Themes ways of the world


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themes from Ways of the World by Ashleigh Harris

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Themes ways of the world

  1. 1. Themes: Ways of the World By Ashleigh Harris
  2. 2. Part 5: Chapter 17-20 1750-1914
  3. 3. Atlantic Revolutions: The North American Revolution <ul><li>The North American Revolution was sparked by the response to struggling under British rule, and the launch of the Declaration of Independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather then improving on new liberties, the colonies of America created a movement in order to preserve existing ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of growing out of social tensions within the colonies, the American Revolution came forth due to an unexpected effort by the British government seeking for more revenue from their colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>As tariffs grew in number, the American people became unsettled as the British government took on an imperial like power, forcing taxes on them without their consent. </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment ideas gave them a sound mind and strength as they went to war and eventually prevailed. </li></ul><ul><li>Towards the end, the American people had revolutionized in multiple facets. In fact, the society itself that emerged as a result of hardship was more revolutionary then the previously stipulated ideal. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Atlantic Revolutions: The French Revolution <ul><li>The French Revolution was launched by the composition of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen which was technically an unprecedented and illegal action during the Old Regime. </li></ul><ul><li>French insurrection was driven by conflicts within French society, unlike the American Revolution, which revolved around tensions of distant imperial powers and their attempt to profit from their colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of these social conflicts, the French Revolution was a much more violent and radical chapter in French history. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea of constitutional monarchy was introduced, and in response radical internal resistance and foreign opposition occurred, producing a fear that the revolution might be overturned. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually slavery and feudalism were abolished, and church lands were sold to raise revenue, their priests given government authority. </li></ul><ul><li>France was said to be lead into tyranny and dictatorship by Robespierre, who lead thousands deemed enemies of the revolution to the guillotine. He eventually was arrested and guillotined. </li></ul><ul><li>In response, France attempted a fresh start as it became a republic. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Abolition of Slavery <ul><li>In roughly 1780 to 1890, slavery lost it’s legitimacy regardless of it’s previous popularity since the beginning of civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>The Atlantic Revolutions played a primary role in the spark of this occurrence. </li></ul><ul><li>As Enlightenment became infectious throughout various countries, so did the criticism of slavery as a violation of the natural rights of every person, and the public pronouncements about liberty and equality likewise focused attention on this obvious breach of those principles. </li></ul><ul><li>The actions of slaves themselves likewise hastened the end of slavery. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The British Aristocracy <ul><li>As the Industrial Revolution progressed, the dominant class in Britain suffered very little materially. </li></ul><ul><li>However, the British aristocracy ultimately declined. </li></ul><ul><li>The demonstration of this decline was displayed when high tariffs on foreign agricultural imports were finally abolished. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Middles Classes <ul><li>Members of the amorphous group (middle class) benefited most conspicuously from industrialization. </li></ul><ul><li>Businessmen, bankers, merchants and mine owners readily assimilated into aristocratic life. </li></ul><ul><li>Respectability was a primary term, combining notions of social status and virtuous behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>This was what distinguished the middle class from the poor. Misery was supposedly self imposed and the result of idleness and misconduct. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Laboring Classes <ul><li>Seventy percent or more in the nineteenth century population of Britain were of the laboring class. </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless of the eventuality of improving working conditions, this class suffered the most and benefitted the least of all the classes. </li></ul><ul><li>However, working conditions were not improved upon until much later, causing workers to be poor in health much of the time, and periodically searched for work when there was none to be found. </li></ul><ul><li>Many women of the working classes worked in mills or as domestic servants in order to supplement meager family incomes. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Failure of Conservative Modernization <ul><li>Chinese self strengthening efforts during the 1860s and 1870s was an attempt at rejuvenation through Confucian principles combined with very limited and cautious borrowing from the West. </li></ul><ul><li>Self strengthening as an overall program for China’s modernization was inhibited by the fears of conservative leaders that urban, industrial, or commercial development would erode the power and privileges of the landlord class. </li></ul><ul><li>China’s attempt to strengthen their personal position regionally failed because they would not strengthen the nation as a whole. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Japanese Difference <ul><li>Japan undertook a radical transformation of its society in the second half of the nineteenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>It was known as a “revolution from above” </li></ul><ul><li>The achievement was not typically duplicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan created its own East Asian empire regardless of it’s expense on China. </li></ul><ul><li>The “Japanese Miracle” was a way Japan had demonstrated the building of a society that was modern and also culturally Japanese, thus not uniquely a European phenomenon. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Modernization Japanese Style <ul><li>National unity was a major objective achieved by the Japanese in order to unify the country enough to reform in such a revolutionary manner. </li></ul><ul><li>A new regime abolished the daimyo domains with their considerable autonomy, replacing them with a system of prefectures whose appointed governors were responsible to the central government </li></ul><ul><li>Conscription from all social classes was now required which assisted in the creation of a national army. </li></ul><ul><li>All Japanese became legally equal as commoners, regardless of previous social or economical class. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of this, becoming superior through reform was easier and more painless in the transition from previous societal factors. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Women and the Colonial Economy <ul><li>In the case of African American women, the most common profession was that of farmer and child care. </li></ul><ul><li>These women often took the place of their men when they were working on the cities. </li></ul><ul><li>In response to the stresses placed upon them in the absence of their spouse, most women coped through getting closer to their families, or even establishing a variety of self-help associations. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Education <ul><li>Education was encouraged through missionary or government schools, giving illiterate people a chance to learn and enrich their lives with knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Education created a social mobility and elite status within communities, giving them more opportunities to achieve and grow as a educated society. </li></ul><ul><li>Education revolutionized the western hemisphere. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Religion <ul><li>During the colonial era, religion was crucial. </li></ul><ul><li>It drove people to independence, but also had the potential to cause war. </li></ul><ul><li>The spread of Christianity was almost ramped, giving people a fostering openness to a new source for answers. </li></ul><ul><li>This infectious religion was primarily an act of school teachers spreading Christianity to remote villages. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Part 6: Chapter 21-24 1914-2008
