Spiritual climate and its impact


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This presentation gives the summary of my doctoral research on spiritual climate of business organizations and its impact on customers experience of employees' service.

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Spiritual climate and its impact

  1. 1. Spiritual Climate of Business Organizations and Its Impact On Customers’ Experience of Employees’ Service<br />AshishPandey, <br />(Fellow of M.D.I., Gugaon)<br />Faculty, SJMSOM,<br />Indian Institute of Technology<br />Mumbai, India<br />
  2. 2. Objectives of this Presentation<br />To explain the process of developing the construct of ‘spiritual climate at workplace’<br />Evaluation of hypothesis about positive relationship between spiritual climate and its impact on customers experience of employees’ service<br />
  3. 3. Flow of This Discussion<br />Definition of <br />key terms<br />Brief overview of literature review<br /> Research gap, Conceptualizing Spiritual Climate, Proposed Hypotheses <br />Theoretical evaluation, <br />Limitations and Contribution<br />of the study<br />
  4. 4. Definition of Spirituality (adapted from the literature for the current study)‏<br />Spirituality is the harmony with oneself and with natural and social environment and believe or capacity of transcendence.<br />
  5. 5. Spiritual Climate at Workplace<br />Spiritually Climate at workplace is defined as the collective perception of the employees about the work place which facilitates harmony with ‘self’ through meaningful work, transcendence from the limited ‘self’ and operates in harmony with social and natural environment having a sense of interconnectedness within it.<br />
  6. 6. Employees’ Service<br />Service behaviour of employees towards clients/customer<br />Service Consumption Experience (in banking sector) is a function of : <br /><ul><li>Core Service,
  7. 7. Employees’ Service and
  8. 8. Servicescape </li></ul>(Grace and O’Cass, 2004)‏<br />
  9. 9. Inspiration for the Study<br /><ul><li>Creating meaning may be the most important managerial task of the future.</li></ul> Nichols (1994)‏<br /><ul><li>Performance survey of organizations managed by spiritual values shows more incidences of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors</li></ul> Nur (2003)‏<br /><ul><li>Best places to work are where people find a purpose to work other than their paycheques. These companies gave returns more than three times that of S&P 500 companies give between 1997 to 2003.</li></ul> Fortune (2006) analysis of ‘Best Places to Work’ <br />
  10. 10. Spirituality: Epistemological Divergence<br />Spirituality as Intelligence<br /> Zohar and Marshall(2002), Emmons (1999)‏<br />Spirituality as Inner Experience <br /> Caddy (1986), Dillard (2002),<br />Spirituality as Higher Reaches of <br /> Developmental Lines<br /> Lovinger (1998), Kohlberg (1990)‏<br />Spirituality is attitude of openness, care and love<br /> Wilber (2004) <br />
  11. 11. Spirituality in Management: A Schematic View<br />Conceptual <br />Underpinning<br />Of Spirituality<br />Spirituality<br />in Management<br />Impact<br />Of Spirituality<br />Contemporary<br />Thoughts<br /><ul><li>Positive/</li></ul> Humanist<br /> Psychology<br /><ul><li>Well-being</li></ul> Literature<br /><ul><li>Integral</li></ul> Psychology<br />Job Behavior<br /><ul><li>Motivation
  12. 12. Learning
  13. 13. Commitment</li></ul>Harmony<br />With Self<br />Harmony in<br />Environment<br />Organization<br />Performance<br /><ul><li>Financial
  14. 14. Quality Orientation</li></ul>Transcendence<br />Traditional <br />Vedantic<br />Thoughts<br />Swadharma<br />Loksangrah<br />Pandey, A. and Gupta, R. K. (2008). Spirituality in Management: Review of Traditional and Contemporary <br />Literature and Agenda for Future Research, Global Business Review, Sage Pub., Vol. 9, Iss. 1, pp. 65-84, <br />
  15. 15. Major Insights from Literature<br />Literature on human well-being and humanistic and integral psychology acknowledges the spiritual aspect/s of human self and realms of human consciousness beyond psycho-physiological and psychosocial realms.<br />Spirituality manifests at different levels and forms in human affair. <br />Possibility of synthesis of contemporary knowledge and traditional wisdom in the field of spirituality.<br />
