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Performance paramter and suggestion to optizing the performnce of grid connected solar pv plant


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performance evaluation of Solar PV plant ,in term of technology , financial investment , research and development is very important for growth of Solar PV Industry .

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Performance paramter and suggestion to optizing the performnce of grid connected solar pv plant

  1. 1. © 2013 UPES Summer Internship Project Presentation Performance parameters and recommendation for Optimizing performance of grid connected Solar PV Project Ashish Verma M.Tech ES-II 500022066
  2. 2. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Internship Company :Profile , Role & Responsibilities  Internship at Gensol Engineering Pvt Ltd ,from 22nd May -31st July  An Engineering Division of Gensol Consultants Pvt Limited ,dedicated division for EPC services to execute Solar rooftop and grid connected Solar Project  Gensol group –leading Solar Advisory and EPC consulting firm with portfolio more than 700MW+ in India.  Prepared detail project for grid connected solar PV Project  Financial projection for project Under NSM Phase-II  Techno-economic feasibility report for Grid connected Solar PV project  Due diligence report for 20 MW SPV Project for NSL  Learn basic project financing of Solar PV Project
  3. 3. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Presentation agenda  Philosophy behind the performance evaluation & Optimization  Methodology adopted for Project  Various performance affecting variables  Various factor affect in performance  Performance ratio and concern losses  PR v/s CUF  Recommendation for optimum selection of component  Due diligence for 20 MW Solar PV plant at Shivlakha ,Gujarat  Existing various problem (as per site visit report)  Recommendation for optimization (if it is possible )  Key findings  Q&A
  4. 4. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Philosophy behind the performance evaluation & optimization  Evaluation of technological aspect of Plant  Evaluation of variations of various climate(High temperature, radiation ) & environmental (dust), infrastructural condition  Performance knowledge will give better investment decision ,& confidence in adoption of technology in Solar PV ,Better regulatory framework  Optimization will increase the effectiveness of the plant operation i.e. Module output ,Inverter efficiency ,cable losses ,Energy yield .  Increasing the life expectancy of Component of Plant.  Optimization increases the economics of the plant in terms of Energy generation thus project revenue .  Boost the component performance – turn your power into profits with in the  Reduces the uncertainties of solar radiation resourcing Design Optimization Selection of Component •
  5. 5. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Methodology adopted for Project Literature review  Overview of different performance parameter from various sources(NREL,CERC )  Life expectancy of component  various losses which affect the energy generation  Meteo data source comparison Recommendation during site simulation & Plant design  Optimum angle  consideration of various losses and their optimal limit  Grid downtime  Limit the various losses Case study of 20MW Solar PV project at Sivlakha Gujarat
  6. 6. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013  Review based on data provided by Developer & Site visit  Suggestion to developer for optimizing the performance  Design side ( Selection of cable ,Inverter ,Transformers ,Module placement )  Operation side(Cleaning of module , Connection of points ,monitoring of string )  Test report based on Pre and post commissioning of plant  Visualized defect – reason and suggestion to heal  Savings by adopting optimum size of component  Conclusion
  7. 7. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Various performance parameter Define overall system performance w.r.t o Solar radiation: which affect the energy generation ,dependent on the location and orientation of module o Select the reliable meteodata source for site simulation o System Loss i.e. temp., soiling loss, DC/AC cable loss, module degradation rate o Life expectancy of component :Module -25-30 years , Inverter 10-15 years , Module mounting structure – 25 years o Performance ratio – which show the how much actual energy is generating compare to the theoretical possible output ,high performance plant PR is around 80% o CUF: ratio between the gross energy generation of power plant and the maximum gross energy generation possible in the period under operation
  8. 8. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013  Degradation of module quality : Power decline over the time ,essential for the project developer at the time of module technology selection ,Important in respective to the growth of PV industry  Generally module derating factor is 0.50 to .70% /year ,but now days power output assurance is provide by the module manufactures  opportunity for the researchers
  9. 9. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Performance ratio  Gives the information about how plant is efficient – in term of energy output and reliability  Dependent on the irradiation ,optimum angle of the tilt ,design parameter ,Quality of Modules, efficiency of Inverter  Parameter is used for performance guarantee by O&M service provider PR= E(kWh) GE (kWh/m²) * Aplant (m²)*efficiency of module * (1- Ptpv) Ptpv= (Tc-NOCT )* power temperature coefficient of module /100 Factor affecting the PR:  Temp of module ,  Solar radiation  Measuring instrument Sensor box placement  Recording period Efficiency of module and Inverter
  10. 10. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Energy generation and corresponding PR Source: Results based on 1kWp plant from SolarGIS online tool ,cSi technology Average annual PR: 75.80%
  11. 11. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 System Losses with corresponding PR   cable losses can be reduce by opting the efficient cables
  12. 12. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 PR v/s CUF PR shows the how efficiency energy injected into the grid ,and CUF show that gross generation against the max possible generation during the period  CUF does not take environmental factor like radiation and variation of temperature Derating factor of module  PR accounts grid availability into account but CUF not  PR can be used as tool compare for solar PV plant at different location
  13. 13. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Factor affecting the Performance  Radiation at the site  Losses associated with Solar Plant • cell operating out of STCs • Voltage drop in dc cable • Dirt and Dust Loss • partial shade • Grid downtime • angle of incidence • Soiling losses • Module Mismatch losses • MPPT losses • Irradiance losses
  14. 14. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013  Inverter efficiency  Operating temp. and temperature coefficient
