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  2. 2. The Hyperloop • A concept for a fifth mode of transport after planes, trains, cars and boats. • Cheaper, faster, less environmental footprint. • Inflection point of about 1500 km after which air travel becomes faster and cheaper.
  3. 3. Elon Musk Founder of PayPal, SpaceX, Tesla, SolarCity. "When a distinguished but elderly scientist states that something is possible, he is almost certainly right. When he states that something is impossible, he is very probably wrong". -Clarke’s First Law
  4. 4. The Concept • Low pressure tube with capsules that move back and forth throughout the length of the tube. • Accelerated via a linear magnetic accelerator. • Supported on a cushion of air. • Proposed route from Los Angeles to San Fransisco (approx. 560 km). • To be covered in just 35 minutes, with capsules leaving end stations every 2 minutes.
  5. 5. The Concorde Part
  6. 6. The Concorde Part • Streamlined shape reduces drag. • Low pressure in the tube (100 Pa) reduces drag further.
  7. 7. Problem of Choked Air Flow • Kantrowitz limit gives the top speed for a given tube to pod area ratio, above which flow will be choked. • Build up of air in front of capsule and subsequent increase in resistance. • Fan and compressor in the front compresses this air and routes it to the rear via a bypass tunnel. • This air expands in the nozzle at the back, also providing additional thrust.
  8. 8. The Rail Gun Part
  9. 9. The Rail Gun Part • Magnetic linear accelerators present at various locations – rotor on the capsule, stator fixed to the tube. • Route divided into sections with speeds of 300 mph, 555 mph, 760 mph. • Maximum linear acceleration of 1g achieved while accelerating from 300 to 760 mph. • Smaller turning radius implies a lower speed, such that centripetal acceleration is not more than 0.5g.
  10. 10. The Air Hockey Table Part
  11. 11. The Air Hockey Table Part • Part of the compressed air is rerouted to air bearings. • Known as external pressure (EP) bearing and effective when capsule is stationary or moving at very high speeds. • Each ski is integrated into a mechanical suspension. • 28 such air bearing skis. • Additional lift is provided aerodynamically – front edge is higher than the rear edge (at an angle of 0.05º). • Viscous interactions generate pressure differential to provide lift.
  12. 12. Advantages • • • • • • • • Safe Fast Low cost Immune to weather Energy saving Sustainably self-powering Resistant to earthquakes Not disruptive to those along the route
  13. 13. Major Concerns • In some parts, total acceleration experienced by the passenger will be more than 1g, taking the resultant of linear and centripetal acceleration. • Commercial aircrafts accelerate at approximately 0.25g, roller coasters at (4-6)g. • Uneven shear stress markings were seen on the outside of the capsule body during simulation. • Suggestion: Air bearings on top of the pod to improve stability and help the pod stay balanced.
  14. 14. References • http://www.spacex.com/sites/spacex/files/hyperloop_alpha20130812.pdf • http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/hyperloop • http://science.howstuffworks.com/rail-gun1.htm • http://www.gizmag.com/hyperloop-musk-analysis/28672/ • http://www.economist.com/blogs/economistexplains/2013/08/economist-explains-12 • http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-09-18/elonmusks-hyperloop-will-work-says-some-very-smart-software