  16. 16. Capitalism Unraveling: The Great Depression <ul><li>Sadly, previous casualties assisted in social mobility as commoners were able to move into positions previously dominated by aristocrats. </li></ul><ul><li>Women began expressing a more open sexuality through drinking and clothing style. </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Depression began to challenge other governments of capitalist countries who had previously believed that the economy would regulate itself through the market. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic disaster was finally abated in the United States through the massive government spending required by World War II. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Hitler and the Nazis <ul><li>Extreme nationalism was displayed by Adolf Hitler under the leadership of the Nazi party, but open violence was advocated as a political tool, generated by a single-party dictatorship. </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis achieved power in 1933, when they gained public support. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nazis gave Germany a sense of racial superiority. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler suppressed all other political parties, abolished labor unions, arrested thousands of opponents, controlled the press and radio, and in general assumed police power over society. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Japanese Authoritarianism <ul><li>Japan, as well as other countries, moved toward an authoritarian type government, launching an aggressive program of territorial expansion in East Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese public life changed drastically in the 1930s in response to right wing nationalist thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>The military drew a more dominant role in politics as primary cabinet positions now went to prominent bureaucratic or military figures as opposed to party leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>They developed extensive imperial ambitions that hinted toward the potential of launching a second global war. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Global Communism <ul><li>Communisms philosophical and political roots were inspired by Karl Marx and his early teachings. </li></ul><ul><li>Communists were much more radical then most in that their only method of reform consisted of uncompromising revolution and believed it to be the only route to a socialist future. </li></ul><ul><li>Most European socialists, however, came to believe that goals could be better achieved through the use of peaceful democratic processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless of the eventuality of communisms spread in history, it is undeniable that it’s origin was derived from a common ideology within European Marxism. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Communist Feminism <ul><li>Communist feminism was largely state directed with the initiative coming from the top rather then being a result of the grassroots movements like the west. </li></ul><ul><li>Equality and the distinction of marriage becoming a civil procedure among freely consenting adults were just the start of many changes to come. </li></ul><ul><li>Women were even allowed to have a pregnancy leave from work. </li></ul><ul><li>Women became actively mobilized workers in the country’s drive to industrialization. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Socialism in the Countryside <ul><li>Redistribution of land among peasants was another step toward building socialism in China and the Soviet Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Landlord’s estates were expropriated and redistributed on a more equitable basis to other inhabitants. </li></ul><ul><li>In Russia, the peasants spurred this redistribution themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>It was believed that a more communist society would create an even greater degree of social equality and collective living. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Struggles for Independence <ul><li>In Africa and Asia toward the end of the twentieth century, colonial rule had lost any credibility as a form of political order. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequently, the rarely known idea of self government became more and more widely spread. </li></ul><ul><li>For West Africa, and India, independence occurred peacefully and through a negotiated settlement, thus giving rulers the potential for new political relationships with their Asian and African colonies. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Case of India: Ending British Rule <ul><li>India increasingly sought national unity as Gandhi rose to leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Gandhi and the Congress party agreed to partition as the British declared their intention to leave India after World War II. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial India then became separate, and independent, known in two sects as a Muslim Pakistan, and Hindu India. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Experiments with Freedom <ul><li>Africa experimented with opportunity for political participation, industrial growth and economic development. </li></ul><ul><li>They attempted reasonably unified nations and a potential better life for all. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties with experimentation increased as the overall population grew higher and higher. </li></ul><ul><li>New approaches to building states, nations and modern economies multiplied, but early optimism was tempered by the difficulties and disappointments of those tasks </li></ul>
  25. 25. International Feminism <ul><li>World conferences dedicated to women and sponsored by the United Nations took place for ten years. </li></ul><ul><li>The UN ratified a convention to eliminate discrimination against women, which committed them to promote women’s legal equality and actively en courage women’s development as well as protect women’s human rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Feminism was global as the twenty first century dawned, but it was very diverse and much contested when it came to issues like over the counter contraceptives and a bortion. </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Global Environment Transformed <ul><li>Recently, society has been more prevalent at magnifying human impact on the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns like population have been addressed as earth’s natural resources are being utilized throughout the nations of the world, and supposedly are more scarce then most would like to believe. </li></ul><ul><li>Speculation about environmental transformation has dictated the potential to lead to phenomenal economic growth as modern science and technology immensely increases the production of goods and services. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Green and Global <ul><li>Environmentalism has been shared throughout history as people have tried to save the natural aspects of this world. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical contamination of the environment was brought to light with the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring . </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental organizations have been developed in the hopes of educating the masses of the potential destruction of nature and eventual resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Most national organizations are more concerned with health and basic survival then with the rights of nature of wilderness protection. </li></ul>