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Natural Selection In Frankenstein
Why are there an abundant amount of similar species? Why can't human–made be superior to
nature? Why, oh why, is there predators and death? A few questions to jolt your brain for a complex
question: What truly rules the world, adaptations and improvements endowed by natural selection or
the characteristics filtered by human creation? Natural selection involves instincts, morphology and
an organism's preferred niche. No one controls the process. No one can disrupt the flow with any
natural methods. When something happens (i.e climate change, diseases, etc.) that limits the survival
and reproductivity rate of a species, nature makes sure that if the species survive that it adapts and
passes that adaptation onto its offspring. Change concerning ... Show more content on
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When an adaptation helps one particular species thrive relative to their genetic cousins or parent
species, then it is serving its purpose. In Frankenstein's monster case, it is riddled with faults and
disadvantages. Major faults include its tall stature, stitched together body parts and its dead skin and
appearance. These are disadvantages to the monster as they drive away his closest species kin of
genetics and morphology as all the villagers attack and chase him out their homes. The fear of these
maladaptations mimics how nature dislikes unnatural discrepancies that should be pushed
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The Gorill Natural Selection And Sexual Selection
Darwin's theory is in regards to natural selection and sexual selection. The gorilla is an animal that
uses the two selections to determine their protection, feeding, and reproduction. First Charles
Darwin described the characteristics and structures that a animal like a gorilla is born with. He states
that these characters and structures will have slow changes that will be different than when they
were born. Then he believes that they will have characters and structures that are trifling important.
This means that although the structures and characters may look like they aren't important, these
structures and characters actually have a significant factor regarding their protection. The gorilla
possess significant structures and characters that are prime for their survival. Thirdly, Darwin
believes that in natural selection animals like gorillas have structures and characters that are
beneficial between the young and the old. These structures and characters are what protects gorillas.
They are also used to feed gorillas like the breast on a female gorilla, or the silver hair on the back
of a male gorilla. Lastly, Darwin explains the greatness of sexual selection involving gorillas. He
also believe that they use determining factors on what male gorilla the female gorilla chooses to
reproduce with. After analyzing the quotes from Darwin's "The Survival of the Fittest", I will
explain the quotes to some degree and use examples that the gorillas possess that are
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Natural Selection
Part B.
Over the millions of years organisms have been present on earth, there has been many forms of
evidence to suggest animals are evolving through natural selection. However, the question still
remains as to whether homo sapiens are still evolving through natural selection. Through the nature
of science being subject to change and many new discoveries being made each day, it is difficult to
make clear confined theories and conclusions, which will not be impacted on in the future.
Slide 14:
From Lamarck and Darwin's first key discovery into the theory of evolution and natural selection,
the statement of 'evolution by natural selection is no longer applicable to homo sapiens in Australia'
would be incorrect as in the analysis of these ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Slide 22:
The main idea which discredits and contradicts evolution involves the idea that evolution proceeds
by random chance. However in Australia and among homo sapiens the only evidence to support the
idea that evolution is occurring are as a result of an organism evolving in order to adapt to the
changing environmental conditions of Australia.
Slide 23:
In conclusion, there are many different forms of evidence to support the idea of evolution by natural
selection among homo sapiens in Australia. With reference to the scientific theories and information
present today, it becomes obvious that homo sapiens in Australia are still evolving and will continue
to over time in order to cope with and adapt to environmental changes.
In the words of Sir Charles Darwin, "It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most
intelligent that survives. It is the one that is most adaptable to change."
Thank
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Natural and Artificial Selection
Introduction
Many scientists in the past, such as Aristotle and Plato, believed that there were no changes in
populations; however, other scientists, such as Darwin and Wallace, arose and argued that species
inherit heritable traits from common ancestors and environmental forces drives out certain heritable
traits that makes the species better suited to survive or be more "fit" for that environment. Therefore,
species do change over a period of time and they were able to support their theory by showing that
evolution does occur. There were four basic mechanisms of evolution in their theory: mutation,
migration, genetic drift, and natural selection. Natural selection is the gradual process by which
heritable traits that makes it more ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
We randomly selected 10 plants to be our parent generation for the control group and we chose 10
plants to be the experimental group. For the experimental group, we chose the 10 plants that had the
longest first true leaf petiole lengths because that was what we were trying to manipulate in this
experiment. We then took sticks with wires on them and carefully placed it where our chosen plants
were in order to enhance the survival of our plants because the plants needed support in order to
grow. In this experiment, we are trying to see if petiole length is a heritable and variable trait, so the
experimental group should have longer petiole lengths in the second generation, when we replant,
and the control should have a random variance since we did not select for the longest petiole lengths
in our parent generation. After our parent generation plants have grown and the flowers started to
bloom, we had to cross pollinate our plants in order for them interbreed with one another (Freeman,
2002). As mentioned before, artificial selected trait may interbreed with one other in order to
reinforce that those desirable traits, in this case petiole length, will show up in the offspring
(Artificial Selection). We were able to interbreed our plants with one another by using a q tip. We
took the cotton swab of the end of the q tip and gently rubbed it around the highest
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Essay on Sex Selection and Pre-selection are Unethical
Sex Selection and Pre–selection are Unethical and Unwise
It wasn't until 1975 that scientist Ronald J. Ericsson, Ph.D. began studies that eventually led to what
we refer to today as sex selection and/ or pre– selection. He began his determination by studying
whether or not enriched sperm would aid in the offspring of a desired gender. This process was first
established in the 1970s in which scientists stained X and Y sperm in order to identify them.
Thorough studies have been accumulated during the last three decades due to an increase in the
perceived need for a "balanced family" and "planned pregnancy" in regards to the "chosen baby."
Sex selection and/or pre–selection, despite one's preference of gender, is a scientifically ... Show
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Abortion itself is a separate issue for debate, however, plays a significant factor in sex selection.
Many of the procedures related to sex selection involve terminating an embryo, either inside or
outside the womb. This is an atrocity to those who disapprove of aborting fetuses on moral or
religious grounds. Choosing to have an abortion due to an undesired gender creates several health
risks for the female. Abortion increases a woman's overall risk of breast cancer by thirty percent,
successive pregnancies are negatively affected by induced abortion, and abortion can put
psychological factors at risk. "Designer babies" are made possible through three distinctive
techniques: advanced reproductive technology, cell and chromosome manipulation, and genetics and
genome's. Human reproduction techniques are extremely complicated and inconsistent. "There are
many factors involved in producing a baby: the genetic constitution of the parents, the condition of
the parents' egg and sperm, and the health and behavior of the impregnated mother" (Gosden 116).
When you also take into consideration the enormous complexity of the human genome, with its
billions of DNA components, it becomes apparent that reproduction will always have an element of
unpredictability. "Many of these baby–designing techniques can be considered unethical, because
they treat each embryo as a means for someone else's happiness, instead of as an
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Theories Of Natural Selection
Natural selection is the key to evolution. The difference in genotype from generation gives rise to
key traits that help species survive and flourish. When these species reproduce, they pass on their
genes to their offspring who then will be able to survive. Those species who don't have these key
traits reduce in number because they don't possess vital traits that can help them survive nor can
they pass on vital traits to their offspring. Charles Darwin was the person who came up with this
theory and he discussed it extensively in his book The Origin of Species. This theory explains why
we have so much species with distinct traits but what it doesn't explain is the evolution of neuter
individuals. Neuter individuals can't reproduce so if they had any trait that gave them a foothold
over nature, it cannot be passed on to another ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The worker bees help the queen reproduce and have a reduced reproduction rate as a result. In
Darwin's special difficulty; the evolution of "neuter insects" and current theory, Francis .W. Ratnieks
reviews Darwin's discussion about altruistic worker insects and natural selection and connects them
with some current ideas about altruism. This essay discusses Darwin's question: how can natural
selection favor the evolution of sterile workers? At first, it seemed like worker bees presented a
challenge to natural selection but after years of research, Darwin and other modern biologist
formalized theories that explained the natural selection of worker bees.
Modern biologist generalized Darwin's difficulty with these bees as a problem of altruism. They
consider altruism to be a paradox because even though altruistic animals give up their fitness on
behalf of other animals, they continue to evolve and survive. Natural selection states that the more
fit animals are, the more likely they are to survive. Natural selection increases reproduction
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Recruitment And Selection Of Human Resources
Problem The problem is creating a recruitment and selection plan to ensure the recruitment of these
employees runs smoothly, ties into our company's mission and vision, complies with the law, and
encourages diversity. The purpose of this plan to meet the unique meet of four predetermined
positions in our company.
Evidence
From an article "Planning Recruitment & Selection of Human Resources", Johnston states that
recruitment and selection of human resources can have internal and external searches for what??
(Johnston, n.d.). In another resource, Gusdorf also agrees with recruiting and selecting from internal
environment and external environment (Gusdorf, n.d.). Gusdorf also presents legal issues for hiring
people externally. For instance, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination which "is
based on a person's race, color, sex, religion or national origin"; the Age Discrimination in
Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967 protects "persons aged 40 and older for organizations of 20 or
more employees"; the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 states it is "unlawful to refuse
employment to a woman based on pregnancy, childbirth or any related medical condition"; and "the
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 prohibits discrimination against qualified
individuals with disabilities in organizations of 15 or more employees" (Gusdorf, n.d.).
Analysis
According to class lecture slides, recruiting and selecting methods involves internal recruiting and
external recruiting.
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General Approaches For Feature Selection
General Approaches for Feature Selection There are 3 types of approaches for feature selection
namely filter, wrapper, embedded method.
Filter method: Filter method does not involve a learning algorithm for measuring feature subset [6].
It is fast and efficient for computation .filter method can fail to select the feature that are not
beneficial by themselves but can be very beneficial when unite with others. Filter method evaluates
the feature by giving ranks to their evaluation value. In filter method it evaluates the correlation
between the features by using criteria such as, mutual information, maximum length, maximum
relevance min redundancy (mRMR), PCA.
Figure 1.2 Filter approach
Wrapper method: wrapper method involve learning algorithm and search for optimal feature subset
from original feature set which discover the relationship between relevance and optimal subset
selection. It performed better than the filter method. The specific training classifier is used to
evaluate the performance of selected features. Figure 1.3 Wrapper approach
Embedded method: Embedded method is a combination of wrapper method and embedded method.
This decreases the computational cost than wrapper approach and captures feature dependencies. It
searches locally for features that allow better discrimination and also the relationship between the
input feature and the targeted feature. It involves the learning algorithm which is used to select
optimal subset among
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Natural Selection Vs Sexual Selection Essay
The matter of Natural Selection was brought forth by Charles Darwin and with that evolved the
concept of Sexual Selection. The first thing that may come to mind is male preference in females for
reproductive purposes. It is quite common when thinking about the process of Natural Selection. We
don't typically take notice of Darwin's recognition or acceptance for "female choice" upon mate
selection and the role it plays in our evolution. Both males and females differentiate when it comes
to parental investment. Therefore selection of the opposite sex in order to benefit their kin is a
valuable choice. We know that amongst men typically their preferences are based on physical
attractiveness; so then what drives females. In attempts to better understand what and how females
make their decisions in benefit for themselves and their offspring and how they have possibly
evolved. We will look at a variety of ideas that have been formed in the research attempted to get a
better understanding of this topic.
