how these will effect on the research that I select and the methodologies that I choose. Society in which I grew up, religion, beliefs, norms and values that I accepted, race, language, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In other words, who I am determines, to a large extent, what I want to study.' I am, as a researcher, a product of who I am as a person, and who I am as a person is a result of my race, class, gender, and sexuality. I am the researcher I am because I have experienced life in a certain manner. Additionally, what I believe about research cannot be separated from who I am (Harding, 1987). Mehra (2002) explains further –'A researcher's personal beliefs and values are reflected not only in the choice of methodology and interpretation of findings, but also in the choice of a research topic. In other words, what we believe in determines what we want to study.'
  • 32. Positivism verses Interpretivism Approach: "Interpretive research begins and ends with the biography and self of the researcher." (Denzin, 1989, p.12). The positivist researcher is not affected by the subject of the research because he makes generalizations. (Saunders, 2003 p. 83). When the investigator is a positivist, he tends to use methods like experiments, surveys and field studies to generate data. In this approach, the interviewer is more likely to be an outsider which means that the investigator does not have any relation with the study group. From the other point of view, interpretivism is about opinions, views and perceptions the people experience in every day life. For example, people interpretation happens according to the situation in which they experiences; which means the way ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 34. Scientific Revolution Research Paper The Scientific Revolution was a period in 17th century Europe in which people were trying to explore the "unknowable". Scientists, philosophers, physicist, and others were trying to understand what could be measured and observable. During this time, many ideas and discoveries were made. The scientific method, physics, and alchemy were discovered. René Descarte believed that everything through formulas, they only needed to be discovered, and "invented" deductive reasoning – or using a formula to predict a phenomenon. Francis Bacon that people should be able to carefully observe and notice how things worked. He also came up with inductive reasoning – using the phenomenon to predict the formula – and the empirical method – this involved gathering ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 36. Social Scientific Research On The Human Or Social World 1. Social scientific research is pretty much based on theories. Social scientists examine relationships among phenomena in the human or social world (). Research methods of cultural theories have two types of empirical reseach. One is survey research and the other is experimental research. Survey research conducts surveys of people to find out what actions they are taking and why (). Experimental research conducts experiments to see what things influence people's actions (). There are four major schools of different types of theory that have been developed in order to do research. First is post positivist. The goal of this approach is to explain, predict and control (). Its strength is that it is ordered and it is structured. Its weakness is that it can lead to assumptions because it is shared by more than one conscioius mind (). Second, is the hermeneutic theory. The goal of this approach is to understand how and why actions happen in the world (). Its strength is that it can show things from a different perspective. Its weakness is that is can possibly be bias because people construct an image of reality based from their own prefrences and culture. Third, is critical theory. The goal of this approach is to restructure the social world to overcome the dominant social order to achieve desired values (). The strength about this is that it challenges exisiting ways and attempts to organize the social world on one fair accord. The downfall with this theory is that the lense of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 38. Scientific Method and Research Essay 1. Describe what C. Wright Mills meant by the term Sociological Imagination. C. Wright Mills believed you should take a look at oneself and compare it to the bigger picture which is "Society." Mills wanted people to view the world as an outsider looking in on the problems of the social order rather than looking into oneself for answers. Mills also believed that individuals take for granted his or her own lifestyle and what they feel should be acceptable within all of society. Belief systems vary throughout the world – however, Mills deemed that when the populace was able to take a more analytical examination, discerning from themselves, dealing with societal problems would be more beneficial to all. 2. Describe the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This methodology is comprised of trial and error as well as cause effect. The latter of the Scientific Method is a result of experience and/or observation. i. Defining the problem. What is the question or problem you need to solve? Who, what, where, when, which, why or how? ii. Review the literature. Research can be conducted by the use of external sources, i.e. Internet, books, interviews, pictures, focus groups, and historical accounts just to name a few. iii. Formulating the hypothesis. A hypothesis is an educated guess about what you are researching. A hypothesis should be put together in a manner that is helping you to answer your original question. Variables are included within a hypothesis so that the research is done fairly – these variables are usually formed to be independent, dependent and controlled. iv. Selecting the research, design, and then collecting as well as analyzing data. This means that information that is assembled must be reliable, legitimate, and have a consistent result. Taking in account what the person may be researching, a survey may be taken by asking other people a number of questions. Inquiring to how a person thinks or feels about something particularly can assist in creating charts, graphs, and