Emotions

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  • Emotions are argued to be more fleeting than moods. Attitudes and values tend to be more stable than emotions and moods, with values the most stable of all. Also, attitudes can influence moods and emotions in much the same way.
  • Each category of emotion generally includes some subcategories. For example, anger may contain disgust and envy. Fear may contain alarm and anxiety. Joy may contain cheerfulness and contentment. Love may contain affection, longing, and lust. Sadness may contain disappointment, neglect, and shame.
  • Self-conscious emotions come from internal sources and social emotions come from external sources. Shame. Guilt, embarrassment and pride are the internal emotions.
  • Current moods can be affected by many different events. There are relatively stable tendencies to experience positive or negative feelings.
  • Being “on” all the time with your emotions whether or not they reflect your true feelings is also called emotional dissonance. Dissonance is where the term emotional labor comes from.
  • Deep acting and surface acting are two terms reflecting ways of dealing with emotional dissonance.
  • Emotional intelligence argues that if you are good at knowing and managing your own emotions and are good at reading others’ emotions, you may perform better in your own job. EI can also compensate for those with lower IQs.
  • EI includes your ability to understand your own emotions and to express these naturally. It also includes your ability to use emotions by directing them toward constructive activities and improved performance.
  • Leaders who express themselves emotionally are often seen as charismatic and transformational. Emotional dissonance is likely in customer service as well as emotional contagion. Women report having to suppress more negative feelings and emphasize more positive feelings than men in similar positions.
  • Norms for expressions vary across cultures. In collectivist cultures (emphasizing group relationships) emotional displays are seen as being concerned with the person expressing the emotion, while people in individualistic cultures tend not to think that another’s emotional expression is directed at them.
  • It is important to remember that an attitude is a hypothetical construct. Attitudes are inferred from the things people say formally or informally.
  • Beliefs may or may not be accurate. “Job responsibility is important” is a corresponding aspect of the cognitive component, which reflects an underlying value.
  • The affective component is the actual attitude itself, such as “I don’t like my job.” An intended behavior is the result of an attitude.
  • Two factors that influence which of the above choices tend to be made are the degree of control a person thinks he or she has over the situation and the magnitude of the rewards involved.
  • Job satisfaction can be assessed: By managerial observation and interpretation. Through use of job satisfaction questionnaires.
  • The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) is a questionnaire that addresses aspects of satisfaction with which good managers should be concerned for the people reporting to them.
  • Research indicates that no simple and direct link exists between individual job satisfaction at one point in time and work performance at a later point.
  • Performance will lead to satisfaction only if rewards are perceived as equitable. If an individual feels that his performance is unfairly rewarded, the performance-causes-satisfaction argument will not hold.
  • Giving a low performer only small rewards initially may lead to dissatisfaction, the expectation is that the individual will make efforts to improve performance in order to obtain greater rewards in the future.
  • Emotions

    1. 1. Chapter 3 Emotions, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction It’s not only how people think but how they feel
    2. 2. Chapter 3 Study Questions <ul><li>What are foundations of emotions and moods? </li></ul><ul><li>What are organizational and cultural exemplars of emotions and moods? </li></ul><ul><li>What are attitudes? </li></ul><ul><li>What is job satisfaction and how is it related to performance? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Figure 3.1
    4. 4. What are foundations of emotions and moods? <ul><li>Affects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that individuals express </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intense feelings that are directed at someone or something </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less intense and frequently lack a contextual stimulus </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. What are foundations of emotions and moods? <ul><li>Major emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Joy </li></ul><ul><li>Love </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise </li></ul>
    6. 6. What are foundations of emotions and moods? <ul><li>Self conscious emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>help individuals stay aware of and regulate their relationships with others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social emotions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>refer to individuals’ feelings based on information external to themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>includes pity, envy, and jealousy </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. What are foundations of emotions and moods? <ul><li>Positive affectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to be perceptually positive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative affectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tend to experience negative moods in a wide range of settings and under many different conditions </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Figure 3.2
    9. 9. What are organizational and cultural exemplars of emotions and moods? <ul><li>Emotional dissonance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inconsistencies between emotions we feel and emotions we project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emotional labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a situation where a person displays organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. What are organizational and cultural exemplars of emotions and moods? <ul><li>Deep acting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>trying to modify your true inner feelings based on display rules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surface acting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hiding your inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions as a response to display rules </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. What are organizational and cultural exemplars of emotions and moods? <ul><li>Emotional intelligence (EI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one’s ability to detect and manage emotional cues and information </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. What are organizational and cultural exemplars of emotions and moods? <ul><li>Emotional intelligence includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal and expression of emotions in yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal and recognition of emotions in others </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of emotions in yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Use of emotions to facilitate performance </li></ul>
    13. 13. What are organizational and cultural exemplars of emotions and moods? <ul><li>OB applications </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Customer service </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences </li></ul>
    14. 14. What are organizational and cultural exemplars of emotions and moods? <ul><li>Emotions and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Display rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>informal standards that govern the degree to which it is appropriate for people from different cultures to display their emotions similarly </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. What are attitudes? <ul><li>Attitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one’s environment </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Figure 3.3
    17. 17. What are attitudes? <ul><li>Cognitive component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reflects the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information a person possesses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>represent ideas about someone or something and the conclusions people draw about them </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. What are attitudes? <ul><li>Affective component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>specific feeling regarding the personal impact of the antecedents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral component </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intention to behave in a certain way based on your specific feelings or attitudes </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. What are attitudes? <ul><li>Cognitive dissonance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes a state of inconsistency between an individual’s attitudes and his or her behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive dissonance can be reduced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing the underlying attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing future behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing new ways of explaining or rationalizing the inconsistency </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. What is job satisfaction and how is it related to performance? <ul><li>Job satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. What is job satisfaction and how is it related to performance? <ul><li>Five facets of job satisfaction: </li></ul><ul><li>The work itself </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with co-workers </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Pay </li></ul>
    22. 22. What is job satisfaction and how is it related to performance? <ul><li>Argument: satisfaction causes performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managerial implication — to increase employees’ work performance, make them happy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction alone is not a consistent predictor of work performance </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. What is job satisfaction and how is it related to performance? <ul><li>Argument: performance causes satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managerial implication — help people achieve high performance, then satisfaction will follow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance in a given time period is related to satisfaction in a later time period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewards link performance with later satisfaction </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. What is job satisfaction and how is it related to performance? <ul><li>Argument: rewards cause both satisfaction and performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managerial implications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proper allocation of rewards can positively influence both satisfaction and performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High job satisfaction and performance-contingent rewards influence a person’s work performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size and value of the reward should vary in proportion to the level of one’s performance </li></ul></ul></ul>

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