Natural Selection and Sexual Selection
Darwin brought forward two ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
But other research has shown that female choice could have something to do with female resistance
rather than attraction towards males. We are aware that females select males with traits that can be
of no good but their choices are to benefit their own fertility. In contrast to this idea it has been
brought to attention that possibly sexual conflict over mating could possibly relate to the evolution
of mate selection. Males evolve in order to attract females and mate with. And then you have
females who evolve resistance instead of attraction to minimize the costs when it comes to mate
selection. Certain sexual conflicts such as parental effort, mate rates and mating duration are
important in the evolutionary systems. (Gavrilets, Goran, and Urban
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Explanation Of Natural Selection
Explanation of the concept of natural selection and how it takes place
– Natural selection is the process where organisms that have more advantageous adaptions that
benefit its survival in its environment then breed and produce offspring with similar traits that then
have a greater chance of survival. For natural selection to occur there are essential elements that are
required; variation, heritability and excess production. For the formation of a new species there must
be variation within a species so that some may have slightly better adaptions to the climate, diseases
or other survival traits like better camouflage. The organisms that possess these adaptions are
sometimes called more fit; this is called 'survival of the fittest'. The 'fitter' organisms will then
reproduce and their offspring will inherit the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The explanation that was given for this was that recent organisms only can be descendants of
organisms that lived in the same area in ancient times. For example British settlers brought horses
and cows into Australia so there are no native descendants of horses and cows there. Thus there are
two main pieces of evidence in fossils that support Darwin's evolution ideas; using isotope dating
methods, ancient fossils contained simpler organisms and younger fossils contained more advanced
organisms. Another piece of evidence in fossils is that organisms retain some feature through the
generations along with obtaining new ones. For example, the fossils of the Archaeopteryx have
shown that the creature had feature of a reptile (teeth, claws and jointed tail) along with ones of a
bird (beak, feathers and a
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Natural Selection Hypothesis
The effects of natural selection on the process of evolution in beans (Phaseolus).
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to understand the process of natural selection through a simulation
involving competition of various preys and predators. In order to simulate natural selection,
experimenters became predators and acted as a species of fork, spoon, knife, or fingers. Beans of
four different phenotypes (white, green, black, and red) represented the prey. The predators hunted
prey for 30 seconds three times–symbolizing three generations. The prey and predator survivors
were doubled each generation to simulate reproduction. This experiment was done in an asphalt and
sand environment. All data was recorded. The black bean was also the ... Show more content on
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For generation one, the spoon, fork, and fingers species started with three predators while the knife
species started with four. The number of predator survivors was one for spoon, zero for fork and
knife, and three for fingers. The second generation doubled its' predator survivors of the previous
generation, resulting in a starting number of two spoon predators, zero fork & knife predators, and
six fingers predators. For generation two, spoon, fork, and knife species yielded zero predator
survivors and fingers yielded four. The third generation doubled the previous predator survivors to
result in a starting number of eight fingers predators and zero of the species of spoon, fork, and
knife. Generation three had five fingers predator survivors and zero of the other
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Compare Directional Selection And Disruptive Selection
Jessica Northey Exam Number 250104
1. Compare directional selection and disruptive selection, Provide an example of each.
The two different types of selection differ because instead of the subject only going in one direction
it will split off and go two different ways. This would be disruptive selection where there is more
than one option to select or two distinct groups. For example, if some flowers and their colors. The
main colors may be red, pink and white primarily, say that the more dominate color being a pink
flower. What happens if we remove the pink flower from the equation? It would cause the flowers to
shift toward the dominant color which in this case you might think is the red. However, in this case
it is not because between red and white is the least drastic and according to phenotypes would be the
color that would be dominate if pink was eliminated as an option in a directional selection there is
only one trait and it is always that dominant trait that dictates body of the population. Directional
selection is more based of natural selection and survival. Examples would be things such as a giraffe
having a long neck to reach high foliage than other animals for survival or a bunny being a color
more specific to blending into its surroundings.
2. Many pathogenic bacteria species are becoming resistant to antibiotic. Explain how such
adaptations can develop through the process of natural selection.
Bacteria are not just suddenly becoming resistant to
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Human Selection Vs Artificial Selection Essay
Evolution by artificial selection and natural selection have in common that they both favor certain
traits over others. Moreover, they select on traits that are heritable, but they differ in the way traits
are selected. Natural selection favors multiple ways to improve an individual's fitness while in
artificial selection, humans decide which traits they want to have in the next generation, which
actually reduce the individual's fitness. 2) In stabilizing selection, the individuals with intermediate
phenotypes have a high chance of survival and reproductive success. Moreover, the average
phenotype does not change, so not much evolutionary change will occur. On the other hand, in
disruptive selection, individuals with extreme phenotypes at either end of the distribution are the
ones with higher fitness, which means that the magnitude of phenotype variation will increase to the
next generation. 3) Even though semelparous and iteroparous are a little similar because they both
involve reproduction; they are also different because they differ in how many times reproduction
can happen throughout an organism's life. Semelparity is when organisms evolve to reproduce only
once during their entire life such as insects and plants. On the other ... Show more content on
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There is an additional cost of reduce fitness for organisms in which the genders are separate. Also,
there is another cost known as the cost of meiosis, which means that in sexual reproduction, only
half of the genes are passed on to the next generation. On the other hand, there are some important
benefits in sexual reproduction including purging harmful mutations and creating genetic variation
that assistances offspring deal with the variations in the environment. In contrast, asexual
reproduction creates clonal offspring only if the parents are perfectly adapted to the
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Compare And Contrast Directional Selection And Disruptive...
Jessica Northey
Exam Number 250104
1.Compare and contrast directional selection and disruptive selection, Provide and example of each.
Directional selection and disruptive selection differ because instead of the subject only going in one
direction it will split off and go two different ways for example if some flowers and their colors. The
main colors may be red, pink and white primarily, and the more dominate color being a pink flower.
But if we remove the pink flower completely from the equation then the flowers will shift toward
the dominant white color over the red. In a directional selection there is only one trait and it is
always that dominant trait that dictates body of the population. The best example to show this is that
in the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Vertebrates are known to be animals with backbones. Tooth reduction is one of the major
evolutionary trends that developed among major vertebrate groups that allowed for the transition
from aquatic to terrestrial life. Evolution of limbs and being able to breath air are other evolutionary
trends that took placeThese trends include improved respiration and protective and insulating body
coverings. More over the transition from water to land also included changing to more efficient
reproductive methods like having a placenta for some animals or egg layers for other animals.
Lastly, the morphology of organisms evolved such that for land they would have paired, muscular
appendages used for crawling and
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Population Selection
Rationale on Population Selection: In order to ensure the survival of humankind, we need to
preserve the best of all humanity. By taking the top 1% of all people, we can ensure we are getting
the best people to represent the survival of our race as a human being. Perhaps with this form of
preservation, we can even make humanity better off by blending the genes of the best of the best to
make them even better. Utopia or Dystopia: There really is not one answer to this question. I feel
that the two terms, utopia and dystopia, are not mutually exclusive, as many societies are a mixture
using aspects of both. I like to think out society fall rights in the center between the two. There are
utopian aspects, for instance, how we decided not to conceal
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Sexual Selection and Natural Selection
Selection is the functional relationship between phenotypes and fitness. Natural selection is the
production of organisms according to their physical attributes whereby off springs of the younger
generations takes the strong, desired and inheritable aspects of their parents. They become more
adapted to the environment although some does well than others according to their individual traits
which are attributed to their phenotypes (Sinervo, 1997). According to Charles Darwin, fitness can
be described in three different forms of selection which interferes with the mean of phenotypic traits
in a population. They include: directional selection; stabilizing selection; and destructive selection.
Directional selection in the long term can lead ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Unlike natural selection, sexual selection does not adapt individuals to the environment, but it
enhances mate acquisition. It also explains how sexually desired traits may have fuelled the fire of
rapid organism development. Some of the traits acquired give either negative or positive results.
Negative results can even lead to extinction, but positive results can lead to elaborate change that
brings about a stronger and better species. Darwin theory of sexual selection observed that female
are the limiting sex and most of them are unavailable for sex as they are pregnant or caring for
young one. Since male tends to be in excess, they develop ornaments to attract female or engage
each other on male contests.
Sexual selection is categorized in to two categories; intersexual selection and intrasexual
competition. Intersexual selection is also known as mate choice or female choice in which males
competes with fellow males for female. This means that the male must develop a feature that would
attract the opposite sex; sometimes this can lead to fashion. The conditions determining which factor
becomes more limited can be explained by the way of Bateman's Principle which states that the sex
which invest most in producing off springs becomes a limited over which the other sex will fight for.
Intrasexual competition is also known as male–male competition where by members of the less
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Natural Selection In Animals
If natural selection is to result in the evolution of traits associated with adaptation within a given
plant population certain conditions such as sexual reproduction, mutations, and gene flow, all of
which facilitate genetic variation, must exist. While plants can reproduce asexually, those that
reproduce sexually produce new alleles through genetic recombination. This allows for the
emergence of new phenotypes, and subsequently new individuals, that are better suited for their
environment. Likewise, mutations, which are changes in DNA, can add genetic variation to a
population and create phenotypic changes. If these alterations result in individuals being better
suited to their environment, natural selection will select for these traits,
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Raeka Natural Selection
Natural selection is one of the greatest sources of genetic variation in nature, causing individuals of
certain populations to diversify from other populations based on their environmental conditions
(Genetic Analysis). This is apparent in every aspect of animals within a certain population, ranging
from obvious differences in color and size, to something as specific as venom composition in snakes
of the same species (Aiyar, Raeka). For example, an Eastern diamondback rattlesnake in the Florida
panhandle area has a notably different composition of toxins in its venom than a member of its same
species about five hundred miles away (Aiyar, Raeka). However, a recent study found something
quite astonishing: the venom of the Eastern coral snake ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The protein mix from each sample was completely indistinguishable from all other samples from
different populations. Darin Rokyta, one of the scientists leading the study, commented on this
phenomenon, stating "We were shocked. This is the first time anyone has looked at venom variation
at this scale, and everybody has assumed that the co–evolutionary arms race would cause local
populations to diverge quickly" (Aiyar, Raeka). The research team proposed several hypotheses to
explain the absence of venom variation among these coral snakes, such as the possibility of a recent
population displacement or that the lack of variation is due to differences in the dynamics of the
coral snake and its reptilian prey versus the small animal preference of the diamondbacks (Margres
etc., 173). The research team is currently investigating genetic clues to determine the true
explanation (Aiyar,
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Categorization Between Racial Selection And Natural Selection
The racial categories, while seemingly culturally meaningful, are biologically arbitrary. Racial
statutes cannot be mapped accurately in the human genome, or as a set of traits. Traits generally
ascribed to a certain "race" rarely only occur within that "race." Natural selection and evolution are
mechanisms that distribute variation in ways that are not concordant with racial categorization. In
order to understand the variation within the human race, one must understand how advantageous
traits are passed on through generations, and that these traits are advantageous for a specific
environmental situation. Some examples of these variations are dark skin, sickle cell disease, and
nasal morphology. Dark skin, which is usually the defining trait for racial categories, has a very
clear evolutionary history, which is not racially significant. Dark skin does not vary like a multiple
choice selection; rather, skin color is variable on a continuous scale. Continuous variation allows
variation to be expressed on a gradient. Skin color is a particularly adept example of how variation
can be gradated. The Way skin color is expressed as a physical trait is through a pigment in cells
called melanin. Along with melanin variability, the amount of hemoglobin, which shows up as the
reddish tints in skin ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Due to the way natural selection and evolution take place, human variation occurs outside of the
static racial categories that has persisted throughout history. These categories are based on variable
physical traits that give no reliable information about the group as a whole. The idea that these
categories are biologically meaningful is not only false, but can be harmful as well. When racial
paradigms are applied in the real world, the results are sometimes harmful. Understanding that racial
categories are arbitrary in a biological sense is beneficial to society as a
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Sex Selection And Ethics : Sexual Selection Essay
Sex Selection and Ethics
Over the course of the semester the topic I felt that I analyzed and reflected upon most was sex
selection. Sex selection is a topic that I knew very little about at the beginning of this semester, but I
have come to learn a lot about and appreciate over these past few weeks. Sex selection refers to
numerous methods that allow one to select the desired sex of their embryo. Technologies that
include ultrasounds or prenatal testing followed by selective abortion, preimplantation genetic
selection (PGS) for sex, as well as numerous sperm–sorting methods, are readily available for
families that yearn for a particular sex of their unborn child. I have considered both sides of the
argument against and in favor of sex selection, but my view is sincerely against sex selection.
