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Strategies for Improvement on  Ohio’s State Tests
<ul><li>Methods of Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>State Performance Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>A Word of Caution </li></ul><ul...
Step-by-Step Item  Analysis
<ul><li>Access the Student Success Web site. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select tests you wish to study. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
<ul><li>This page shows released questions in groups by question type. </li></ul><ul><li>How students answered each questi...
<ul><li>Look through  percent correct averages  and identify items as strengths and weaknesses.  Mark above and below aver...
<ul><li>In the question window, you can see each question and  answer options available.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look above...
<ul><li>Note the content theme of the question and the specific material covered. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include any other ...
<ul><li>Look at the list of comments for any trends. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does a strong area emerge?  </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Is it Really a Strength or Weakness?
<ul><ul><ul><li>This method uses comparisons with the state to judge students’ performance.  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
 
<ul><li>Look through the score report again. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This time, mark each question that scored: </li></ul></...
Measuring Actual Performance <ul><ul><li>Go back to the Success Web site and review questions for content and clue words a...
Which Method Works Best? Risk of false negatives. Some standards can randomly be harder than others.  Can give a false pos...
Observed Trends District
Mathematics: Reading and Writing: Science: Social Studies: <ul><li>Math Trends Here </li></ul><ul><li>Reading And Writing ...
<ul><li>Test-Wide Trends Here </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-Choice    ≈  (Pass Rate Here)  </li></ul><ul><li>Short-Answer    ...
A Word of Caution
<ul><li>Don’t read too much into trends.  </li></ul><ul><li>These exams do not assess all of the content standards. </li><...
Extended-Response Questions
<ul><li>Typically difficult for students. </li></ul><ul><li>Each wants specific things from students.  </li></ul>Extended-...
<ul><li>Start on the ODE homepage. </li></ul><ul><li>Near the top-right of the page, click on  Testing.  </li></ul><ul><li...
Patterns of a Four-Point Question
<ul><li>Questions contain  keywords  and expect an answer for each one: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex:  Identify, describe, exp...
<ul><li>When reading the question, mark all keywords. If there are fewer marked keywords than the number of points, the  s...
<ul><li>Test makers do not make all questions in the same way: </li></ul><ul><li>Questions have a  mix of keywords , speci...
Two  Special Keywords for  One  Subject
Four  Keywords
One  Special Keyword for  Two  Subjects
 
<ul><li>For  Reading, Social Studies, Science  and  Math . </li></ul><ul><li>Read the question  carefully  and  completely...
<ul><li>Generally, students have a harder time responding to special keywords. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of examples and det...
8 Most Often Used Keywords Produce a list of words, sentences, or comments. List Give reasons for. Explain Describe giving...
Types of Writing Question <ul><ul><li>Informational Prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative Prompt </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Graders are given areas of importance to gauge completeness:  <ul><li>Treatment of Prompt/Topic  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dir...
Graders are given areas of importance to gauge completeness:  <ul><li>Sentences and Vocabulary/Word Choice  </li></ul><ul>...
 
<ul><li>Did I answer the question completely? </li></ul><ul><li>Did I provide enough evidence or support to make my point?...
<ul><li>A two-point question has two brief tasks or one detailed task </li></ul><ul><li>Have the same keywords and special...
Classroom Practices that Develop Needed Knowledge and Skills
<ul><li>Advance organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective instructio...
<ul><li>Use of experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher estimation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s high expectations <...
Convergent Questions <ul><li>Cause students to  summarize  and  draw conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to bring about ...
Divergent Questions <ul><li>Open-ended questions  that lead to further questions, cause students to  experiment  or lead t...
Sources of Classroom Data <ul><li>Homework assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s grade book </li></ul><ul><li>Grade dist...
From the ODE homepage, select: <ul><li>From the green “Educators menu, select “Academic Content Standards” </li></ul><ul><...
Thank You! [email_address]
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Strategies For Improvement On Ohios State Tests 112008(2)

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Strategies For Improvement On Ohios State Tests 112008(2)

