The ganges river


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The ganges river

  1. 1. The Ganges River NAME ASHISH BHATI CLASS IX-B
  2. 2. All major rivers of India originate from one of the three main watersheds: 1. The Himalaya and the Karakoram ranges. 2.Vindhya and Satpura ranges and Chotanagpur plateau in central India. 3.Sahyadri or Western Ghats in western India.
  3. 3. There are several rivers in India such as Ganga,Satlej,Yamuna,Brahamputra,Kr ishna, Kaveri,Tapti etc. Let’s see about some important rivers- 1.GANGA Ganga rises in the western himalayas
  4. 4. The story of the Ganges, from her source to the sea, from old times to new, is the story of India's civilization and culture, of the rise and fall of empires, of great and proud cities, of adventures of man… Originating in the frozen heights of the Himalayas, the river travels 1,600 miles across the teeming plains of the subcontinent before flowing east into Bangladesh and from there it spills into the Bay of Bengal.
  5. 5. Location The River Ganges or “Mother Ganga” as the indigenous people of the region call it, is located in the northeastern part of the sub continent of India.
  6. 6.  The river emerges in spectacular fashion from an ice cave under the Gangotri glacier, which is receding by hundreds of feet every year.
  7. 7. The Ganges River  India's longest river, the Ganges flows eastward from its source in the snow-capped western Himalayas across the plains of northern India until it empties into the Bay of Bengal. During its 1,554 mile journey, the Ganges passes through the Indian states of Uttarakhand, home to the sacred city of Haridwar; Uttar Pradesh, where the holy cities of Allahabad and Varanasi (Benares) are located; Bihar; and Bengal, home to India's cultural Calcutta (Kolkata). The Ganges plain has been the birthplace of several empires, including the Gupta Empire.
  8. 8. History  The Ganges River has always been known as a religious icon in the world.  The Ganges River is over 1557 miles long passing through Bangladesh and most of India.  The River is known as a spiritual center because the people of India rely on the river for most life functions in the area. .
  9. 9. Uses of the Ganges River  The uses in India for the river are nearly endless; the main functions of the river are Agricultural use, Industry, as an energy source, transportation, Drinking, bathing, and baptisms
  10. 10.  The river is one of the only sources of water for the people of India who can’t afford running clean water.
  11. 11. Dams on the Ganga  Dam diverting Himalayan snowmelt to Upper Ganges Canal.  Farakka Barrage diverts water from Ganges into the Bhagirathi River  Caused dispute between Bangladesh and India  Ganges Water Treaty of 1996 Availability at Farakka Share of India Share of Bangladesh 70,000 cucecs or less 50% 50% 70,000-75,000 cusecs Balance of flow 35,000 cucecs 75,000 cusecs or more 40,000 cusecs Balance of flow *Subject to the condition that India and Bangladesh each shall receive guaranteed 35,000 cusecs of water in alternate three 10-day periods during the period March 1 to May 10.
  12. 12.  The water from the Ganges River and the surrounding soil are very good for agricultural uses. The flooding of the river greatly enriches the nutrient content in the soil.  Along the river there are also many industries such as textiles, paper, leather.  They use the water for power, cleaning, etc. Power, which is used by industries, is also used by the common population. Because India is very undeveloped and does not have all the technology to maximize the rivers electrical capacity, the country of India only uses 20% of the rivers potential capacity.
  13. 13. How Polluted is it?
  14. 14. The Pollution of “Mother Ganges”  Sheer volume of waste - estimated at nearly 1 billion liters per day - of mostly untreated raw sewage - is a significant factor. Also,  inadequate cremation procedures contributes to a large number of partially burnt or unburnt corpses floating down the Ganga, not to mention livestock corpses, at about one every two hours at the Ganga in Bithoor,
  15. 15.  It is used as a mass-bathing hole, over 10 million people bathe in the river daily, these people who have diseases and very poor hygiene cause for the pollution of this river.
  16. 16.  This river is also used a baptizing sanctuary, and burial hole. Babies are baptized in the river because they believe it cleanses the child. “Holy River”
  17. 17. They say it “cleanses the soul”.
  18. 18. When a person dies and is cremated their remains are released into the river for the same reason, because they believe it cleanses the soul.
  19. 19.  The Ganges is considered sacred, the terrestrial home of the goddess Ganga, and has held a vaunted place within the faith for centuries.  Hindus from all over the subcontinent make annual pilgrimages to the many temples and shrines located along its shores and believe it is auspicious to drink, bathe, and, after death, have their ashes scattered in the river.  Bathing in the Ganges is a purifying ritual that is thought to wash away a penitent's sins, and spreading one's ashes in the water upon death may improve one's karma.
  20. 20. Where is it safe?  In Bollywood the waters of the Ganges are clear and filled with fish, but as they move on they become polluted. By the time they pass the industrial city of Kanpur, the waters are oily and dead, fouled by industrial byproducts and raw waste.
  21. 21. Recreational?  Middle Class Indians white water raft down the Ganges
  22. 22. Saving the Ganges  Alarmed by the rising level of pollution, the Indian authorities launched an ambitious Ganga Action Plan in 1986 to clean the river.  Narora nuclear power plant discharges its waters into the Lower Ganges canal .
  23. 23. Economy vs. Ecology: That is the Question   · The Indian government has spent close to $140 million in cleaning the Ganges, but environmentalists say there has been no significant improvement in the quality of the water in the river  · Indian officials in charge of the Ganges cleanup said the Dutch aid would help complete the cleansing of the Ganges to a point where the pollution would become negligible.  · Meanwhile treatment plants have been set up to ensure industrial waste goes into the river only after being treated.  · One plant with the capacity to treat 5 million liters of water daily is functioning while another with a capacity to treat 36 million liters will become operational soon.
  24. 24.  However, the experts say the level of pollution in the river has been contained, even if it has not been eliminated.  Meanwhile, the government is planning to build more than 50 dams and barrages to regulate the river- flow, supply water and generate power. The largest of them near Tehri has already attracted controversy amid concerns about safety and the environment