The WHO states that there are three core motivations for engaging in sex determination and sex
selection which include "medical reasons such as preventing the birth of children affected or at risk
of X–linked disorders; family balancing reasons where couples choose to have a child of one sex
because they already have one or more children of the other sex; and gender preference reason often
in favor of male offspring stemming from cultural, social, and economic bias in favor of male
children and as a result of policies requiring couples to limit reproduction to one child, as in China."
In countries such as India and China, it is apparent that women can be harmed by sex selection
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Sexual Selection And Gender Selection
Name: Chloe Mulqueen Lecturer: Grace McCormack
ID: 14470708 Module: Evolutionary Biology
ZO317
Sexual selection in fish inhabiting great lakes
Sexual selection can best be described by the definition given by Darwin himself. Sexual selection is
"the advantage which certain individuals have over other individuals of the same species solely in
respect of reproduction" (Hosken et al, 2011). Sexual selection occurs throughout the animal
kingdom, where male frogs dominate through the depth of their croak, and certain peacocks reign
superior based on the colour and intricate detail on their tails. They remain superior to their lesser
counterparts as they bear more admirable characteristics, from which they are chosen by females of
the same species.
Intersexual selection describes one sex (commonly females) choosing male partners for copulation.
Females tend to choose the males based on secondary sexual characteristics. Intrasexual selection,
on the other hand, is competition within the same sex, in the hope of gaining access to the other sex
for reproduction (Eberhard, 1996). It is commonly male species competing against each other for
female partners. These two forms of sexual selection results in more developed offspring, as the
fitter male will out–compete other males and also is more likely to be chosen be
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The Theory Of Natural Selection
The theory of natural selection creates a harsher lenses in which man views fauna, one with only
clinical observance and without emotion. Natural history seemingly becomes a chronicle of cruelty
and triumph of the strongest and a eulogy for the weaker. Instead of being daunted by this, Charles
Darwin's reaction to this methodical cycle was relief. It can be seen throughout his ¬Origin of
Species in which he uses double meanings in order to mediate the brutal perception of nature that
comes from his theories. Darwin's loaded language inconspicuously reminds the reader of moral
norms and to consider nature as something separate from man and God. Darwin was educated by the
Anglican Church even though he was a never a practicing cleric. Therefore in his writings he uses
morally loaded language to reflect Christian Bible's morals. The black–and–white of nature in the
"ejecting...foster brothers...ants making slaves..." detracts from the overall theme of love taught in
the Bible which encourages not only the love of brothers but also charity and kindness. By Darwin's
time, slavery in England had been abolished and abhorred for decades. These actions seen in nature
are not readily welcome into the lives of men. God still holds man to a standard of logic and fairness
which is grounded in the Bible. As a Christian, Darwin should be confused where nature is full of
selfishness and death and God commands kindness. And if God created nature specifically as
horrendous as he had, then why
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Essay Compare And Contrast Directional Selection And...
Lesson 3 Essay Questions: 1– Compare and contrast directional selection and disruptive selection,
and provide an example of each. Directional selection occurs when one extreme of a trait is favored
and the distribution curve shifts in that direction. An example of this is the human struggle with
malaria. The mosquito Anopheles transmits the disease. A new drug for the disease and a insecticide
for the mosquito was created. But over the years they became resistant to it and multiplied, shifting
the distribution curve toward the resistant type of parasite. Disruptive selection is where any two
extremes of a trait are favored over any intermediate phenotype. For example, British land snails are
found in low vegetation areas. The thrushes ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
So, if the plant entices an animal, say a bumblebee, to come to it by offering it some sweet nectar,
then plant can attach some of its pollen to the back of animal and it will carry it to a new
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Natural Selection Experience
When observing the progression of knowledge within a discipline, one may begin to notice trends,
specifically that the aspects of knowledge that were beneficial to society were further developed,
which outdated the aspects of knowledge that were disadvantageous. This trend is similar to the
principles of "natural selection," defined in the natural sciences as "the process whereby organisms
better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring."
Before I describe my interpretation of "natural selection," it is necessary to define "knowledge,"
which, in terms of this essay, is an idea or technology developed to improve the lives, and has been
shown to do so. I interpreted the scientific term "natural selection," to better ... Show more content
on Helpwriting.net ...
Vaccinations have been beneficial in eliminating diseases, such as smallpox, worldwide, and
eliminating diseases like mumps and rubella by over 99 percent. However, certain, serious
conditions, primarily measles, have been reocurring. For example, in 2013, the measles occurrences
spiked to 3 times their normal levels in the United States. This circumstance is primarily due to
parents failing to vaccinate their children, due to claims from other parents that vaccines can trigger
autism in a child. The severity of these claims have led researchers to devote their careers to prove
them true or false, but, as of now, these claims remain bombastic, and many lives are in danger
because of the failure to get
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Natural Selection Vs Artificial Selection
The Darwinian view of life came into focus in 1859, when he published one of the most important
books called " On the Origin of Species by Mean of Natural Selection". Back in Darwin's time in the
19th century historians were being to think of evolutionary change as an explanation for patterns
observed in the future. He did not invent this idea however he carried out the necessary research to
document the idea. He made this book to make two valid points, "descent and modification" and
"process natural selection". Descent and modification described the evidence and support that he
gathered about species. "It is an insightful phrase, as it captures the duality of life's unity (descent)
and diversity (modification)." Simon, Eric J., Jane Reece, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
Again, natural selection is the process in nature by which organisms better adapted to their
environment tend to survive and reproduce more. A good example would be a tree frog, they are
sometimes eaten by snakes.Gray Tree frogs bend well in the darker wooden areas, as for green Tree
frogs blend better with the greens. If a green tree frog is on a barks its easier for a predator to find
than compared to a green tree frog on a green leaf. Green tree frogs that go into habitats where they
are not camouflaged are most likely going to eaten by they're predators, which in conclusion tree
frogs that have been eaten by they're predators do not have the chance to have more babies. Animals
and plants that have a higher chance to survive, reproduce and increase their population more that
the ones that are less adapted to their
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Selection And Natural Selection : Roles And...
Specific forces drive evolution and alter populations over the course of many generations. Different
characteristics are inherited when a modification occurs in a species. Present genes within a
population controls the characteristics, which determine the allele frequencies. Evolution occurs in a
population of interbreeding that involves multiple members. To drive evolution, there are five
forces: Natural selection, Migration, Mutation, Nonrandom mating, and Genetic drift.
Natural selection was founded by Charles Darwin, who described the term as "this preservation of
favourable variations and the rejection of injurious variations" (Hoefnagels). The idea is from
artificial selection when humans choose the most desirable traits for a species. Natural selection
changes the allele frequencies within a population and gets rid of the phenotypes who have poorly
adapted. The ones who live are classified as "survival of the fittest," meaning they have lived long
enough to reproduce. Natural selection can occur in three modes and has effects on populations.
Directional selection is when the environment selects the most extreme phenotype of the fittest.
Disruptive or diversifying selection is when two or more phenotypes are a better fit for the
environment than the immediate phenotype. Stabilizing or normalizing selection occurs when the
"extreme phenotype is less fit than the optimal intermediate phenotype" (Hoefnagels). In the article,
"The Impact of Evolutionary Driving Forces on Human Complex Diseases: A Population Genetics
Approach," talks about how natural selection is present in human populations. A link was found
between natural selection and a complex disease in humans known as high blood pressure. An
analysis was conducted to analyze the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of people from European
and Non–European populations. Overall, there was a significant difference in the allele frequencies
and the gene associated with blood pressure amongst the two populations. Natural selection will
continue to alter populations of different species and effect evolution.
Migration involves gene flow, which occurs when alleles move from one population and enter
another. In the human population, migration has
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Comparing Darwin's Theory Of Sexual Selection And Natural...
Darwin's theory of evolution proposed a mechanism for decent with modification. His studies
resulted in the proposal of two forms of selection, including sexual selection and natural selection.
(3) The concept of sexual selection was developed by Darwin to account for many adaptations that
appear incompatible with natural selection (3). Natural selection is a major component of evolution
however it is still not fully understood. (2)
Male guppies display an intricate colour pattern polymorphism that varies with risk of predation
which makes them a good choice for studying natural selection. It is interesting to note that the
bright spots that get guppies killed by predators due to them being less inconspicuous in their habitat
is also the trait
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Directional Selection And Disruptive Selection
Directional selection and disruptive selection have quite a bit in common; however, they also have
some contraries. Their biggest likeness is that they are both subcategories of natural selection.
Natural selection is the process that results in adaptation of a population to the biotic and abiotic
atmospheres. Directional selection takes place when an exaggerated phenotype is favored and the
distribution curve alters in that direction. Such a shift can happen when a population is adjusting to a
changing environment. Disruptive selection occurs when two or more extreme phenotypes are
favored over any other ordinary phenotype. These two selections differ in that directional requires
only one extreme phenotype whereas disruptive requires at least two. A prime example of a
directional selection, is resistance to antibiotic treatment as well as insecticides. The extensive
application of antibiotics and pesticides eventually develops populations of bacteria and insects that
have grown resistant to the chemicals. When an antibiotic is employed, some bacteria may survive
because they are genetically defiant to the treatment. These particular bacteria are likely to provide
such genes for the next generation. As an outcome, the number of bacterial defiance continues to
increase. Disruptive selection favors polymorphism, which is the happenings of different forms in a
population of the exact same species. With thatstatement made, a classic example of disruptive
selection would be that
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Evolution And Natural Selection
Before the industrial revolution and the arrival of great scientists, mostly everybody on Earth relied
on origin myths and supernatural forces like God to explain the creation of our world exactly as it is
right now (HE). Little did they know that life on Earth is way more complex than this... Until
someone came up with a revolutionary theory: evolution. We are going to explore together the
concepts of evolution, natural selection and its theory, and all the different types of evidence for
evolution there is at this moment compared to what Darwin had at his time.
Firstly, to begin with understanding evolution, we need to determine what it is, what triggers it and
its four mechanisms. Evolution, known as descent with modification, is a process ... Show more
content on Helpwriting.net ...
A complex concept using mutation, migration, genetic drift and natural selection has been shaping
the way we evolve. Darwin's theory of natural selection still holds on today, but with more precise
cause and effect, like the three conditions including differential reproduction, heredity and variation.
To study any species, we need to remember the 4 lines of evidence that allows us to gather all that
information. Understanding where we come from can help us know where were going, because in
the end, humans are connected to all species around
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Darwin's Theory Of Natural Selection And Disruptive Selection
2. Darwin put forth an unheard of chain of logic for his theory of natural selection during his time.
This theory while unlike the many naturalist before him proposed a reasonable mechanism for
change among species. His logic presents that each species will produce far more offspring than will
actual survive to maturity. This leads to the population remaining at a fairly consistent size over
time. This implies that competitions is present for survival and that individuals differ in their traits
leading "survival of the fittest". The specie which survives then passes its traits along leading to the
separation of traits from the common ancestor and leads to new species being created or evolving.
This is where is thought process for evolution was derived from.
3. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
On the other hand, they mainly differ in the sense that directional change favors the extreme when
compared to the average as well as favoring the the opposite extreme. Stabilizing selection highly
favors the average trait unlike the other two.
10.) Compared to the biological species concept, it is seen that the morphological species concept is
based distinctly upon the looks of a plant. When the appearance of a plant was like another's the two
were considered the same. The biological species concept on the other hand, is based of
reproductive systems. This means that a plant can be classified as the same species if it can
interbreed among itself and often refrains from breeding with the plants of a separate
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Directional Selection
Lesson 3 essay questions
1. Compare and contrast directional selection and disruptive selection and provide an example of
each.
Directional selection and disruptive selection occurs when an extreme phenotype is favored to better
a species so that it can adapt to its changing environment. The contrast between these two selections
is that directional selection only has one extreme phenotype that is favored and disruptive selection
has two or more extreme phenotypes that are favored over intermediate types. An example of
directional selection is how the horses body started out as the size of a dog increased in size over
time. This was due to grasslands replacing the forest. An example of disruptive selection is the
British land snail with bands ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
When an antibiotic is given to kill bacteria sometimes some of the bacterial can survive because it is
adapting to its environment. The surviving bacteria will pass on their resistant genes from generation
to generation. An example of a bacteria that has become resistant to antibiotics is Tuberculosis. It is
a contagious bacteria that infects the lungs. Over the years Tuberculosis has become resistant to
multiple antibiotics due to directional selection.
3. What are the major evolutionary trends that developed among major vertebrate groups,
specifically those that allowed for the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life?
All vertebrate groups go through developmental changes to become adults. There is one animal, the
frog that has the incredible ability to start life only living in the water to being able to be both
aquatic and terrestrial. Frogs first start out as tadpoles, only able to live in the water and feed on
plankton. As the frog starts to sexually mature it goes through a process called metamorphosis. The
frogs body changes, it's tail gets shorter and the frog grows four limbs Now it can swim and hop, it's
diet also charges were frogs can eat insects as well as other frog and fish depending on
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Product Selection Paper
Week 3 Team AAssignment: Product Selection PaperIn the world of organizational management,
business and operations managers must work together to be able to implement processes which will
ultimately bring products and services to life. New innovation will be researched thoroughly by the
organizational managers so that once a product or service is approved for fabrication or
implementation the processes used are compatible and efficient.
In this paper Team A will discuss product selection and will focus on two products selected. Team A
will analyze the products and discuss the pros and cons in comparison to each other. Team A will
also discuss the decision making criteria used to select the products and lastly analyze baseline data
... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Pros and ConsAlthough both of these sandwiches are a healthy choice, not all people like or enjoy
the taste of a tortilla, whether corn or flour regardless of the reduced price as it relates to a typical
sandwich. Some people do not care that the ingredients are organic or come from a can, nor do they
like the manner, in which, they have to eat a Burrito because it becomes messy for some people.
The McTurkey is a good wholesome sandwich that is loved by millions across the world. This
sandwich is versatile, meeting the needs of those who enjoy a healthy sandwich and cannot eat
without having a slice of bread. This sandwich can even be enjoyed without the bread for those
people who are watching their carbs. This Club sandwich covers several food groups and is big
enough to satisfy a healthy appetite due to the size of the sandwich. For those with less healthy
appetites, eat half for lunch and, the other half for dinner.
Decision–Making CriteriaIn analyzing these products, Team A chose the McTurkey club because of
the versatility of the sandwich; it can be enjoyed with or without bread. The price is affordable,
especially since it can be eaten as two meals, or split with a friend. Although the sandwich is over
900 calories, this sandwich will assist in a weight loss program which allows for a 1500 calorie
intake per day.
Baseline DataData is the foundation of any effective objectives–setting or benchmarking initiative.
Once McDonalds identifies the
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Natural Selection Paper
Natural Selection Paper Natural selection is considered one of the most important processes for a
variety of species and the environment which allows the fittest organisms to produce offspring. To
prevent a species from extinction, it is necessary for them to adapt to the surrounding environment.
The species which have the ability to adapt to new surroundings will be able to pass their genes
through reproduction. Within the process of natural selection, it is possible for the original genetic
make–up of a species to become altered. The team will report on the different processes of basic
mechanisms of evolution, how natural selection results in biodiversity and why biodiversity is
important to continued evolution. The sources of genetic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
Why Biodiversity is Important to Continued Evolution
The three levels of biodiversity are as follows: diversity of the ecosystems, diversity of species
within the communities and diversity within species. The loss of species within the ecosystems and
within the community can cause a catastrophic result, as species live and feed on other species.
Species close to extinction are endangered species, therefore protecting them from predators and
offering the chance to reproduce and repopulate. Unfortunately, with little support within the
environment, a species can become extinct due to population density. Proper monitoring of an
endangered species is required in order to keep species actively reproducing and changing with the
environment around them.
There is another side to the biodiversity of the evolutionary field, as the population weakens the
species start the inbreeding of smaller populations, thus playing a role in the extinction of a species.
Inbreeding is reproduction among members of a species that are genetically similar. The genetic
inbreeding is designed to bolster populations of species whose numbers are in decline. However,
when only a few species or varieties of a species are cultivated or survive, the genetic diversity of
the organism declines, and population is more vulnerable to being wiped out by new diseases or
climate changes because of the inbreeding (Alters, 2000). Conservation biologists recognize that
biodiversity can be sustained only
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Multilevel Selection
Multilevel selection (MLS)
Presently, the interest for selection of animal have been rejuvenated towards the theory of multilevel
selection (Okasha, 2006; West et al. 2008; Gardner and Grafen, 2009; Nowak et al. 2010; Lion et al.
2011; Frank, 2013). From time being debate has been going on to whether or not selection can
operate at multiple levels because of the confusion that arises due to the presence of weak
individuals at the group levels but with respect to time the individual might show much stronger
notion of adaptation at the different level (Wilson and Wilson, 2007; Gardner and Grafen, 2009).
Although, now the social evolution theorists had also widely accepted that a covariance between
group trait and fitness may arise due to response ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Animal breeder has considered it as a simple 'aggregate' of the traits of the group's that is constituent
by individuals, nevertheless some other scholars had imagination that group traits were often
'emergent' and might be undefined at the individual level (Salt, 1979; Grantham, 1995). Secondly, a
similar type of ambiguity arises over the actual concept of group fitness. Typically, it has been
defined that the group with greater number of daughter individuals would considered as most fittest
group, however, an alternative approach clearly disagree the concept in the context of variable group
size (Damuth and Heisler, 1988; Sober, 1993; Okasha, 2006; Rainey & Kerr, 2011). Lastly, there
was a doubt regarding how to carry out the multilevel selection analysis, as multilevel selection 1
(MLS–1) was mostly responsible for describing the change in the frequencies of different types of
individual and multilevel selection 2 (MLS–2) explained about the change in the frequencies of
different types of groups (Michod, 2011; Rainey and Kerr, 2011). Moreover, MLS theory did not
take care of the problems engaged with class structure, i.e., when different groups differ from others
in terms of non–genetic reasons (West et al. 2008; Gardner and Grafen, 2009; Frank,
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Animal Selection Vs Artificial Selection
1) Natural selection is when the species survival and their reproduction determine the genetic traits
compared to artificial selection that is when humans can choose their traits that will show up in their
future generations. Although humans intensify and inhibit organism's genetic traits through select
ancestry, nature concerns itself with characteristics that concede improvements to a species' ability
to mate and survive. when Humans select organisms to breed for selective traits, some times they
select members to improve their traits. But sometimes this inbreeding can cause an expression of
hazardous genes.
2) When we select individuals of stabilization with some intermediate values of some trait, it often
has higher aptitudes compared ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The second reason is the expansion of resource allocation to offspring quantity versus quality that
can account for observations socioecological and individual levels of variation in fertility.
5) Asexual reproduction produces children who inherit all the DNA of one of their parents, making
them genetically identical compared to those of sexual reproduction that in that case their children,
show some familiar resemblances, but in spite of that, the brothers vary because they inherit
different combinations of genes from both parents.
6) Monogamy is when and individual is in a relationship and he or she only has one partner in their
entire life. But also, this could be related to animals that only have one mate in their entire life,
which could be called as a pair bonding and an example of this could be penguins. In addition,
polygyny includes the polygyny, polygynandry and also polyandry and it's when a person (generally
man) has more than one partner. On the other hand, polyandry is when a woman has more than one
husband and promiscuity is when someone has sex with different people of by the choice of of
sexual
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Artificial Selection: Two Pros And Cons Of Artificial...
There are many different types of breeding, but two main types are selective and natural breeding.
Both of these types of breddings are involved in something else and are nothing like each other.
Each breeding causes something else, and is involved with another part of their environment. To
begin, natural selection and artificial selection are drastically different. Natural selection is the
process by which varied traits that increase survival and enable reproduction are passed down from
one generation to another generation. Natural selection is where all species have some sort of
involvement with the environment that they live in. An example of this would be in a habitat where
there are red bugs and green bugs. In the article "Natural Selection ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
Artificial selection could not only be good for the environment but can help people as well. From
the article "Pros and Cons of Artificial Selection" they state, "Farmers who engage in artificial
selection can create crops that are bigger, more plentiful, or more resilient to local pests. When more
of a crop can be grown to completion on a regular basis, then this allows for more profits to be
achieved." If the farners where to cross–breed the species, it can create a new species, and could
make one that hasn't been existed yet. The farmer could then sell this and make a great deal off of it.
When related to a food chain, the artificial selection can live longer and grow to be more powerful.
In the article they also explain, "Horses can become faster. Chickens begin laying eggs sooner or
laying more eggs. Even cats or dogs can be bred through artificial selection for better
companionship." Artificial breeding will not only cause different types of breedings, but by doing so
it can cause crops, animals, and even people to maybe even make there life easier. Lastly, another
example of artificial breeding is that they can be used in every industry. There isn't any plant that
can't get something out of the breeding process. If you pick animals that have the most beneficial
traits, a life can be developed that is better suited to meet the needs of a changing
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Mate Selection Theories
Mate Selection Theories in Action Choosing a life partner is a crucial task that majority of
individuals, if not everyone, partake in sometime during their lifetime. This process is otherwise
known as mate selection (White, Martin, & Bartolic, 2013). Since mate selection is such an
important aspect of any individual's life, it would make sense that it is an area that has been
researched extensively. There are a number of mate selection theories in existence, but this paper
will focus on looking at biosocial theory and equity theory specifically. I find biosocial theory quite
intriguing because it is something I can see while living out my everyday life. This specific mate
selection theory states that women are more selective of partners ... Show more content on
Helpwriting.net ...
Ashley was originally the underbenefitter in the relationship (she was not receiving as much as she
should) while Brock was the overbenfitter (he was receiving way more then he should) (White et al.,
2013). Ashley would go out of her way to do everything for him, while there were days Brock
would barely give her the time of day. This eventually caused distress and Ashley attempted to
restore equity by asking Brock for more. Though Ashley tried to believe that their relationship was
more equitable after this, the real changes were not there and so Ashley left the relationship. This is
a perfect example of the mate selection theory that is equity
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Human Selection Vs Natural Selection
. The first force of evolution is mutation. It can be random or influenced and occurs during mitosis
or meiosis. It happens when there is a change in a persons genetic code; most mutations are
harmless. The second force is natural selection. Natural selection is the survival of a species with the
help of their biological characteristics. Fitness, a type of natural selection, is a species ability to
survive and produce offspring. The third force is genetic drift. This is a random change in a species'
allele frequency. This can happen during a catastrophic event (bottleneck effect) or during a species
colonization in a new region (founder effect). The fourth and final force is gene flow. Gene flow is
the migration and reproduction of alleles
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
Natural Selection Vs. Sexual Selection
What is sexual selection? Sexual selection is the natural selection arising through preference by one
sex for certain characteristics in individuals of the other sex. This means they are copulating with
their other mate. Sexual selection can be dangerous in some cases depending on the rate and length
of copulating. It can be so harmful to species that they may not be able to survive from it afterwards.