quantitative (numerical) research. Qualitative research is an observation of what goes on around you within the environment. Once all research data is collected, an ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 40. Evaluation Of A Good Scientific Research A good scientific research requires explicit regularization, systemization and coordination of the process of observation, recording and analysis (Ghauri and Gronhang, 2005). Appraising research studies is important because it helps to find out if the research methods and results are valid enough to obtain important information (Fowkes and Fulton, 1991). Some criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba (1985) used to assess the trustworthiness of qualitative research are credibility, transferability and dependability. Critical evaluation of the study in Mateji et al. (2008) shows that various strategies were adopted in data collection, analysis and interpretation like triangulation and prolonged engagement to enhance the validity and quality of the study. Interviews have gradually become the main procedure for data collection associated with qualitative studies (Englander, 2012) and are believed to provide a deeper understanding of the different views, beliefs and experiences of study participants (Gill et al., 2008). Following the steps of qualitative research, two central themes were identified in the study in Mateji et al. (2008) and include negative relationship with gynecologists and curative focused treatment. Summary of key themes Establishing a set of strategies to enhance the quality of research helps researchers to effectively manage bias and reactivity so legitimizing the findings of the research (Padget, 1998). One of the strategies adopted by the authors in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 42. Scientific Revolution Research Paper This week's blog entry involves the Scientific Revolution. The Scientific Revolution would come to shape the modern understanding of science. During the time of the Scientific Revolution, the term science did not yet exist. During the revolution, the term used before science was natural philosophy. The Scientific Revolution took place within Europe during the years 1500 – 1700. Some argue that the revolution began with the man named Nicolaus Copernicus, with his theories of a sun centered universe. A heavy influence of the Scientific Revolution was the translations of the philosophers of old during the Renaissance. The theories and idea's of past philosophers would influence the thoughts and idea's of people during the Scientific Revolution. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 44. Scientific Method and Desk Research Essay Assessment activity 1 1. When conducting research on behalf of your organisation or for a client organisation, how will you determine the most appropriate data sources to use? In this case the most suitable data source will be a desk research because this information will have already been gathered, analysed and reported on by other companies. It means that you will not waste time and money doing what others before you have done. 2. Why are cross checks and cross references necessary? To ensure the information is correct. Assessment activity 2 1. What tools would you use to collect and collate data and why would you use them? 2. Why should your desk research include the collection and analysis of data relative to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Market value is based on expenditure including sales tax in these outlets; market volume is based on numbers of outlets. A Snapshot report is designed to provide instant preliminary market research. Each report provides an overview of the defined market, including market size, market forecast, segmentation, company market share along with top–line socio economic data. The data is supplied in both graphical and tabular format for ease of interpretation and analysis. There is is a mix of primary and secondary data sources. In addition each market contains an exclusive 5 year market size forecast. What's more, our team of international research analysts are always on hand to provide further assistance where required. It's a level of service you won't find anywhere else. Secondary Research All secondary data sets in both local and global languages are derived from a range of sources, from
  • 45. government statistics to trade magazines. In addition, strong relationships with different companies. . Typically an analyst use a minimum of 3 to 4 data points for each table, analysing different aspects of the market. Full transparency of source data is provided for all secondary sources. Furthermore, we need to seek written permission from the original source which is quoted in every case, reinforcing the integrity and robust nature of the data. Primary Research – Trade Interviews Once secondary ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 47. Gender Bias And The Scientific Process And Content Of... Masculine bias infiltrates the scientific process and content of research in several ways. In this paper, the focus is on masculine bias through research on gender differences in evolutionary and endocrinological science. Though somewhat outdated examples, Longino and Doell's (L&D) paper Body, Bias, and Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of Reasoning in Tow Areas of Biological Science provides a structure of analysis that can be applied to other areas of science. They analyze the role of facts, evidence, and hypothesis to identify areas vulnerable to masculine bias. L&D posit that there is a distance between the evidence and the hypothesis the evidence is to confirm. This distance is a point of entry for masculine bias. In addition, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... At the time, the earth's placement at the center of the universe was central to our uniqueness in the universe. To say that the earth was not the center of the universe would be to say that humans are not unique. This ties into the psychological issues of bias in that choosing to keep the earth at the center of the universe preserved our uniqueness and presented massive roadblocks for the heliocentric model. Tying this in to evolutionary studies, there