  16. 16. Research Gap<br />Very few studies predicting relation of spirituality with organizational outcomes (except Nur, 2003, Scott, 2002)‏<br />Most of the individual level studies in the field of spirituality in management suffer from ‘same source bias’. <br />No study reported to examine the impact on customers service experience (Marques, 2005)‏<br />
  17. 17. Literature Review<br />Contemporary Thoughts <br />about Spiritual Aspect of <br />human life<br />Well Being<br />Elementalism<br />Humanism<br />Psychology<br />Freud Jung<br />Fromm Maslow<br />Frankl Allport<br />Aspects of Spiritual Wellness<br />Charlene (1996) <br /><ul><li>Meaning and purpose in life
  18. 18. Intrinsic values
  19. 19. Transcendent beliefs </li></ul> /experiences<br /><ul><li>Community/relationship </li></li></ul><li>Literature Review<br />Indian Traditional <br />Wisdom<br />(Vedantic Views)‏<br />Adhyatmik<br />Loksangrah<br />Rta<br />Adhidaivik<br />Adhibhuatik<br />and<br />Swadharma<br />Dharma<br />
  20. 20. Spirituality at Workplace :A Conceptual Convergence<br />Harmony with self:<br /> Finding meaning and purpose in work (Mitroff and Denton, 1999; Ashmos and Duchon, 2000), <br /> Profound feeling of well being and joy (Kinjerski, 2004), <br /> Self actualization (Ashforth and Pratt, 2003; Pfeffer, 2003)‏<br />Development of one’s full potential (Krishnkumar and Neck, 2002)‏<br />Harmony with environment: <br />Community (Giacalone and Jurkiewicz, 2004, Ashmos and Duchon, 2000),<br />Being comfortable with the world (Morgan, 1993)‏<br />Connectedness (Ingersoll, 1998), compassion (McCormick, 1994)‏<br /> Respect, Humility, Common purpose etc.(Heaton, Scmidt-Wilk and Travis, 2004, Kinjerski, 2004) <br />Transcendence:<br />Connection to something greater than oneself (Dehler and Welsh, 2003, Ashforth and Pratt, 2003)‏<br /> Meditative work (McCormick, 1994)‏<br />
  21. 21. Research Objectives<br />Conceptualizing the Spiritual Climate of the business organization and development of the scale of spiritual climate<br />Test the relation of spiritual climate at workplace and customers experience of employees’ service<br />
  22. 22. Theoretical Foundation of Research<br />Gestalt psychology (Lewin, 1955): <br /><ul><li>Perceiving the ‘whole’ to draw psychologically meaningful references
  23. 23. The basis of most of organizational climate research</li></ul>Linkage research (Schneider, 1989): <br /><ul><li>Climate of a business organization is perceived by its clients and impact their experience.</li></li></ul><li>Consequent Variable in the Study: Employees’ Service<br />Service Consumption Experience is a function of <br />Core Service, Employees’ Service and Servicescape, (Grace and O’Cass, 2004)‏<br /> Employees Behavior is a function of Personality and Environment (Salancik and Pfeffer, 1978;Chatman and Barsade, 1995) <br />
  24. 24. Components of Employees’ service:(Grace and O’Cass, 2004)‏<br />Prompt service<br />Willingness to help<br />Understanding the customers need<br />Trust<br />Safety<br />Politeness<br />Personal attention<br />Possessing and providing service related information<br />Keeping promise<br />
  25. 25. Hypotheses<br />H1: Workplace showing higher Spiritual climate will be experienced by the customers as providing better employees’ service.<br />H1a: Customers will find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees’ find their work meaningful.<br />H1b: Customers will find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees experience sense of community.<br />H1c: Customers will find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees are concern towards each other family.<br />Contd…<br />
  26. 26. H1d: Customers will find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees experience authenticity in people’s behavior at work place.<br />H1e: Customers find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees work with the feeling of Loksangrah, i.e. as if they are working for world-maintenance.<br />H1f: Customers find the better employees’ service in the workplace where employees experience meditative work.<br />