Charles Darwin distinguished sexual selection and its various ways. He realized that sexual selection
is similar to natural selection in some ways but also different in other forms of sources. Sexual
selection is similar to natural selection because it enhances the male traits but different from natural
selection because it does not
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Natural Selection In Frankenstein

  • 1. Natural Selection In Frankenstein Why are there an abundant amount of similar species? Why can't human–made be superior to nature? Why, oh why, is there predators and death? A few questions to jolt your brain for a complex question: What truly rules the world, adaptations and improvements endowed by natural selection or the characteristics filtered by human creation? Natural selection involves instincts, morphology and an organism's preferred niche. No one controls the process. No one can disrupt the flow with any natural methods. When something happens (i.e climate change, diseases, etc.) that limits the survival and reproductivity rate of a species, nature makes sure that if the species survive that it adapts and passes that adaptation onto its offspring. Change concerning ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... When an adaptation helps one particular species thrive relative to their genetic cousins or parent species, then it is serving its purpose. In Frankenstein's monster case, it is riddled with faults and disadvantages. Major faults include its tall stature, stitched together body parts and its dead skin and appearance. These are disadvantages to the monster as they drive away his closest species kin of genetics and morphology as all the villagers attack and chase him out their homes. The fear of these maladaptations mimics how nature dislikes unnatural discrepancies that should be pushed ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. The Gorill Natural Selection And Sexual Selection Darwin's theory is in regards to natural selection and sexual selection. The gorilla is an animal that uses the two selections to determine their protection, feeding, and reproduction. First Charles Darwin described the characteristics and structures that a animal like a gorilla is born with. He states that these characters and structures will have slow changes that will be different than when they were born. Then he believes that they will have characters and structures that are trifling important. This means that although the structures and characters may look like they aren't important, these structures and characters actually have a significant factor regarding their protection. The gorilla possess significant structures and characters that are prime for their survival. Thirdly, Darwin believes that in natural selection animals like gorillas have structures and characters that are beneficial between the young and the old. These structures and characters are what protects gorillas. They are also used to feed gorillas like the breast on a female gorilla, or the silver hair on the back of a male gorilla. Lastly, Darwin explains the greatness of sexual selection involving gorillas. He also believe that they use determining factors on what male gorilla the female gorilla chooses to reproduce with. After analyzing the quotes from Darwin's "The Survival of the Fittest", I will explain the quotes to some degree and use examples that the gorillas possess that are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. Natural Selection Part B. Over the millions of years organisms have been present on earth, there has been many forms of evidence to suggest animals are evolving through natural selection. However, the question still remains as to whether homo sapiens are still evolving through natural selection. Through the nature of science being subject to change and many new discoveries being made each day, it is difficult to make clear confined theories and conclusions, which will not be impacted on in the future. Slide 14: From Lamarck and Darwin's first key discovery into the theory of evolution and natural selection, the statement of 'evolution by natural selection is no longer applicable to homo sapiens in Australia' would be incorrect as in the analysis of these ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Slide 22: The main idea which discredits and contradicts evolution involves the idea that evolution proceeds by random chance. However in Australia and among homo sapiens the only evidence to support the idea that evolution is occurring are as a result of an organism evolving in order to adapt to the changing environmental conditions of Australia. Slide 23: In conclusion, there are many different forms of evidence to support the idea of evolution by natural selection among homo sapiens in Australia. With reference to the scientific theories and information present today, it becomes obvious that homo sapiens in Australia are still evolving and will continue to over time in order to cope with and adapt to environmental changes. In the words of Sir Charles Darwin, "It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is most adaptable to change." Thank ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. Natural and Artificial Selection Introduction Many scientists in the past, such as Aristotle and Plato, believed that there were no changes in populations; however, other scientists, such as Darwin and Wallace, arose and argued that species inherit heritable traits from common ancestors and environmental forces drives out certain heritable traits that makes the species better suited to survive or be more "fit" for that environment. Therefore, species do change over a period of time and they were able to support their theory by showing that evolution does occur. There were four basic mechanisms of evolution in their theory: mutation, migration, genetic drift, and natural selection. Natural selection is the gradual process by which heritable traits that makes it more ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... We randomly selected 10 plants to be our parent generation for the control group and we chose 10 plants to be the experimental group. For the experimental group, we chose the 10 plants that had the longest first true leaf petiole lengths because that was what we were trying to manipulate in this experiment. We then took sticks with wires on them and carefully placed it where our chosen plants were in order to enhance the survival of our plants because the plants needed support in order to grow. In this experiment, we are trying to see if petiole length is a heritable and variable trait, so the experimental group should have longer petiole lengths in the second generation, when we replant, and the control should have a random variance since we did not select for the longest petiole lengths in our parent generation. After our parent generation plants have grown and the flowers started to bloom, we had to cross pollinate our plants in order for them interbreed with one another (Freeman, 2002). As mentioned before, artificial selected trait may interbreed with one other in order to reinforce that those desirable traits, in this case petiole length, will show up in the offspring (Artificial Selection). We were able to interbreed our plants with one another by using a q tip. We took the cotton swab of the end of the q tip and gently rubbed it around the highest ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Essay on Sex Selection and Pre-selection are Unethical Sex Selection and Pre–selection are Unethical and Unwise It wasn't until 1975 that scientist Ronald J. Ericsson, Ph.D. began studies that eventually led to what we refer to today as sex selection and/ or pre– selection. He began his determination by studying whether or not enriched sperm would aid in the offspring of a desired gender. This process was first established in the 1970s in which scientists stained X and Y sperm in order to identify them. Thorough studies have been accumulated during the last three decades due to an increase in the perceived need for a "balanced family" and "planned pregnancy" in regards to the "chosen baby." Sex selection and/or pre–selection, despite one's preference of gender, is a scientifically ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Abortion itself is a separate issue for debate, however, plays a significant factor in sex selection. Many of the procedures related to sex selection involve terminating an embryo, either inside or outside the womb. This is an atrocity to those who disapprove of aborting fetuses on moral or religious grounds. Choosing to have an abortion due to an undesired gender creates several health risks for the female. Abortion increases a woman's overall risk of breast cancer by thirty percent, successive pregnancies are negatively affected by induced abortion, and abortion can put psychological factors at risk. "Designer babies" are made possible through three distinctive techniques: advanced reproductive technology, cell and chromosome manipulation, and genetics and genome's. Human reproduction techniques are extremely complicated and inconsistent. "There are many factors involved in producing a baby: the genetic constitution of the parents, the condition of the parents' egg and sperm, and the health and behavior of the impregnated mother" (Gosden 116). When you also take into consideration the enormous complexity of the human genome, with its billions of DNA components, it becomes apparent that reproduction will always have an element of unpredictability. "Many of these baby–designing techniques can be considered unethical, because they treat each embryo as a means for someone else's happiness, instead of as an ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. Theories Of Natural Selection Natural selection is the key to evolution. The difference in genotype from generation gives rise to key traits that help species survive and flourish. When these species reproduce, they pass on their genes to their offspring who then will be able to survive. Those species who don't have these key traits reduce in number because they don't possess vital traits that can help them survive nor can they pass on vital traits to their offspring. Charles Darwin was the person who came up with this theory and he discussed it extensively in his book The Origin of Species. This theory explains why we have so much species with distinct traits but what it doesn't explain is the evolution of neuter individuals. Neuter individuals can't reproduce so if they had any trait that gave them a foothold over nature, it cannot be passed on to another ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The worker bees help the queen reproduce and have a reduced reproduction rate as a result. In Darwin's special difficulty; the evolution of "neuter insects" and current theory, Francis .W. Ratnieks reviews Darwin's discussion about altruistic worker insects and natural selection and connects them with some current ideas about altruism. This essay discusses Darwin's question: how can natural selection favor the evolution of sterile workers? At first, it seemed like worker bees presented a challenge to natural selection but after years of research, Darwin and other modern biologist formalized theories that explained the natural selection of worker bees. Modern biologist generalized Darwin's difficulty with these bees as a problem of altruism. They consider altruism to be a paradox because even though altruistic animals give up their fitness on behalf of other animals, they continue to evolve and survive. Natural selection states that the more fit animals are, the more likely they are to survive. Natural selection increases reproduction ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. Recruitment And Selection Of Human Resources Problem The problem is creating a recruitment and selection plan to ensure the recruitment of these employees runs smoothly, ties into our company's mission and vision, complies with the law, and encourages diversity. The purpose of this plan to meet the unique meet of four predetermined positions in our company. Evidence From an article "Planning Recruitment & Selection of Human Resources", Johnston states that recruitment and selection of human resources can have internal and external searches for what?? (Johnston, n.d.). In another resource, Gusdorf also agrees with recruiting and selecting from internal environment and external environment (Gusdorf, n.d.). Gusdorf also presents legal issues for hiring people externally. For instance, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination which "is based on a person's race, color, sex, religion or national origin"; the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967 protects "persons aged 40 and older for organizations of 20 or more employees"; the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 states it is "unlawful to refuse employment to a woman based on pregnancy, childbirth or any related medical condition"; and "the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 prohibits discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities in organizations of 15 or more employees" (Gusdorf, n.d.). Analysis According to class lecture slides, recruiting and selecting methods involves internal recruiting and external recruiting. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. General Approaches For Feature Selection General Approaches for Feature Selection There are 3 types of approaches for feature selection namely filter, wrapper, embedded method. Filter method: Filter method does not involve a learning algorithm for measuring feature subset [6]. It is fast and efficient for computation .filter method can fail to select the feature that are not beneficial by themselves but can be very beneficial when unite with others. Filter method evaluates the feature by giving ranks to their evaluation value. In filter method it evaluates the correlation between the features by using criteria such as, mutual information, maximum length, maximum relevance min redundancy (mRMR), PCA. Figure 1.2 Filter approach Wrapper method: wrapper method involve learning algorithm and search for optimal feature subset from original feature set which discover the relationship between relevance and optimal subset selection. It performed better than the filter method. The specific training classifier is used to evaluate the performance of selected features. Figure 1.3 Wrapper approach Embedded method: Embedded method is a combination of wrapper method and embedded method. This decreases the computational cost than wrapper approach and captures feature dependencies. It searches locally for features that allow better discrimination and also the relationship between the input feature and the targeted feature. It involves the learning algorithm which is used to select optimal subset among ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. Natural Selection Vs Sexual Selection Essay The matter of Natural Selection was brought forth by Charles Darwin and with that evolved the concept of Sexual Selection. The first thing that may come to mind is male preference in females for reproductive purposes. It is quite common when thinking about the process of Natural Selection. We don't typically take notice of Darwin's recognition or acceptance for "female choice" upon mate selection and the role it plays in our evolution. Both males and females differentiate when it comes to parental investment. Therefore selection of the opposite sex in order to benefit their kin is a valuable choice. We know that amongst men typically their preferences are based on physical attractiveness; so then what drives females. In attempts to better understand what and how females make their decisions in benefit for themselves and their offspring and how they have possibly evolved. We will look at a variety of ideas that have been formed in the research attempted to get a better understanding of this topic. Natural Selection and Sexual Selection Darwin brought forward two ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... But other research has shown that female choice could have something to do with female resistance rather than attraction towards males. We are aware that females select males with traits that can be of no good but their choices are to benefit their own fertility. In contrast to this idea it has been brought to attention that possibly sexual conflict over mating could possibly relate to the evolution of mate selection. Males evolve in order to attract females and mate with. And then you have females who evolve resistance instead of attraction to minimize the costs when it comes to mate selection. Certain sexual conflicts such as parental effort, mate rates and mating duration are important in the evolutionary systems. (Gavrilets, Goran, and Urban ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. Explanation Of Natural Selection Explanation of the concept of natural selection and how it takes place – Natural selection is the process where organisms that have more advantageous adaptions that benefit its survival in its environment then breed and produce offspring with similar traits that then have a greater chance of survival. For natural selection to occur there are essential elements that are required; variation, heritability and excess production. For the formation of a new species there must be variation within a species so that some may have slightly better adaptions to the climate, diseases or other survival traits like better camouflage. The organisms that possess these adaptions are sometimes called more fit; this is called 'survival of the fittest'. The 'fitter' organisms will then reproduce and their offspring will inherit the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The explanation that was given for this was that recent organisms only can be descendants of organisms that lived in the same area in ancient times. For example British settlers brought horses and cows into Australia so there are no native descendants of horses and cows there. Thus there are two main pieces of evidence in fossils that support Darwin's evolution ideas; using isotope dating methods, ancient fossils contained simpler organisms and younger fossils contained more advanced organisms. Another piece of evidence in fossils is that organisms retain some feature through the generations along with obtaining new ones. For example, the fossils of the Archaeopteryx have shown that the creature had feature of a reptile (teeth, claws and jointed tail) along with ones of a bird (beak, feathers and a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20.