is a wide–ranging consensus that males are largely responsible for the development of the human species. However, L&D point out that this is likely related to our patriarchal and androcentric beliefs. Last, there are logical issues that arise with theory choice. L&D explore the issue of evidence, what counts as evidence, and how evidence is applied to a hypothesis. This is a major factor in the analysis of masculine bias in evolutionary biology. Diving deeper into the analysis, L&D address facts, evidence, and hypothesis in the scientific process. This analysis presents areas where values can enter the scientific process. To start, facts are presented in terms of singular facts, general facts, simple facts, and complex facts. Our ability to describe the things, or facts, we see in the world are limited by our senses, individual nervous system, and the language used to describe our experience (Longino & Doell, 208). There is more going on than we realize either because it ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 49. The Importance of Stupidity in Scientific Research Essay 1771 The importance of stupidity in scientific research Martin A. Schwartz Department of Microbiology, UVA Health System, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA e–mail: maschwartz@virginia.edu Accepted 9 April 2008 Journal of Cell Science 121, 1771 Published by The Company of Biologists 2008 doi:10.1242/jcs.033340 I recently saw an old friend for the first time in many years. We had been Ph.D. students at the same time, both studying science, although in different areas. She later dropped out of graduate school, went to Harvard Law School and is now a senior lawyer for a major environmental organization. At some point, the conversation turned to why she had left graduate school. To my utter ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... I'm not talking about 'relative stupidity', in which the other students in the class actually read the material, think about it and ace the exam, whereas you don't. I'm also not talking about bright people who might be working in areas that don't match their talents. Science involves confronting our 'absolute stupidity'. That kind of stupidity is an existential fact, inherent in our efforts to push our way into the unknown. Preliminary and thesis exams have the right idea when the faculty committee pushes until the student starts getting the answers wrong or gives up and says, 'I don't know'. The point of the exam isn't to see if the student gets all the answers right. If they do, it's the faculty who failed the exam. The point is to identify the student's weaknesses, partly to see where they need to invest some effort and partly to see whether the student's knowledge fails at a sufficiently high level that they are ready to take on a research project. Productive stupidity means being ignorant by choice. Focusing on important questions puts us in the awkward position of being ignorant. One of the beautiful things about science is that it allows us to bumble along, getting it wrong time after time, and feel perfectly fine as long as we learn something each time. No doubt, this can be difficult for students who are accustomed to getting the answers right. No ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 51. Scientific Naturalism Research Paper Outline Chunwei.fang Capstone: Christ and his World Benjamin.Langford Spring, 2016 Scientific Naturalism Research Outline Naturalism is an idea or a faith which is "there are only natural laws run in the world. Generally, it refers to those who advocate using natural causes or natural principle to explain all phenomena of philosophy, such as European philosophy of human nature explain people's moral. Naturalism in a narrow sense formed in the United States in the 1930s. The assumption of philosophical naturalism was first published in the articles of pre–Socratic philosophers. Thales was known the founder of the science because he was the first one to give the explanations of the natural events without considering the supernatural reasons or God factors. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... While it was frequently forgotten by psychologists when they talk in research conversation. Dr. Brian reported, "There is a well–established outlook in contemporary philosophy known as naturalism, which asserts that philosophy is continuous with science and which attempts to formulate and evaluate philosophical theories by using the research findings and investigative means of the various sciences. Naturalism, in all its variety, is probably the reigning outlook in contemporary philosophy, and it is especially popular in the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mind." (Brian, 2) With the development of technology, people gradually realized what methodology is. They are willing to use it to understand this world or solve some life's issues. After the World War II, humans faced a lot of reality problems. Society economy needs to development, but there is any supernatural way to help humans. Using past experiences to find a solution is the only ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52.
  • 53. The Impact Of Scientific Research On Academic Research Introduction As research student, there is tremendous gratefulness for the tremendous amount of information I have been introduced to concerning academic research. Often, as an academic student; I have considered research as merely a discipline consisting of gathering facts, opinions, including, definitive terms concerning a particular topic of study, moreover, with presentation of those facts to a professor. In addition, it is appreciative how scientific research contributes to academia, including, a large existing body of knowledge prevalent within constraints of psychological, sociological, in addition to, other fields of social science. Most important, both quantitative and qualitative research methods are fundamental towards fulfillment of voids; or perhaps, gaps of unknown phenomena from a vast existent body of knowledge. For example, "research is a systematic process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information (Leedy & Ormrod, 2013, p. 2). For example, research does not consist of merely