8 leadership


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8 leadership

  1. 1. Leadership Dr. Atul Pandey
  2. 2. Definition of Leadership  Influencing others to do as desired.
  3. 3. Who is a leader A leader is the one who knows the way goes the way & shows the way
  4. 4. Characteristics of Leadership  Existence of followers  Willing acceptance  Representation  Working relations  Existence of common interest  Situational approach
  5. 5. Functions of Leadership  Representation  Communication  Motivation  Integration  Guidance  Interpretation  Maintain Discipline
  6. 6. Styles of Leadership  Autocratic  Participative  Free Rein
  7. 7. Styles of Leadership  Autocratic Leader takes and announces the decision.
  8. 8. Styles of Leadership  Participative  Consultative Leader includes subordinates into decision making process by taking their views & suggestions, but takes the final decision himself.  Democratic Leader does what majority wants.
  9. 9. Styles of Leadership  Free Rein Leader allows the subordinates to function within organisational limits by taking their own decisions.
  10. 10. Qualities of a Good Leader  Energy Always ready to go, full of enthusiasm.  Empathy Understands other’s point of view.  Emotional Stability Balanced behaviour in extreme situation.
  11. 11. Qualities of a Good Leader  Positive Attitude See the Brighter side.  Self Confidence Believes in his abilities.  Self Motivated Derives power from within.  Initiatives Self Starter
  12. 12. Qualities of a Good Leader  Communication skills  Social Skills Understands humanity & value of relations.  Entrepreneurial Skills Ambitious & Ready to take Risk.
  13. 13. Qualities of a Good Leader  Personal Traits Vision, values, foresightedness.  Technical Competence Performer himself.  Transformer Ability to motivate and train subordinates to get the results.
  14. 14. Leader follower dyad  Every subordinate wants to GET BIG.  A good leader must PROVIDE him that opportunity.
  15. 15. GET BIG Growth Identity Belonging -ness Trust Environ -ment Gain SUBORDINATEFOLLOWERS
  16. 16. PROVIDE Empathy Decision Skills Integrity Vision & Values Objectives Oriented Recognise Talent & Potential Positive Attitude LEADER
  17. 17. Theories of Leadership  Trait Approach  Management Grid  Path Goal Theory  Leadership Continuum  Contingency Model  Normative Theory  Situational Leadership  Transformation or Charismatic Leadership
  18. 18. Trait Approach by F. W. Gluck & Edwin Ghiselle  This is the most traditional theory of leadership which emphasises on the personality traits of the leader to get the results.  Leader’s decision quality depends on his personal ability, likes & dislikes, gut feelings, foresightedness, vision & values.  Common believe is: “Leaders are born, not made”.
  19. 19. Management Grid by Robert Blake & Jane Mouton  Two dimensions of leadership have been identified as  Concern for task  Concern for people  Leader may show high or low concern for task and/or relations.
  20. 20. Management Grid by Robert Blake & Jane Mouton Concern for Task/ People Low High High Country Club (Relation Oriented) Team Management (Integrated) Low Impoverished Management (Separated) Authority Obedience (Dedicated)  Moderate (balanced) concern for both task and people is called Organisation-man Management.
  21. 21. Path Goal Theory Robert House & Martin G. Evans  Leader shows path to the subordinates to achieve their individual goals.  Leader relates the expected rewards to the subordinates with their performance.  Personal characteristics of the subordinates and his ability to cope with environmental pressure & workplace demands have been emphasised.
  22. 22. Leadership Continuum Robert Tannenbaum Use of Authority Area of Freedom by the Managers for the Subordinates Manager makes and announces the decision. Manager sells the decision. Manager presents ideas and invites questions. Manager presents tentative decisions subject to change. Manager presents problems, gets suggestions and then makes the decision. Manager defines limits and asks the group to make decision. Manager permits the subordinates to function within limits defined by the superior.
  23. 23. Contingency Model Fred E. Fiedler Situation Leader member relations Task structure Position & power of the leader Degree of favourable situation for the leader 1 Good Structured High Favourable 2 Good Structured Low Favourable 3 Good Unstructured High Favourable 4 Good Unstructured Low Moderate 5 Poor Structured High Moderate 6 Poor Structured Low Moderate 7 Poor Unstructured High Moderate 8 Poor Unstructured Low Unfavorable
  24. 24. Contingency Model Fred E. Fiedler  The leader has to make a choice between Task Oriented and Relation Oriented Styles.  In situation 1, 2, 3 and 8 the leader should be task oriented.  In situation 4, 5, 6 and 7 the leader should be relation oriented.
  25. 25. Normative Leadership Vroom, Yetton & Jago  This model was originally developed by Vroom and Yetton in 1973 to help the managers decide when and to what extent they should involve the subordinates in solving a problem.  This model isolates five styles of leadership from fully autocratic to fully democratic; A I, A II, C I, C II & G II. The choice of style depends on the situation.
  26. 26. Normative Leadership Vroom, Yetton & Jago A I Manager solve the problem or make decisions himself, using the information available at that time. A II Manager obtains necessary information from the subordinates, then decides on the solution to the problem himself. They may or may not tell the subordinates what the problem is when they request information. The role of the subordinates is confined to providing useful information.
  27. 27. Normative Leadership Vroom, Yetton & Jago C I Manager shares the problem with relevant subordinates individually, gets their ideas and suggestions without bring them together as group. Then, manager makes the decision which may or may not reflect subordinates’ influence. C II Manager shares the problem with the subordinates as a group, collectively obtains their ideas and suggestions. Then makes the decision which may or may not reflect subordinates’ influence.
  28. 28. Normative Leadership Vroom, Yetton & Jago G II Manager shares the problem with subordinates as a group. Manager and subordinates together generate and evaluate alternatives and attempt to reach consensus on a solution. Manager does not tries to influence the group to adopt their preferred solution, and they accept & implement the solution that has the support of the entire group.
  29. 29. Situation Leadership Hersey & Blanchard’s  The most effective leadership style varies with the maturity of the subordinates.  Maturity not on the basis of age or emotional stability, but as a desire for achievement, willingness to accept responsibility and task related abilities and experience.
  30. 30. Situation Leadership Hersey & Blanchard’s Style Task Relations Telling High Low Selling High High Participating Low High Delegating Low Low
  31. 31. Transformational or Charismatic Leadership: Bernard M. Bass  Identified two contrast type of leaders Transactional & Transformational.  Transactional leaders determine what subordinates need to do to achieve their own & organisational objectives and give confidence to them that they can do it.  Transformational leaders motivate the subordinates by raising their sense of importance and value of the task. They influence the subordinates to transcend their self interest for the sake of team, organisation or the larger policy.
  32. 32. Transformational or Charismatic Leadership: Richard Boyd  Managers must command five different types of skills: Anticipatory Skills Foresight into a constantly changing environment. Visionary Skills Use of persuasion & examples to induce a group to act according to leader’s purpose. Value-congruence Skills Need to be in touch with employees’ economic, safety, psychological, spiritual, aesthetic and physical needs in order to engage them on the basis of shared motives, values and goals. Empowerment Skills The willingness to share power and to do so effectively. Self understanding skills Introspect.
  33. 33. Transformational or Charismatic Leadership: Robert J. House  The charismatic leader has extremely high levels of self-confidence, dominance and a strong conviction in the moral righteousness of his/her beliefs.  They communicate a vision or a high level goal that captures the commitment and energies of followers.  They are careful to create an image of success & competence and to exemplify in their own behaviour the values they espouse.  They also communicate high expectations to the followers and confidence that they will perform up to those expectations.
  34. 34. Thank you