  • 21. Natural Selection Hypothesis The effects of natural selection on the process of evolution in beans (Phaseolus). Abstract The purpose of this study was to understand the process of natural selection through a simulation involving competition of various preys and predators. In order to simulate natural selection, experimenters became predators and acted as a species of fork, spoon, knife, or fingers. Beans of four different phenotypes (white, green, black, and red) represented the prey. The predators hunted prey for 30 seconds three times–symbolizing three generations. The prey and predator survivors were doubled each generation to simulate reproduction. This experiment was done in an asphalt and sand environment. All data was recorded. The black bean was also the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... For generation one, the spoon, fork, and fingers species started with three predators while the knife species started with four. The number of predator survivors was one for spoon, zero for fork and knife, and three for fingers. The second generation doubled its' predator survivors of the previous generation, resulting in a starting number of two spoon predators, zero fork & knife predators, and six fingers predators. For generation two, spoon, fork, and knife species yielded zero predator survivors and fingers yielded four. The third generation doubled the previous predator survivors to result in a starting number of eight fingers predators and zero of the species of spoon, fork, and knife. Generation three had five fingers predator survivors and zero of the other ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22.
  • 23. Compare Directional Selection And Disruptive Selection Jessica Northey Exam Number 250104 1. Compare directional selection and disruptive selection, Provide an example of each. The two different types of selection differ because instead of the subject only going in one direction it will split off and go two different ways. This would be disruptive selection where there is more than one option to select or two distinct groups. For example, if some flowers and their colors. The main colors may be red, pink and white primarily, say that the more dominate color being a pink flower. What happens if we remove the pink flower from the equation? It would cause the flowers to shift toward the dominant color which in this case you might think is the red. However, in this case it is not because between red and white is the least drastic and according to phenotypes would be the color that would be dominate if pink was eliminated as an option in a directional selection there is only one trait and it is always that dominant trait that dictates body of the population. Directional selection is more based of natural selection and survival. Examples would be things such as a giraffe having a long neck to reach high foliage than other animals for survival or a bunny being a color more specific to blending into its surroundings. 2. Many pathogenic bacteria species are becoming resistant to antibiotic. Explain how such adaptations can develop through the process of natural selection. Bacteria are not just suddenly becoming resistant to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24.
  • 25. Human Selection Vs Artificial Selection Essay Evolution by artificial selection and natural selection have in common that they both favor certain traits over others. Moreover, they select on traits that are heritable, but they differ in the way traits are selected. Natural selection favors multiple ways to improve an individual's fitness while in artificial selection, humans decide which traits they want to have in the next generation, which actually reduce the individual's fitness. 2) In stabilizing selection, the individuals with intermediate phenotypes have a high chance of survival and reproductive success. Moreover, the average phenotype does not change, so not much evolutionary change will occur. On the other hand, in disruptive selection, individuals with extreme phenotypes at either end of the distribution are the ones with higher fitness, which means that the magnitude of phenotype variation will increase to the next generation. 3) Even though semelparous and iteroparous are a little similar because they both involve reproduction; they are also different because they differ in how many times reproduction can happen throughout an organism's life. Semelparity is when organisms evolve to reproduce only once during their entire life such as insects and plants. On the other ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... There is an additional cost of reduce fitness for organisms in which the genders are separate. Also, there is another cost known as the cost of meiosis, which means that in sexual reproduction, only half of the genes are passed on to the next generation. On the other hand, there are some important benefits in sexual reproduction including purging harmful mutations and creating genetic variation that assistances offspring deal with the variations in the environment. In contrast, asexual reproduction creates clonal offspring only if the parents are perfectly adapted to the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26.
  • 27. Compare And Contrast Directional Selection And Disruptive... Jessica Northey Exam Number 250104 1.Compare and contrast directional selection and disruptive selection, Provide and example of each. Directional selection and disruptive selection differ because instead of the subject only going in one direction it will split off and go two different ways for example if some flowers and their colors. The main colors may be red, pink and white primarily, and the more dominate color being a pink flower. But if we remove the pink flower completely from the equation then the flowers will shift toward the dominant white color over the red. In a directional selection there is only one trait and it is always that dominant trait that dictates body of the population. The best example to show this is that in the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Vertebrates are known to be animals with backbones. Tooth reduction is one of the major evolutionary trends that developed among major vertebrate groups that allowed for the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life. Evolution of limbs and being able to breath air are other evolutionary trends that took placeThese trends include improved respiration and protective and insulating body coverings. More over the transition from water to land also included changing to more efficient reproductive methods like having a placenta for some animals or egg layers for other animals. Lastly, the morphology of organisms evolved such that for land they would have paired, muscular appendages used for crawling and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28.
  • 29. Population Selection Rationale on Population Selection: In order to ensure the survival of humankind, we need to preserve the best of all humanity. By taking the top 1% of all people, we can ensure we are getting the best people to represent the survival of our race as a human being. Perhaps with this form of preservation, we can even make humanity better off by blending the genes of the best of the best to make them even better. Utopia or Dystopia: There really is not one answer to this question. I feel that the two terms, utopia and dystopia, are not mutually exclusive, as many societies are a mixture using aspects of both. I like to think out society fall rights in the center between the two. There are utopian aspects, for instance, how we decided not to conceal ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
  • 31. Sexual Selection and Natural Selection Selection is the functional relationship between phenotypes and fitness. Natural selection is the production of organisms according to their physical attributes whereby off springs of the younger generations takes the strong, desired and inheritable aspects of their parents. They become more adapted to the environment although some does well than others according to their individual traits which are attributed to their phenotypes (Sinervo, 1997). According to Charles Darwin, fitness can be described in three different forms of selection which interferes with the mean of phenotypic traits in a population. They include: directional selection; stabilizing selection; and destructive selection. Directional selection in the long term can lead ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Unlike natural selection, sexual selection does not adapt individuals to the environment, but it enhances mate acquisition. It also explains how sexually desired traits may have fuelled the fire of rapid organism development. Some of the traits acquired give either negative or positive results. Negative results can even lead to extinction, but positive results can lead to elaborate change that brings about a stronger and better species. Darwin theory of sexual selection observed that female are the limiting sex and most of them are unavailable for sex as they are pregnant or caring for young one. Since male tends to be in excess, they develop ornaments to attract female or engage each other on male contests. Sexual selection is categorized in to two categories; intersexual selection and intrasexual competition. Intersexual selection is also known as mate choice or female choice in which males competes with fellow males for female. This means that the male must develop a feature that would attract the opposite sex; sometimes this can lead to fashion. The conditions determining which factor becomes more limited can be explained by the way of Bateman's Principle which states that the sex which invest most in producing off springs becomes a limited over which the other sex will fight for. Intrasexual competition is also known as male–male competition where by members of the less ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32.
  • 33. Natural Selection In Animals If natural selection is to result in the evolution of traits associated with adaptation within a given plant population certain conditions such as sexual reproduction, mutations, and gene flow, all of which facilitate genetic variation, must exist. While plants can reproduce asexually, those that reproduce sexually produce new alleles through genetic recombination. This allows for the emergence of new phenotypes, and subsequently new individuals, that are better suited for their environment. Likewise, mutations, which are changes in DNA, can add genetic variation to a population and create phenotypic changes. If these alterations result in individuals being better suited to their environment, natural selection will select for these traits, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34.
  • 35. Raeka Natural Selection Natural selection is one of the greatest sources of genetic variation in nature, causing individuals of certain populations to diversify from other populations based on their environmental conditions (Genetic Analysis). This is apparent in every aspect of animals within a certain population, ranging from obvious differences in color and size, to something as specific as venom composition in snakes of the same species (Aiyar, Raeka). For example, an Eastern diamondback rattlesnake in the Florida panhandle area has a notably different composition of toxins in its venom than a member of its same species about five hundred miles away (Aiyar, Raeka). However, a recent study found something quite astonishing: the venom of the Eastern coral snake ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The protein mix from each sample was completely indistinguishable from all other samples from different populations. Darin Rokyta, one of the scientists leading the study, commented on this phenomenon, stating "We were shocked. This is the first time anyone has looked at venom variation at this scale, and everybody has assumed that the co–evolutionary arms race would cause local populations to diverge quickly" (Aiyar, Raeka). The research team proposed several hypotheses to explain the absence of venom variation among these coral snakes, such as the possibility of a recent population displacement or that the lack of variation is due to differences in the dynamics of the coral snake and its reptilian prey versus the small animal preference of the diamondbacks (Margres etc., 173). The research team is currently investigating genetic clues to determine the true explanation (Aiyar, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36.
  • 37. Categorization Between Racial Selection And Natural Selection The racial categories, while seemingly culturally meaningful, are biologically arbitrary. Racial statutes cannot be mapped accurately in the human genome, or as a set of traits. Traits generally ascribed to a certain "race" rarely only occur within that "race." Natural selection and evolution are mechanisms that distribute variation in ways that are not concordant with racial categorization. In order to understand the variation within the human race, one must understand how advantageous traits are passed on through generations, and that these traits are advantageous for a specific environmental situation. Some examples of these variations are dark skin, sickle cell disease, and nasal morphology. Dark skin, which is usually the defining trait for racial categories, has a very clear evolutionary history, which is not racially significant. Dark skin does not vary like a multiple choice selection; rather, skin color is variable on a continuous scale. Continuous variation allows variation to be expressed on a gradient. Skin color is a particularly adept example of how variation can be gradated. The Way skin color is expressed as a physical trait is through a pigment in cells called melanin. Along with melanin variability, the amount of hemoglobin, which shows up as the reddish tints in skin ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Due to the way natural selection and evolution take place, human variation occurs outside of the static racial categories that has persisted throughout history. These categories are based on variable physical traits that give no reliable information about the group as a whole. The idea that these categories are biologically meaningful is not only false, but can be harmful as well. When racial paradigms are applied in the real world, the results are sometimes harmful. Understanding that racial categories are arbitrary in a biological sense is beneficial to society as a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38.