  1. 1. Strategies for Improvement on Ohio’s State Tests
  2. 2. <ul><li>Methods of Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>State Performance Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>A Word of Caution </li></ul><ul><li>Extended-Response Rubrics and Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive Classroom Practices </li></ul>Overview
  3. 3. Step-by-Step Item Analysis
  4. 4. <ul><li>Access the Student Success Web site. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select tests you wish to study. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select testing date, grade and subject you would like to view. </li></ul></ul>2. In the upper left, click “Analyze Items on Test” link.
  5. 5. <ul><li>This page shows released questions in groups by question type. </li></ul><ul><li>How students answered each question. </li></ul>Average percent correct for each question by school, district and state. <ul><li>Print page and leave web site open for later. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Look through percent correct averages and identify items as strengths and weaknesses. Mark above and below average questions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For the averages of different question types, refer to handout. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Go back to the web site and click the item number next to each question you identified. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>In the question window, you can see each question and answer options available. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look above and below question for more information needed. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Note the content theme of the question and the specific material covered. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include any other clue words or comments that are important to the question. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize written comments in “above average” and “below average” groups. </li></ul></ul>For Example :
  9. 9. <ul><li>Look at the list of comments for any trends. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does a strong area emerge? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there any topics that score below state the average? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dig Deeper: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If topics end up in both the above average and below average lists, look closer at the questions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Is it Really a Strength or Weakness?
  11. 11. <ul><ul><ul><li>This method uses comparisons with the state to judge students’ performance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The school could outperform the state average on a question, but score poorly. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To find objective trends, also look at the expectations of the standard. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How strong are your strengths? How weak are your weaknesses? </li></ul></ul></ul>Caution:
  12. 13. <ul><li>Look through the score report again. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This time, mark each question that scored: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Above 85 percent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Below 40 percent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use table on handout to convert scores to a percentage. </li></ul></ul>Measuring Actual Performance
  13. 14. Measuring Actual Performance <ul><ul><li>Go back to the Success Web site and review questions for content and clue words and record comments like before. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify any trends from the comments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does what you observe now compare to the trends you saw using the previous method? </li></ul>
  14. 15. Which Method Works Best? Risk of false negatives. Some standards can randomly be harder than others. Can give a false positive about the students’ actual knowledge. Con: Demonstrates students' familiarity with the subject. More likely to be based on content than question difficulty. Pro: Actual Performance Compare to State Average
  15. 16. Observed Trends District
  16. 17. Mathematics: Reading and Writing: Science: Social Studies: <ul><li>Math Trends Here </li></ul><ul><li>Reading And Writing Trends Here </li></ul><ul><li>Science Trends Here </li></ul><ul><li>Social Studies Trends Here </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Test-Wide Trends Here </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple-Choice ≈ (Pass Rate Here) </li></ul><ul><li>Short-Answer ≈ (Pass Rate Here) </li></ul><ul><li>Extended-Response ≈ (Pass Rate Here) </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult Keywords Here </li></ul>Pass Rates by Question Types: Test-Wide: Keywords:
  18. 19. A Word of Caution
  19. 20. <ul><li>Don’t read too much into trends. </li></ul><ul><li>These exams do not assess all of the content standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritize limited classroom time to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on both strengths and weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop students’ content and skills </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Extended-Response Questions
  21. 22. <ul><li>Typically difficult for students. </li></ul><ul><li>Each wants specific things from students. </li></ul>Extended-Response and Short-Answer Questions To find these requirements, look at the scoring guide …
  22. 23. <ul><li>Start on the ODE homepage. </li></ul><ul><li>Near the top-right of the page, click on Testing. </li></ul><ul><li>On the left menu, click on Released Test Materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Select Released Test Materials for Ohio's Grade 3-8 Achievement Tests. </li></ul>How to Find Scoring Guides <ul><li>Select your grade, subject and year of the test. Scoring guides are on the right. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Patterns of a Four-Point Question
  24. 25. <ul><li>Questions contain keywords and expect an answer for each one: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Identify, describe, explain, compare, determine, list, draw, graph, give details, etc… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special keywords: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe, explain and compare . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require more depth and detail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worth two points since there is partial credit. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>When reading the question, mark all keywords. If there are fewer marked keywords than the number of points, the special keywords need extra attention. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, instead of a quick description, a full and detailed description is needed. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Test makers do not make all questions in the same way: </li></ul><ul><li>Questions have a mix of keywords , special keywords and subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common combinations are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four Keywords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Special Keywords for one Subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two Keywords on two Subjects </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Two Special Keywords for One Subject