  15. 15. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Energy generation loss from DC to AC Source: Simulation through PV syst , 1MW plant at Bhilwara RJ
  16. 16. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Recommendation for optimizing the performance These are few general recommendation at time of designing  optimum tilt angle  Spacing of Structure for avoiding shadow losses  Periodic cleaning of Module to avoid soiling losses  Minimize the Losses due to array mismatch – prefer DC side 5- 10% overload  Module with lower temperature coefficient for power in High temperature Zone after CB ananlysis  Select Inverter with High euro efficiency ,large DC input rangle ,Low cut in limit of voltage
  17. 17. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013  Select efficient cable – Select right conductor size with appropriate ampacity of cable ,Operating temperature of cable ,  Inverter location near to the array to minimize the voltage drop (VD limit -2- 3%) Lets take a example for cable calculation DC Cable Sizing String to Inverter16-07-2013.xlsx  if system voltage is 600 V ,cable Size for 8 A current , Loss -2%, Cable size 6 Sq. mm System voltage is increased to 1000 V ,cable Size reduce to 2.5 sq. mm with loss of 1%
  18. 18. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Case study 20 MW Solar PV project at Shivlakha Detaille analysis and recommendation for optimizing the plant performance
  19. 19. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Project summary Project developer : NSL group project Business Model : REC +APPC
  20. 20. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Identified problem with in the Plant  Size expansion 88 module were shifted from one place to another originally they were placed at dispute land Only 55 Module adjusted to optimum tilt angle remain just placed according to lat. of location Reduce the pitch to accommodate more module in less area .  Module Shifting & effect on design loading of the plant Land constrain , Shifting of Module changes the Design of Plant Affect the Design loading of Plant Breaking of Module reduces the Module output Options to mount the Module top of the Control Room
  21. 21. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013  String cable length Few places the cable losses can be reduce by using the 10 Sq. mm cable in place of 6 Sq. mm cable String cable length over the 10 km . Which is increasing the losses ,recommended to opt cable with High cross section area .  Cavities with in the Plant Ground level cavities were found near the Mounting structure ,which reduces the strength of the Structure  Identified problem in Monitoring Data Logging Monitoring data is not on string level ,so difficult to identify the location of under performing module or sting
  22. 22. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Design aspect of Plant  PV Module  100 Wp A-Si module is used , suitable for the location of High temperature (due to low temperature coefficient )  Tolerance limit range is 4.99% which leads to be mismatch problem DC side should be 5-10% overload  Module were found to be covered ith dust layer and broken Module should be clean regularly & handling of thin film during transportation and construction should be care full
  23. 23. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013  vegetation seen below structure covering junction boxe of modue and raising upward creating shadow effect on module  The modules were placed at 20º tilt on structure which were at 23 degree . Due to area constrain pitch 7.4 meter is justified tilt angle should be optimum Collector width should be choose care fully .
  24. 24. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013
  25. 25. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Inverter  The inverter for this plant will give an o/p of 665 kW ,the Max designed DC loading is 716 kWp which is under maximum DC rating of 802 kWp  The operating temperature of Inverter is -10 to 40 degree .But Ambient temperature of the site in summer reached up to 50 degree .Thus performance of the inverter affected Inverter selection should be according to the ambient temperature specially place like RJ and gujarat Cable  Module interconnection cable is 2.5 sq. mm cable ,voltage drop were in permissible level (<1%), Correct selection of cable  6 Sq. mm cable which is using for connecting String to SJB is not appropriate , loss were around 6% with in 2 km range
  26. 26. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013  Total DC loss is arround 6.55 % . Suggestion DC loss should be 2-3% , efficient cable should be used Transformer  Output of the 2 inverter is fed with the Transformer of 1.5 MVA ,0.320/11 kV transformer Transformer should be 10-15 % overload to avoid failure due to overloading for some time  Two Auxiliary transformer with 250 kVA each were using for supplying power to 90 kW load which is highly oversized .
  27. 27. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Detailed evaluation of various Loss of 20 MW plant  Losses during the Site simulation  Loss data provided by the O&M contractor
  28. 28. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Losses comparison : actual v/s assumption
  29. 29. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Observation from Graph  Temperature derating losses increase due to increase in in temperature on actual site compare to the temp. recorded by the meteodata source  Shading losses reduces due to proper selection of pitch and site condition  Module mismatch increases due to module break down , actual power deviation and shifting of module from one location to another  cable losses increases because of improper selection of cable from string to SJB and length was long . On max length DC 6 sq. mm cable loss is 5.8 % . These losses can be minimized by using 10 Sq. mm cable which save the 59 cr. With replacement cost of 2.75 Cr. After Cost benefit analysis .
  30. 30. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013  Difficult to predict the losses inside the Inverter due to complex Power electronics circuit and devices  Losses occur in 11/66kV transformer can investigate by using SCADA which give us better idea of losses where they occurring
  31. 31. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Key findings  Selection of Optimal value of Tilt angle at time of simulation ,Limit the shading losses by proper pitch control .  Proper selection of cable with optimum diameter with proper ampacity  Module technology selection as per site specific condition after cost benefit analysis  periodic cleaning ensure the power restore of the Module  Transformer selection should be optimum ,so that losses can be reduce  Grid downtime should consider  Give better confidence to upcoming project developer in India  Better PR save you from penalties
  32. 32. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Question Please ?
  33. 33. © 2013 UPESAug 2013Sept. 2013 Thank You !