  • 39. Sex Selection And Ethics : Sexual Selection Essay Sex Selection and Ethics Over the course of the semester the topic I felt that I analyzed and reflected upon most was sex selection. Sex selection is a topic that I knew very little about at the beginning of this semester, but I have come to learn a lot about and appreciate over these past few weeks. Sex selection refers to numerous methods that allow one to select the desired sex of their embryo. Technologies that include ultrasounds or prenatal testing followed by selective abortion, preimplantation genetic selection (PGS) for sex, as well as numerous sperm–sorting methods, are readily available for families that yearn for a particular sex of their unborn child. I have considered both sides of the argument against and in favor of sex selection, but my view is sincerely against sex selection. The WHO states that there are three core motivations for engaging in sex determination and sex selection which include "medical reasons such as preventing the birth of children affected or at risk of X–linked disorders; family balancing reasons where couples choose to have a child of one sex because they already have one or more children of the other sex; and gender preference reason often in favor of male offspring stemming from cultural, social, and economic bias in favor of male children and as a result of policies requiring couples to limit reproduction to one child, as in China." In countries such as India and China, it is apparent that women can be harmed by sex selection ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40.
  • 41. Sexual Selection And Gender Selection Name: Chloe Mulqueen Lecturer: Grace McCormack ID: 14470708 Module: Evolutionary Biology ZO317 Sexual selection in fish inhabiting great lakes Sexual selection can best be described by the definition given by Darwin himself. Sexual selection is "the advantage which certain individuals have over other individuals of the same species solely in respect of reproduction" (Hosken et al, 2011). Sexual selection occurs throughout the animal kingdom, where male frogs dominate through the depth of their croak, and certain peacocks reign superior based on the colour and intricate detail on their tails. They remain superior to their lesser counterparts as they bear more admirable characteristics, from which they are chosen by females of the same species. Intersexual selection describes one sex (commonly females) choosing male partners for copulation. Females tend to choose the males based on secondary sexual characteristics. Intrasexual selection, on the other hand, is competition within the same sex, in the hope of gaining access to the other sex for reproduction (Eberhard, 1996). It is commonly male species competing against each other for female partners. These two forms of sexual selection results in more developed offspring, as the fitter male will out–compete other males and also is more likely to be chosen be ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42.
  • 43. The Theory Of Natural Selection The theory of natural selection creates a harsher lenses in which man views fauna, one with only clinical observance and without emotion. Natural history seemingly becomes a chronicle of cruelty and triumph of the strongest and a eulogy for the weaker. Instead of being daunted by this, Charles Darwin's reaction to this methodical cycle was relief. It can be seen throughout his ¬Origin of Species in which he uses double meanings in order to mediate the brutal perception of nature that comes from his theories. Darwin's loaded language inconspicuously reminds the reader of moral norms and to consider nature as something separate from man and God. Darwin was educated by the Anglican Church even though he was a never a practicing cleric. Therefore in his writings he uses morally loaded language to reflect Christian Bible's morals. The black–and–white of nature in the "ejecting...foster brothers...ants making slaves..." detracts from the overall theme of love taught in the Bible which encourages not only the love of brothers but also charity and kindness. By Darwin's time, slavery in England had been abolished and abhorred for decades. These actions seen in nature are not readily welcome into the lives of men. God still holds man to a standard of logic and fairness which is grounded in the Bible. As a Christian, Darwin should be confused where nature is full of selfishness and death and God commands kindness. And if God created nature specifically as horrendous as he had, then why ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44.
  • 45. Essay Compare And Contrast Directional Selection And... Lesson 3 Essay Questions: 1– Compare and contrast directional selection and disruptive selection, and provide an example of each. Directional selection occurs when one extreme of a trait is favored and the distribution curve shifts in that direction. An example of this is the human struggle with malaria. The mosquito Anopheles transmits the disease. A new drug for the disease and a insecticide for the mosquito was created. But over the years they became resistant to it and multiplied, shifting the distribution curve toward the resistant type of parasite. Disruptive selection is where any two extremes of a trait are favored over any intermediate phenotype. For example, British land snails are found in low vegetation areas. The thrushes ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... So, if the plant entices an animal, say a bumblebee, to come to it by offering it some sweet nectar, then plant can attach some of its pollen to the back of animal and it will carry it to a new ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46.
  • 47. Natural Selection Experience When observing the progression of knowledge within a discipline, one may begin to notice trends, specifically that the aspects of knowledge that were beneficial to society were further developed, which outdated the aspects of knowledge that were disadvantageous. This trend is similar to the principles of "natural selection," defined in the natural sciences as "the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring." Before I describe my interpretation of "natural selection," it is necessary to define "knowledge," which, in terms of this essay, is an idea or technology developed to improve the lives, and has been shown to do so. I interpreted the scientific term "natural selection," to better ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Vaccinations have been beneficial in eliminating diseases, such as smallpox, worldwide, and eliminating diseases like mumps and rubella by over 99 percent. However, certain, serious conditions, primarily measles, have been reocurring. For example, in 2013, the measles occurrences spiked to 3 times their normal levels in the United States. This circumstance is primarily due to parents failing to vaccinate their children, due to claims from other parents that vaccines can trigger autism in a child. The severity of these claims have led researchers to devote their careers to prove them true or false, but, as of now, these claims remain bombastic, and many lives are in danger because of the failure to get ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48.
  • 49. Natural Selection Vs Artificial Selection The Darwinian view of life came into focus in 1859, when he published one of the most important books called " On the Origin of Species by Mean of Natural Selection". Back in Darwin's time in the 19th century historians were being to think of evolutionary change as an explanation for patterns observed in the future. He did not invent this idea however he carried out the necessary research to document the idea. He made this book to make two valid points, "descent and modification" and "process natural selection". Descent and modification described the evidence and support that he gathered about species. "It is an insightful phrase, as it captures the duality of life's unity (descent) and diversity (modification)." Simon, Eric J., Jane Reece, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Again, natural selection is the process in nature by which organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and reproduce more. A good example would be a tree frog, they are sometimes eaten by snakes.Gray Tree frogs bend well in the darker wooden areas, as for green Tree frogs blend better with the greens. If a green tree frog is on a barks its easier for a predator to find than compared to a green tree frog on a green leaf. Green tree frogs that go into habitats where they are not camouflaged are most likely going to eaten by they're predators, which in conclusion tree frogs that have been eaten by they're predators do not have the chance to have more babies. Animals and plants that have a higher chance to survive, reproduce and increase their population more that the ones that are less adapted to their ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 50.
  • 51. Selection And Natural Selection : Roles And... Specific forces drive evolution and alter populations over the course of many generations. Different characteristics are inherited when a modification occurs in a species. Present genes within a population controls the characteristics, which determine the allele frequencies. Evolution occurs in a population of interbreeding that involves multiple members. To drive evolution, there are five forces: Natural selection, Migration, Mutation, Nonrandom mating, and Genetic drift. Natural selection was founded by Charles Darwin, who described the term as "this preservation of favourable variations and the rejection of injurious variations" (Hoefnagels). The idea is from artificial selection when humans choose the most desirable traits for a species. Natural selection changes the allele frequencies within a population and gets rid of the phenotypes who have poorly adapted. The ones who live are classified as "survival of the fittest," meaning they have lived long enough to reproduce. Natural selection can occur in three modes and has effects on populations. Directional selection is when the environment selects the most extreme phenotype of the fittest. Disruptive or diversifying selection is when two or more phenotypes are a better fit for the environment than the immediate phenotype. Stabilizing or normalizing selection occurs when the "extreme phenotype is less fit than the optimal intermediate phenotype" (Hoefnagels). In the article, "The Impact of Evolutionary Driving Forces on Human Complex Diseases: A Population Genetics Approach," talks about how natural selection is present in human populations. A link was found between natural selection and a complex disease in humans known as high blood pressure. An analysis was conducted to analyze the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of people from European and Non–European populations. Overall, there was a significant difference in the allele frequencies and the gene associated with blood pressure amongst the two populations. Natural selection will continue to alter populations of different species and effect evolution. Migration involves gene flow, which occurs when alleles move from one population and enter another. In the human population, migration has ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 52.
  • 53. Comparing Darwin's Theory Of Sexual Selection And Natural... Darwin's theory of evolution proposed a mechanism for decent with modification. His studies resulted in the proposal of two forms of selection, including sexual selection and natural selection. (3) The concept of sexual selection was developed by Darwin to account for many adaptations that appear incompatible with natural selection (3). Natural selection is a major component of evolution however it is still not fully understood. (2) Male guppies display an intricate colour pattern polymorphism that varies with risk of predation which makes them a good choice for studying natural selection. It is interesting to note that the bright spots that get guppies killed by predators due to them being less inconspicuous in their habitat is also the trait ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 54.
  • 55. Directional Selection And Disruptive Selection Directional selection and disruptive selection have quite a bit in common; however, they also have some contraries. Their biggest likeness is that they are both subcategories of natural selection. Natural selection is the process that results in adaptation of a population to the biotic and abiotic atmospheres. Directional selection takes place when an exaggerated phenotype is favored and the distribution curve alters in that direction. Such a shift can happen when a population is adjusting to a changing environment. Disruptive selection occurs when two or more extreme phenotypes are favored over any other ordinary phenotype. These two selections differ in that directional requires only one extreme phenotype whereas disruptive requires at least two. A prime example of a directional selection, is resistance to antibiotic treatment as well as insecticides. The extensive application of antibiotics and pesticides eventually develops populations of bacteria and insects that have grown resistant to the chemicals. When an antibiotic is employed, some bacteria may survive because they are genetically defiant to the treatment. These particular bacteria are likely to provide such genes for the next generation. As an outcome, the number of bacterial defiance continues to increase. Disruptive selection favors polymorphism, which is the happenings of different forms in a population of the exact same species. With thatstatement made, a classic example of disruptive selection would be that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 56.
  • 57. Evolution And Natural Selection Before the industrial revolution and the arrival of great scientists, mostly everybody on Earth relied on origin myths and supernatural forces like God to explain the creation of our world exactly as it is right now (HE). Little did they know that life on Earth is way more complex than this... Until someone came up with a revolutionary theory: evolution. We are going to explore together the concepts of evolution, natural selection and its theory, and all the different types of evidence for evolution there is at this moment compared to what Darwin had at his time. Firstly, to begin with understanding evolution, we need to determine what it is, what triggers it and its four mechanisms. Evolution, known as descent with modification, is a process ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... A complex concept using mutation, migration, genetic drift and natural selection has been shaping the way we evolve. Darwin's theory of natural selection still holds on today, but with more precise cause and effect, like the three conditions including differential reproduction, heredity and variation. To study any species, we need to remember the 4 lines of evidence that allows us to gather all that information. Understanding where we come from can help us know where were going, because in the end, humans are connected to all species around ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 58.
  • 59. Darwin's Theory Of Natural Selection And Disruptive Selection 2. Darwin put forth an unheard of chain of logic for his theory of natural selection during his time. This theory while unlike the many naturalist before him proposed a reasonable mechanism for change among species. His logic presents that each species will produce far more offspring than will actual survive to maturity. This leads to the population remaining at a fairly consistent size over time. This implies that competitions is present for survival and that individuals differ in their traits leading "survival of the fittest". The specie which survives then passes its traits along leading to the separation of traits from the common ancestor and leads to new species being created or evolving. This is where is thought process for evolution was derived from. 3. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... On the other hand, they mainly differ in the sense that directional change favors the extreme when compared to the average as well as favoring the the opposite extreme. Stabilizing selection highly favors the average trait unlike the other two. 10.) Compared to the biological species concept, it is seen that the morphological species concept is based distinctly upon the looks of a plant. When the appearance of a plant was like another's the two were considered the same. The biological species concept on the other hand, is based of reproductive systems. This means that a plant can be classified as the same species if it can interbreed among itself and often refrains from breeding with the plants of a separate ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 60.