  28. 29. Four Keywords
  29. 30. One Special Keyword for Two Subjects
  30. 32. <ul><li>For Reading, Social Studies, Science and Math . </li></ul><ul><li>Read the question carefully and completely. </li></ul><ul><li>Underline each keyword (action words). </li></ul><ul><li>Circle each special keyword. </li></ul>Extended-Response Recommendations
  31. 33. <ul><li>Generally, students have a harder time responding to special keywords. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of examples and details for each “describe, explain and compare” question. </li></ul>Extended-Response Recommendations <ul><li>Often the difference between a score of 2 and 4 is the lack of details or support for each of these special keywords. </li></ul>
  32. 34. 8 Most Often Used Keywords Produce a list of words, sentences, or comments. List Give reasons for. Explain Describe giving the details and explaining the pros and cons of the subject. Discuss Write a detailed account or verbal picture in a logical sequence or story form. Describe Give the formal meaning by distinguishing it from related terms. This is often a matter of giving a memorized definition. Define Give your judgment or reasoned opinion of something, illustrating its good and bad points. It is not necessary to attack it. Criticize Compare by showing differences. Contrast Show both the similarities and differences. Compare Action Required Clue Word
  33. 35. Types of Writing Question <ul><ul><li>Informational Prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative Prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expository Prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informational Prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive Prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative Prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter Writing </li></ul></ul>Grade 7 and 10 : Grade 4 :
  34. 36. Graders are given areas of importance to gauge completeness: <ul><li>Treatment of Prompt/Topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly Addressed/Focused </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Awareness of Audience/Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly Adapted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideas, Examples and Details </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong/Compelling/Ample Available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organization and Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly Evident/ Exceptional </li></ul></ul>Writing Test Strategies
  35. 37. Graders are given areas of importance to gauge completeness: <ul><li>Sentences and Vocabulary/Word Choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent Variety/ Appropriate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sequence and Style </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unified and Coherent/Engaging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grammar, Punctuation, Spelling, Paragraphing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few/No Errors - Grade 4 </li></ul></ul>Writing Test Strategies
  36. 39. <ul><li>Did I answer the question completely? </li></ul><ul><li>Did I provide enough evidence or support to make my point? </li></ul><ul><li>Was my essay organized in a logical way? </li></ul><ul><li>Did I make good use of word choice and sentence structure? </li></ul><ul><li>Did I proofread my essay? (fix grammar, spelling, punctuation) </li></ul>Students should ask themselves: Writing Test Recommendations
  37. 40. <ul><li>A two-point question has two brief tasks or one detailed task </li></ul><ul><li>Have the same keywords and special keywords as constructed response. It asks: </li></ul><ul><li>Two keywords, or tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>One keyword for two subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>One special keyword about one subject. </li></ul>Short-Answer Strategies
  38. 41. Classroom Practices that Develop Needed Knowledge and Skills
  39. 42. <ul><li>Advance organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery learning </li></ul><ul><li>Ability grouping </li></ul><ul><li>Homework </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity of presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning </li></ul>Effective Instructional Practices
  40. 43. <ul><li>Use of experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher estimation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s high expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Effort reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom time management </li></ul><ul><li>Direct instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Homework </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom assessment </li></ul>Effective Classroom Practices
  41. 44. Convergent Questions <ul><li>Cause students to summarize and draw conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to bring about combination and recombination of experiences which lead to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Their importance is limited since these questions tax the lower cognitive domain. </li></ul><ul><li>These are too common in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires students to use mainly: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall and limited reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-solving limited to facts already stated </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. Divergent Questions <ul><li>Open-ended questions that lead to further questions, cause students to experiment or lead to research </li></ul><ul><li>These questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlarge the scope of material being studied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deepen students’ interest on the topic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These are probably the least-asked questions </li></ul><ul><li>There are no “right” answers </li></ul><ul><li>Requires students to use both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract thinking </li></ul></ul>
  43. 46. Sources of Classroom Data <ul><li>Homework assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s grade book </li></ul><ul><li>Grade distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Student progress reports </li></ul><ul><li>Unit tests and daily quizzes </li></ul><ul><li>Student portfolios </li></ul><ul><li>Newsletters sent home </li></ul><ul><li>District test data comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>Bulletin board displays </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson and unit plans </li></ul><ul><li>Scoring rubrics, if any </li></ul>
  44. 47. From the ODE homepage, select: <ul><li>From the green “Educators menu, select “Academic Content Standards” </li></ul><ul><li>On the left menu select “Graduation Requirements/Ohio Core” </li></ul><ul><li>Scroll down, select “Ohio Core Resources” </li></ul>Ohio Core Resources
  45. 48. Thank You! [email_address]

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