locating information pertaining to a topic presented within an argumentative stance based entirely on theories derived from various sources without substantiated evidence utilized in accordance with research procedures that prove otherwise. Furthermore, authentic research is not based solely known facts, logical explanations, but henceforth, an awareness by the researcher that he or she must collect relevant facts and data in order to determine whether to utilize either ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 55. The Importance Of Animal Testing In Scientific Research Animals have played an important role alongside humans for a long time, whether it be as our cuddling companions, humble servants, or amusing entertainers; however, the fellow fauna inhabitants of earth have had a more crucial hand in the advancement of humanity then one might think. About every medical advancement in the past one hundred years came about by animal testing ("Forty Reasons"). People are very dependent upon the research and the experiments done on animals netherless some want to ban testing on animals. Animals should be used in scientific research because the research saves lives, the researchers care for the animals, and the research is properly regulated. What about the poor animals? Normal people do not want to deliberately hurt animals on a regular basis and neither do those studying the creatures. The poor care of animals in experiments would result in "unreliable research data"("Animal Testing"). If researchers caused animals stress and place them in unsuitable habitats, then this would skew the results of their experiment. Scientists want to eliminate variables in experiments, consequently fickle data because inadequate control of the environment, would be counterproductive. This is why scientists take good care of their test subjects and do not cause unnecessary suffering. Additionally, 95% of experiments are done on mice and rats bred for research. Experiments are not done using stray animals or pets because scientists need to be able to control ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 57. Analysis Of Kuhn 's Book On Scientific Research Kuhn's book on Scientific Research offers a widen view on how the research and approach on different paradigms varies from one scientist approach to another. It is important to acknowledge that effective research begins even before the scientific community has acquired answers to most delicate questions like the: composure of universe, interaction of fundamental entities of this creation, questions that might be asked and techniques employed to seek answers and solutions to these questions. He goes back to the classics of science such as the writings of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Galileo, Newton etc., where most of the early eighteenth and nineteenth century science had based their research. That consisted as a ground of intensifying the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Although both of them are scientist, here we are confronted with the thought that we as human beings have our own ideas and we develop them within a circle of people that share the same thoughts as us. We limit ourselves to other assumptions and ideas and when faced with these ideas we are restricted to our knowledge to accept an opinion which is different from our own. Usually we are open to interpret the world around us the way we see it which offers a conform for us and our surroundings. Another point that the book addresses best is the observance of existing paradigms from scientists. Kuhn calls these as anomalies, and when they build up to validate one another, a new paradigm will emerge and the old paradigm bursts. These shifts are mostly known as scientific revolutions, which help us realize that the surroundings around us are different from what we are used to. For example, X–Rays were discovered by mistake, attesting that from an anomaly we came to discover new valuable apparatus that are necessary to the human beings nowadays, this discovery put scientists to work and understand how X–Rays could be used. The author explains that these anomalies help us understand new theories and adapt to them, but one things that he emphasizes mostly in this book is the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 59. Scientific Revolution Research Paper The Scientific Revolution Have you ever thought when the humanity stepped into a new era of its history? It happened during The Scientific Revolution when humans' views on nature and the world were drastically transformed with the help of discoveries in the field of physics, science, mathematics chemistry, biology, and astronomy. That period of the history was very important for humanity because of the collapse of the ancient–medieval picture of the world, new scientific discoveries and the interaction between science and other social institutions. The biggest achievement in the Scientific Revolution was the collapse of the ancient–medieval picture of the world. The new ideology was created, which helped to create the modern science. In antiquity, the focus was on natural and cosmic life; during the Renaissance, there was a focus on understanding the world through Humanism and the role of the person in the world. After all, Descartes's philosophy, which was the foundations of the scientific method, did not deny the creation of the world by God. However, it claimed that from that moment the world began to develop with its internal laws. The next contributions to science were new scientific inventions. Humans' views on nature were radically changed with the help of discoveries in the field of mathematics, science, physics, and astronomy.The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... On the whole, the Scientific Revolution consisted of internal and external factors, which interacted with each other. The interaction between science and other social institutions was among the external factors. Furthermore, that interaction influenced on the reassessment of people's values and ideals in culture. In addition, the changes in the social structures happened, which led a fundamentally new people's needs appear. People started thinking deeper about values in