  27. 27. Operationally defined<br />Measurement issues<br />Face and Content validity<br />Non continuousness of antecedent and consequent<br />Reliability : (Cronback Alpha)<br />Variables<br />Construct validity<br />Convergent validity : Supportive environment Questionnaire <br /> Discriminant validity: Items of opposite Construct<br />Construct<br />Logical adequacy<br />covariance<br />direction <br />Control of other variables<br />Empirical Adequacy<br />variance in data sources: One Bank many branches<br />Relationship<br />Falsification of Variables, Constructs and Proposed Relationships<br />
  28. 28. Overview of Empirical Research<br />Phases of Empirical Research<br />Technique/Test Applied<br />Development of Spiritual Climate Scale<br /> Exploratory Factor <br />Analysis<br />Validation of <br />Spiritual Climate Scale <br />Confirmatory Factor <br />Analysis<br /><ul><li>Regression Analysis
  29. 29. Comparison of means
  30. 30. Analysis of Variance</li></ul>Hypotheses Testing<br />
  31. 31. Scale Development Phases(with Theory Driven Approach)<br />1. Item Conception and writing<br />2. Item Analysis, i.e. internal consistency <br /> evaluation and item selection based on face and content validity<br />3 Dimensionality check<br />
  32. 32. Spiritual Climate of Workplace:<br />Dimensions and variables from the literature<br />Variables of the construct<br />Correlating dimensions in contemporary<br />literature<br />Dimensions in Indian traditional literature<br /><ul><li>Meaningful work
  33. 33. Hopefulness
  34. 34. Authenticity
  35. 35. Sense of community
  36. 36. Loksangrah
  37. 37. Respect for diversity
  38. 38. Meditative work</li></ul>Harmony with self<br />Harmony in environment<br />Transcendence<br />Swadharma<br />Rta<br />
  39. 39. Operational Definitions of Sub-Constructs<br />Meaningful work: Work for life not only for livelihood (Ashmos and Duchon, 2000)‏<br />Hopefulness: Individual determination that goals can be achieved and belief that successful plans can be formulated and pathways can be identified to attain the goal (Snyder, 2000)‏<br />Authenticity : Alignment of people’s actions and behaviors with their core, internalized values and beliefs (Pareek, 2002; Harvey, Martinko and Gardner, 2006)‏<br />Continued …<br />
  40. 40. Sense of community: Experience of interconnectedness and interdependence of employees (Jurkiewicz and Giacalone, 2004)‏<br />Loksangrah: Working for world maintenance (Radhakrishnan, 1954); Concern for social and Natural environment<br />Respect for diversity: Adapting a plural way of accommodating the multiplicities and diversities of societies, markets and individuals and operates on shared opportunity and shared responsibility (Zohar, 2002)‏<br />Meditative work: Experience of being absorbed in work, losing any sense of self, and becoming one with the activity (McCormick, 1994)‏<br />
  41. 41. Battery of 112 items<br />Likert type 1-5 scale<br />(Measuring diff.<br />sub constructs)‏<br />Pilot Test 1<br />Qualitative Analysis based on Cognitive interviewing <br />with six potential respondents<br />78 items for <br />pilot testing<br />Scale Construction Phases<br />Subjected to <br />Face and Content <br />Validity check with<br />experts<br />Contd…..<br />
  42. 42. Reformulation and editing of <br />the Questions after Pilot 1<br />Items related to <br />Hopefulness, Respect for<br /> diversity showed <br />high correlation with <br />some other items<br />Pilot 2<br />Quantitative Analysis<br />Sample Size: 76 <br />Dimensionality check to assess the<br />validity and reliability of the <br />instrument covering Five Sub-constructs<br />Pilot 3<br />Factor Analysis<br />Sam. Size:162<br />Scale Construction: Contd….<br />
  43. 43. Summary of findings of Exploratory Factor Analysis<br />Non orthogonal <br />Rotation<br />7 Factor Solution<br /><ul><li>Meaningful work
  44. 44. Sense of community </li></ul> (sub divided in 2 factors)‏<br /><ul><li>Concern for Family
  45. 45. Authenticity
  46. 46. Loksangrah
  47. 47. Meditative work</li></ul>Factor Structure<br />0.775<br />KMO Bartlett Test<br />(for Sampling Adequacy)‏<br />371.988 (231 degree of freedom)‏<br />Chi Square test<br />0.873<br />Reliability Coefficient<br />Approx. 72%<br />Variance Explained<br />
  48. 48. Service <br />Climate<br />(Schneider 2000)‏<br /><ul><li>Managerial behavioral scale
  49. 49. Branch</li></ul> administration<br />Ethical <br />Climate<br />(Victor and Cullen,<br />1989)‏<br /><ul><li>Caring
  50. 50. Law and code
  51. 51. Rules
  52. 52. Independence
  53. 53. Instrumental (reverse)‏</li></ul>Employees’ <br />Engagement<br />(Gallup’s Q-12)‏<br />(Individual and dyadic level construct)‏<br /><ul><li>Appreciation