  • 61. Directional Selection Lesson 3 essay questions 1. Compare and contrast directional selection and disruptive selection and provide an example of each. Directional selection and disruptive selection occurs when an extreme phenotype is favored to better a species so that it can adapt to its changing environment. The contrast between these two selections is that directional selection only has one extreme phenotype that is favored and disruptive selection has two or more extreme phenotypes that are favored over intermediate types. An example of directional selection is how the horses body started out as the size of a dog increased in size over time. This was due to grasslands replacing the forest. An example of disruptive selection is the British land snail with bands ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... When an antibiotic is given to kill bacteria sometimes some of the bacterial can survive because it is adapting to its environment. The surviving bacteria will pass on their resistant genes from generation to generation. An example of a bacteria that has become resistant to antibiotics is Tuberculosis. It is a contagious bacteria that infects the lungs. Over the years Tuberculosis has become resistant to multiple antibiotics due to directional selection. 3. What are the major evolutionary trends that developed among major vertebrate groups, specifically those that allowed for the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life? All vertebrate groups go through developmental changes to become adults. There is one animal, the frog that has the incredible ability to start life only living in the water to being able to be both aquatic and terrestrial. Frogs first start out as tadpoles, only able to live in the water and feed on plankton. As the frog starts to sexually mature it goes through a process called metamorphosis. The frogs body changes, it's tail gets shorter and the frog grows four limbs Now it can swim and hop, it's diet also charges were frogs can eat insects as well as other frog and fish depending on ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 62.
  • 63. Product Selection Paper Week 3 Team AAssignment: Product Selection PaperIn the world of organizational management, business and operations managers must work together to be able to implement processes which will ultimately bring products and services to life. New innovation will be researched thoroughly by the organizational managers so that once a product or service is approved for fabrication or implementation the processes used are compatible and efficient. In this paper Team A will discuss product selection and will focus on two products selected. Team A will analyze the products and discuss the pros and cons in comparison to each other. Team A will also discuss the decision making criteria used to select the products and lastly analyze baseline data ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Pros and ConsAlthough both of these sandwiches are a healthy choice, not all people like or enjoy the taste of a tortilla, whether corn or flour regardless of the reduced price as it relates to a typical sandwich. Some people do not care that the ingredients are organic or come from a can, nor do they like the manner, in which, they have to eat a Burrito because it becomes messy for some people. The McTurkey is a good wholesome sandwich that is loved by millions across the world. This sandwich is versatile, meeting the needs of those who enjoy a healthy sandwich and cannot eat without having a slice of bread. This sandwich can even be enjoyed without the bread for those people who are watching their carbs. This Club sandwich covers several food groups and is big enough to satisfy a healthy appetite due to the size of the sandwich. For those with less healthy appetites, eat half for lunch and, the other half for dinner. Decision–Making CriteriaIn analyzing these products, Team A chose the McTurkey club because of the versatility of the sandwich; it can be enjoyed with or without bread. The price is affordable, especially since it can be eaten as two meals, or split with a friend. Although the sandwich is over 900 calories, this sandwich will assist in a weight loss program which allows for a 1500 calorie intake per day. Baseline DataData is the foundation of any effective objectives–setting or benchmarking initiative. Once McDonalds identifies the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 64.
  • 65. Natural Selection Paper Natural Selection Paper Natural selection is considered one of the most important processes for a variety of species and the environment which allows the fittest organisms to produce offspring. To prevent a species from extinction, it is necessary for them to adapt to the surrounding environment. The species which have the ability to adapt to new surroundings will be able to pass their genes through reproduction. Within the process of natural selection, it is possible for the original genetic make–up of a species to become altered. The team will report on the different processes of basic mechanisms of evolution, how natural selection results in biodiversity and why biodiversity is important to continued evolution. The sources of genetic ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Why Biodiversity is Important to Continued Evolution The three levels of biodiversity are as follows: diversity of the ecosystems, diversity of species within the communities and diversity within species. The loss of species within the ecosystems and within the community can cause a catastrophic result, as species live and feed on other species. Species close to extinction are endangered species, therefore protecting them from predators and offering the chance to reproduce and repopulate. Unfortunately, with little support within the environment, a species can become extinct due to population density. Proper monitoring of an endangered species is required in order to keep species actively reproducing and changing with the environment around them. There is another side to the biodiversity of the evolutionary field, as the population weakens the species start the inbreeding of smaller populations, thus playing a role in the extinction of a species. Inbreeding is reproduction among members of a species that are genetically similar. The genetic inbreeding is designed to bolster populations of species whose numbers are in decline. However, when only a few species or varieties of a species are cultivated or survive, the genetic diversity of the organism declines, and population is more vulnerable to being wiped out by new diseases or climate changes because of the inbreeding (Alters, 2000). Conservation biologists recognize that biodiversity can be sustained only ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 66.
  • 67. Multilevel Selection Multilevel selection (MLS) Presently, the interest for selection of animal have been rejuvenated towards the theory of multilevel selection (Okasha, 2006; West et al. 2008; Gardner and Grafen, 2009; Nowak et al. 2010; Lion et al. 2011; Frank, 2013). From time being debate has been going on to whether or not selection can operate at multiple levels because of the confusion that arises due to the presence of weak individuals at the group levels but with respect to time the individual might show much stronger notion of adaptation at the different level (Wilson and Wilson, 2007; Gardner and Grafen, 2009). Although, now the social evolution theorists had also widely accepted that a covariance between group trait and fitness may arise due to response ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Animal breeder has considered it as a simple 'aggregate' of the traits of the group's that is constituent by individuals, nevertheless some other scholars had imagination that group traits were often 'emergent' and might be undefined at the individual level (Salt, 1979; Grantham, 1995). Secondly, a similar type of ambiguity arises over the actual concept of group fitness. Typically, it has been defined that the group with greater number of daughter individuals would considered as most fittest group, however, an alternative approach clearly disagree the concept in the context of variable group size (Damuth and Heisler, 1988; Sober, 1993; Okasha, 2006; Rainey & Kerr, 2011). Lastly, there was a doubt regarding how to carry out the multilevel selection analysis, as multilevel selection 1 (MLS–1) was mostly responsible for describing the change in the frequencies of different types of individual and multilevel selection 2 (MLS–2) explained about the change in the frequencies of different types of groups (Michod, 2011; Rainey and Kerr, 2011). Moreover, MLS theory did not take care of the problems engaged with class structure, i.e., when different groups differ from others in terms of non–genetic reasons (West et al. 2008; Gardner and Grafen, 2009; Frank, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 68.
  • 69. Animal Selection Vs Artificial Selection 1) Natural selection is when the species survival and their reproduction determine the genetic traits compared to artificial selection that is when humans can choose their traits that will show up in their future generations. Although humans intensify and inhibit organism's genetic traits through select ancestry, nature concerns itself with characteristics that concede improvements to a species' ability to mate and survive. when Humans select organisms to breed for selective traits, some times they select members to improve their traits. But sometimes this inbreeding can cause an expression of hazardous genes. 2) When we select individuals of stabilization with some intermediate values of some trait, it often has higher aptitudes compared ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The second reason is the expansion of resource allocation to offspring quantity versus quality that can account for observations socioecological and individual levels of variation in fertility. 5) Asexual reproduction produces children who inherit all the DNA of one of their parents, making them genetically identical compared to those of sexual reproduction that in that case their children, show some familiar resemblances, but in spite of that, the brothers vary because they inherit different combinations of genes from both parents. 6) Monogamy is when and individual is in a relationship and he or she only has one partner in their entire life. But also, this could be related to animals that only have one mate in their entire life, which could be called as a pair bonding and an example of this could be penguins. In addition, polygyny includes the polygyny, polygynandry and also polyandry and it's when a person (generally man) has more than one partner. On the other hand, polyandry is when a woman has more than one husband and promiscuity is when someone has sex with different people of by the choice of of sexual ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 70.
  • 71. Artificial Selection: Two Pros And Cons Of Artificial... There are many different types of breeding, but two main types are selective and natural breeding. Both of these types of breddings are involved in something else and are nothing like each other. Each breeding causes something else, and is involved with another part of their environment. To begin, natural selection and artificial selection are drastically different. Natural selection is the process by which varied traits that increase survival and enable reproduction are passed down from one generation to another generation. Natural selection is where all species have some sort of involvement with the environment that they live in. An example of this would be in a habitat where there are red bugs and green bugs. In the article "Natural Selection ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Artificial selection could not only be good for the environment but can help people as well. From the article "Pros and Cons of Artificial Selection" they state, "Farmers who engage in artificial selection can create crops that are bigger, more plentiful, or more resilient to local pests. When more of a crop can be grown to completion on a regular basis, then this allows for more profits to be achieved." If the farners where to cross–breed the species, it can create a new species, and could make one that hasn't been existed yet. The farmer could then sell this and make a great deal off of it. When related to a food chain, the artificial selection can live longer and grow to be more powerful. In the article they also explain, "Horses can become faster. Chickens begin laying eggs sooner or laying more eggs. Even cats or dogs can be bred through artificial selection for better companionship." Artificial breeding will not only cause different types of breedings, but by doing so it can cause crops, animals, and even people to maybe even make there life easier. Lastly, another example of artificial breeding is that they can be used in every industry. There isn't any plant that can't get something out of the breeding process. If you pick animals that have the most beneficial traits, a life can be developed that is better suited to meet the needs of a changing ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 72.
  • 73. Mate Selection Theories Mate Selection Theories in Action Choosing a life partner is a crucial task that majority of individuals, if not everyone, partake in sometime during their lifetime. This process is otherwise known as mate selection (White, Martin, & Bartolic, 2013). Since mate selection is such an important aspect of any individual's life, it would make sense that it is an area that has been researched extensively. There are a number of mate selection theories in existence, but this paper will focus on looking at biosocial theory and equity theory specifically. I find biosocial theory quite intriguing because it is something I can see while living out my everyday life. This specific mate selection theory states that women are more selective of partners ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Ashley was originally the underbenefitter in the relationship (she was not receiving as much as she should) while Brock was the overbenfitter (he was receiving way more then he should) (White et al., 2013). Ashley would go out of her way to do everything for him, while there were days Brock would barely give her the time of day. This eventually caused distress and Ashley attempted to restore equity by asking Brock for more. Though Ashley tried to believe that their relationship was more equitable after this, the real changes were not there and so Ashley left the relationship. This is a perfect example of the mate selection theory that is equity ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 74.
  • 75. Human Selection Vs Natural Selection . The first force of evolution is mutation. It can be random or influenced and occurs during mitosis or meiosis. It happens when there is a change in a persons genetic code; most mutations are harmless. The second force is natural selection. Natural selection is the survival of a species with the help of their biological characteristics. Fitness, a type of natural selection, is a species ability to survive and produce offspring. The third force is genetic drift. This is a random change in a species' allele frequency. This can happen during a catastrophic event (bottleneck effect) or during a species colonization in a new region (founder effect). The fourth and final force is gene flow. Gene flow is the migration and reproduction of alleles ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 76.
  • 77. Natural Selection Vs. Sexual Selection What is sexual selection? Sexual selection is the natural selection arising through preference by one sex for certain characteristics in individuals of the other sex. This means they are copulating with their other mate. Sexual selection can be dangerous in some cases depending on the rate and length of copulating. It can be so harmful to species that they may not be able to survive from it afterwards. Charles Darwin distinguished sexual selection and its various ways. He realized that sexual selection is similar to natural selection in some ways but also different in other forms of sources. Sexual selection is similar to natural selection because it enhances the male traits but different from natural selection because it does not ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...