economic, religion, politics, spirit, and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 61. The Importance Of Animal Testing In Scientific Research... Humans are animals. In a behavioral and emotional aspect, these two species share the same characteristics. But, what makes humans differ from the rest of the animal kingdom is the ability to think critically, morally and act rationally. As time goes on, humans are becoming more intelligent than before. Because of their curiosity, during the ancient greeks humans began to conduct experiments on animals so that they can learn more about their body and other species. Even till nowadays, there's scientific research that involves animals. However, are these research still necessary for the advancement of science for human beings? Should animal experimentation still be allowed in scientific studies? My stand on this debatable topic is no. Animal experimentation should not be allowed because it is inapplicable, inhumane, and there's better alternative. The definition of animal experimentation is about scientists manipulating variables to observe behavioral or biological changes on nonhuman animals in order to conclude an outcome that can possibly help the advancement of knowledge for human beings which is known as animal testing. Nowadays, almost every product such as cosmetics products, household cleaning products and medication etc. that we use in daily life has been tested on animals before being introduced into the market. Without a doubt, we as humans did learn a lots of information about other species and our own through animal testing. However, according to Noah Berlatsky, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 63. Scientific Vitality Research Paper The pursuit of Scientific Vitality is one that can only be characterized by the innate quality of human curiosity. Ranging from the azure color of the sky to the sounds of firetrucks, the moment we enter this world, our mind is constantly flooded with information, many of which we do not fully understand. I had always accredited myself of my curious nature. Even a simple trip to Costco presented to me an opportunity to question close to everything in existence. What made 4K televisions so mesmerizing as they repeatedly played the same mountainous scenery in an inexhaustible cycle of crisp cinematography? What biological miracle had constructed the heavenly dust glistening on the churros of the food court? Why did the paltry amount of free samples ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 65. Understanding The Components Of Scientific Research Understanding the components of scientific research assists in being able to read scientific research documents correctly, evaluate the methods that are used, and decide whether the conclusions reached are rational. Exploratory research involves many things, in particular, case studies and the psychobiography, content analysis, and archival research. Research, in itself, can seem to be an elusive form of representation. These components to proper research will be further explained. One part of the exploratory research process is that of a case study. The definition of what makes up a case study is really dependent on the particular textual definition or even, upon the researcher. Depending on the type of text one reads, the definition of what constitutes a case study can differ. One definition would be that a case study is a concentrated focus on a specific topic (Trochim, & Donnelly, 2008). Freud, the original developer of the case study, used them as his foundational belief of psychoanalysis. Whereas Piaget used the case study as a way to study how children progressed over time. Another is that it is a method of observation in which you focus on a person, group or entity (Cozby, 2012). Case studies are typically used when a person, group or entity holds a rare or unusual quality or circumstance that is considered significant. For instance, the article "Adolescents and 'Autographics': Reading and Writing Coming–of–Age Graphic Novels" (Hughes et al., 2011) presents a case ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 67. James Watson Impact On Scientific Research Science has changed the world around us. Whether the discovery was for the benefit of medicine or agricultural each scientist has made some kind of impact on scientific research. These discoveries and answers can make either a small or large impact but most importantly, it evolves the study science in some way. Scientists devote their lives to their research and studies to discover the unknown mysteries of the world. The famous duo scientists Francis Crick and James Watson who both discovered the double stranded helix some centuries ago discovered the greatest impact on science in the biology and field. The early life of James Dewey Watson was a long road before he met Francis Crick and changed alpha structure of DNA. James Dewey Watson was ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Watson and Crick both met in 1951 at Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge. There they both worked together and found their similar interest in DNA. It was said in an article Watson and Crick used the research of Johann Friedrich Miescher who discovered the DNA molecule itself (Dham). They also included research from Erwin Chargaff who discovered that DNA consisted of bases adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine (Wade). Those bases fit together like a puzzle piece and they fit in the DNA like steps on a ladder. Levene's polynucleotide model was also used in the research of the structure of DNA (Pray). By using the crucially important X–ray crystallography work by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, the came up with the three–dimensional structure (Mcelheny 41). The crystallography revealed the spiral boarder of the DNA ladder. Watson and Crick used their research put together puzzles of each research and came up with the correct double helix structure for DNA (Puri). Watson and Crick used cardboard cutouts representing the individual chemical components of adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine and other subunits. Watson and Crick shifted molecules around to figure out the