  54. 54. Role clarity
  55. 55. Learning opportunity
  56. 56. Enabling</li></ul>environment<br />Spiritual Climate<br /><ul><li>Meaningfulness
  57. 57. Sense of community
  58. 58. Authenticity
  59. 59. Concern for family
  60. 60. Loksangrah
  61. 61. Meditative work</li></ul>A Note on Discriminant Validity of the Spiritual Climate Construct<br />
  62. 62. Empirical Research Phase II<br /><ul><li>Unit of analysis</li></ul>(for antecedent) : Branch of Public Sector Bank<br /><ul><li>Sampling method:</li></ul> Stratified Random<br /><ul><li>Sample size: 31, Equal number of small </li></ul> and large branches randomly <br /> selected from two regions of <br /> Delhi Zone<br />Contd…..<br />
  63. 63. <ul><li>Unit of analysis</li></ul> (for consequent) : Branch of public sector <br /> bank<br /><ul><li>Sampling method:</li></ul> Stratified Random for branches <br /> Simple random sampling for<br /> customers in respective branches<br /><ul><li>Sample size: about 15-20 customers each from the 31 branches sampled for the study</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Two Factor Solution
  64. 64. KMO and Bartlett test: 0.923
  65. 65. Reliability Coefficient: 0.91</li></ul>Employees Service<br />Confirmatory Factor Analysis<br />Five Factor Solution<br />(Variable Meditative Work showed cross loading thus dropped from the further analysis)‏<br />Spiritual Climate Scale<br /><ul><li>KMO and Bartlett value: 0.821
  66. 66. Reliability Coefficient: 0. 88</li></ul>Factor Structure<br />
  67. 67. Std. Error of the Estimate<br />Adjusted R<br />Square<br />R Square<br />R<br />Model<br />0.19588<br />0.137<br />0.169<br />0.411<br />1.<br />Durbin-Watson<br />Change Statistics<br />Model<br />Sig. F Change<br />df2<br />df1<br />F Change<br />R Square<br />Change<br />1.691<br />0.030<br />26<br />1<br />5.276<br />0.169<br />1<br />Impact of Spiritual climate on Customers experience:Summary of Regression Model<br />
  68. 68. Hypothesis Testing: H1<br />t-Test<br />H-14<br />L-14<br />Spiritual <br />Climate <br />Scores<br />Employees <br />Service <br />Scores<br />3.78<br />3.21<br />3.91<br />3.74<br />t- Statistics: 2.126<br />P value: 0.044<br />(Leven’s test sig.: 0.738)‏<br />
  69. 69. Conclusion<br />p-Value<br />H5 L5<br />Acceptable<br />0.005<br />3.66<br />3.99<br />H1a (Meaningfulness)‏<br />Acceptable<br />0.03<br />3.74<br />3.95<br />H1b (Sense of Community)‏<br />Not Accepted<br />0.4<br />3.91<br />3.97<br />H1c (Concern for family)‏<br />Acceptable<br />0.06<br />3.73<br />3.94<br />H1d (Authenticity)‏<br />Acceptable<br />0.003<br />3.68<br />3.98<br />H1e (Loksangrah)‏<br />Variable dropped before <br />hypothesis testing<br />H1f (Meditative Work)‏<br />ANOVA: Average Employees’ Service Scores of 5 branches each from highest and lowest Spiritual Climate Score<br />
  70. 70. Contributions to ‘Spirituality at Workplace’ and larger OB literature<br />Integrating the traditional and contemporary thoughts for conceptualizing spirituality at workplace<br />Answers the call of Giacalone and Jurkiewicz (2004) for an instrument that captures workplace spirituality<br />The study intend to contribute to Positive OB literature<br />
  71. 71. Contributions to Service Quality literature<br />Gupta (1995) suggested that quality orientation and customers service are the two modern management notions parallel to Vedantic wisdom. This study examines the conjecture and tests it empirically. <br />This study answers the call of Bowen and Waldman (1999) for research that pulls different sources of data together for better understanding of requirements and consequences of employee performance in relation with customers satisfaction.<br />
  72. 72. Managerial Implication<br />Meaningfulness of work and sense of contribution is linked to employees performance<br />Importance of generic climate for specific climate to be achieve intended outcome<br />Useful finding for Energized Learning (Thriving) organization and other OD intervention<br />Stepping stone towards concretizing the scheme of organizational consciousness<br />
  73. 73. Limitations<br />Person-organization fit variation is not studied<br />Usual limitations of Positivist paradigm<br />Specificity due to cultural difference has not been examined <br />
  74. 74. Thank you<br />