puzzle. They both decided to make new cardboard cutouts to different atomic configuration of the bases to see if it would make a difference and it did ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 69. Scientific Revolution And Enlightenment Research Paper The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment were times of new ideas and imagination. The Scientific Revolution lasted from 1543 to roughly 1700 while the Enlightenment period lasted from around 1685 to about 1815. Throughout this time, astronomers, physicists, mathematicians, and philosophers dominated the thinking about science and life. Their ideas gave influence to modern thinkers and their impact helps with today's new ideas and developments. The Scientific Revolution sparked from the Renaissance and the "medieval view of the universe" (231) that previously governed the views of the people. Three key people in the Scientific Revolution were Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler. Nicolaus Copernicus was "a Polish astronomer"(233) ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... A few examples of Enlightenment thinkers, also known as, philosophes, are Sir Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Jean Jacques Rousseau and Montesquieu. Sir Francis Bacon developed the Inductive Method, which "regarded sense data as the foundation of knowledge"(238). The Inductive Method, or the Scientific Method which is defined as "careful observation of nature and the systematic accumulation of data, drawing general laws from the knowledge of particulars, and testing these laws through constant experimentation"(238). Bacon's ways of thinking helped René Descartes, who later became known as "the founder of modern philosophy"(238) develop the Deductive Method. Descartes applied "mathematical reasoning to philosophical problems" so that he would achieve the same certainty as geometry(238). Jean Jacques Rousseau wrote The Social Contract which discussed political freedom that later impacted America's Founding Fathers. Montesquieu wrote about how, "the study of political and social behavior ...must be undertaken in relation to geographic, economic and historic conditions"(246). Montesquieu's ideas make him a "forerunner of modern sociology" (246). HIs work helped show the limits of absolute monarchy. Many modern sociologists base their work on ideas that Montesquieu. America also used his thoughts on separation of powers, individual liberty and religious ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 71. The Importance Of Stupidity In Scientific Research By... The article of Martin A. Schwartz entitled "The Importance of Stupidity in Scientific Research" is really an interesting and honest essay. Nowadays, whenever people encounter the term "stupidity" from someone, we always equate it with something negative but as I read this article, I came into a realization that it also has a positive side of feeling or being called stupid. This article has a good argument which focuses on its main point that it is normal to have the feeling of stupidity whenever we do a research on something. It is the way of logical research to be totally new, something that investigates an area that nobody has possessed the capacity to investigate earlier. Furthermore, in that capacity, it makes you feel stupid when you were ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Likewise, difficulty in making a significant research is naturally experienced by a researcher. As we all know, it is difficult to do great research, and it is really difficult to do the sort of research that truly matters. This is on the grounds that exploration characteristically requires moving into the obscure. It is like asking questions such as "Is the topic right? Are the techniques systematic? Does the test configuration truly answer the question?" Nevertheless, we will only be able to know all the answers in these questions after we are able to get the result because it determines the success of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 73. For Me, Scientific Research Was Like A Drug. The More I For me, scientific research was like a drug. The more I immersed myself in it, the more my mind wanted it. Before I knew it, I was an addict. But, instead of experiencing the negative side effects that coincide with substance abuse, research has been a long–lasting positive journey of discovering who I am and how the world around me functions. Being a first–generation college student, the pressure for pursuing a career in medicine was high. Despite my passion for biology and science in general, I knew early on that becoming a medical doctor was never an option for me because I lacked the passion for that career path. Luckily, I was fortunate enough to stumble into thrilling research experiences that, over time, ignited to everlasting ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... My research project used forward genetic approach to generate fusion–defective mutants. Although UV radiation has been used as a method for generating mutants in Chlamydomonas, we utilized random insertion using a linearized plasmid with an antibiotic cassette. The advantage of using this approach is that, unlike UV–generated mutagenesis, this method could allow for the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques to find the insertion site and locate the gene, which when disturbed by the cassette, was responsible for the phenotype of interest. In my case, because I was interested in finding the genes responsible for gamete fusion, I was focused on finding mutants that could not mate. There were many obstacles that I had to overcome while working on this project. To begin with, transforming Chlamydomonas using the glass–beads method was not efficient. To overcome that, multiple transformations were performed to accommodate for the low efficiency. However, later on, a collaboration effort with another lab was accomplished, improving the transformation efficiency of Chlamydomonas through electroporation. Moreover, because insertions were random, large populations of mutants that were generated either bore insertions in sequences, such as intergenic regions, that did not contribute significantly to the function of any gene, or generated undesirable ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 75. Scientific Research Article Review : Building Better... Armand, Michel, and J–M. Tarascon. "Building Better Batteries." Nature, vol. 451, no. 7179, (2008): 652–657. This article discusses how researchers must find a sustainable way of providing better batteries to match modern lifestyle changes in our present day. The main claim in this article is that researchers need to build a new battery and it must focus on being cheap and safe. This first reason they provide is lithium ion batteries need to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Through research, they found out lithium ion batteries are not the best option for electric cars. They provide another reason, through scientific lab experiments, that alternatives to the lithium battery need to be explored. Through these lab experiments, the metals ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... With this article, I plan to provide solutions for making the battery better by car industries and government funding further research. This source works in conjunction with my other source, "How Improved Batteries Will Make Electric Car Vehicles Competitive", and provides similar reasons as to why the electric car battery needs to be improved. I plan to find more articles on ways to promote future research towards batteries. Brand, Stephan, et al. "Hybrid and Electric Low–Noise Cars Cause an Increase in Traffic Accidents Involving Vulnerable Road Users in Urban Areas." International Journal of Injury Control & Safety Promotion, vol. 20, no. 4, Dec. 2013, pp. 339–341. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/17457300.2012.733714. This article discusses how electric and hybrid cars cause an increase in the amount of traffic accidents in urban areas. The main claim is that if more hybrid and electrics are produced, the more traffic accidents will occur. To make this argument, they provided two reasons. The first reason is cars with engines that produce no sound leads to more accidents. To support this reason, they found out through car testing that sound coming from the engine is produced when cars travel at high speeds. These sounds serve as warning signals to those who are crossing the street, like pedestrians and bicyclists. The second reason is that older people and children are endangered. To support this reason, they provided data and surveys with ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 77. Phenomenology: Scientific Method and Research Phenomenology as Research Method by Beverley Campbell, Victoria University of Technology Outline of the paper This paper is an account, the interweaving, of the narrative of the writing of my own thesis using a phenomenological approach, with my developing interest in phenomenology as research method. My study of personal transformation provides the context for these reflections on phenomenology as research method. I have spoken in other forums about the content of the research; in this paper I want to do something different. The focus for this paper is on the possibilities and dilemmas for higher degree studies encountered as I learnt to use a phenomenological approach. Firstly I will give a brief account of the study and then ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The naming of these seven metaphors in turn provided a lens through which to interpret the frameworks or metaphors for literacy which were predominant in the thinking of Bill, as the student and Nancy, as the tutor. Another way I used metaphor was to frame the whole thesis in terms of the dominant metaphor life as narrative. There is a body of literature which works from and extends this metaphor (Epston & White 1989, Salmon 1985). Finally metaphor was used as an analytical tool in the interpretive process to help identify seven metaphors and several other major themes arising from Bills narrative and the interview texts which were analyzed at length. It is not the purpose of this paper to outline either the metaphors in the literature or the metaphors for change which were identified. Paradigm shifts Any exploration of phenomenology as research method needs to be set in a wider context of research and what Kuhn (1970) calls a paradigm shift. The research paradigm shift is only part of a larger paradigmatic shift which is taking place in the Western World in the late twentieth century. The move from modernity to post–modernity, from nationalism to globalization, from cultural supremacy of one group over others to the concept of multi–culturalism and the acknowledgment of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 79. Evaluation Of A Research Topic Using Various Scientific... Reflection: Action Research There are many ways to approach on solving a research topic using various scientific methods. Research methods are mainly use in decision making that guide the researchers to develop and test out their hypothesis to their study. Action research is a type of applied research that uses systemic approach to evaluate and observe countless solutions to a problem. Action research is most likely to be used in educational setting, where educators to find and use applicable information to solve and improve an issue in a collaborative setting (Creswell, 2005). Action research is unique since it can be done in collaboration with educators with similar goal and mind set. Action research uses mixed method study where it includes both qualitative and quantitative data. The usage of systemic approach along with scientific method it enables researchers to gather unbiased information during data gather and decision making. Action research is unlike most research method where it conducted in spiraling cycle. Action research study is done in four different stages; planning, acting, developing and reflecting. This method is done in a cyclical process unlike most linear studies. This method allows researchers to evaluate, observe and reflect that data until a plan is developed with an achievable goal that they have in place ( Mertler 2006). There are two types of action research design a practical one and a participatory one. A practical action research ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...