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CORMART NIGERIA LIMITED                                                                                                   ...
PAGE      2   Nosocomial Infection cont…..Risk factors                                                         Hand washin...
PAGE      3Global Handwashing Day Celebration                                                               Photo Gallery ...
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Corygiene Watch Newsletter 5th Edition Special Edition


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Corygiene Watch Newsletter 5th Edition Special Edition

  1. 1. CORMART NIGERIA LIMITED CORMARTPlot 14, Chivita Avenue, Ajao Estate, +234 1 7616605 Corygiene Watch N E W S L E T T E R V O L U M E 5 , S P E C I A L E D I T I O N D E C E M B E R 2 0 1 2 In this editionGlobal HandwashingDay Celebration Nosocomial Infection and other parts of the body. Many types are difficult to attack with antibiotics, andDear readers, antibiotic resistance isWelcome to the fifth edi- spreading to Gram-negativetion of Corygiene Watch. bacteria that can infect peo- ple outside the hospital.In this special edition wehave focused primarily on EpidemiologyCormart’s contribution tothe Global Handwashing Nosocomial infections areDay Celebration. commonly transmitted when hospital officials be-We also featured an arti- come complacent and per-cle, on the impact of sonnel do not practice cor-healthcare associated rect hygiene regularly.infection, its preventionand control. Also, increased use of out- patient treatment means that people who are hospitalized are more ill and have more Isaac Martins Nosocomial infections are infections that are a weakened immune systems result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare than may have been true in the past. Moreover, service unit. Infections are considered nosoco- some medical procedures bypass the bodys natural mial if they first appear 48 hours or more after protective barriers. Since medical staff moves from hospital admission or within 30 days after dis- patient to patient, the staff themselves serves as a charge. Nosocomial comes from the word means for spreading pathogens. Essentially, the staff nosokomeio meaning hospital. This type of in- acts as vectors. fection is also known as a hospital-acquired infection (or, in generic terms, healthcare- Categories and treatment associated infection). Besides harming patients One-third of nosocomial infections are considered nosocomial infection can affect nurses, physi- preventable. The CDC estimates 2 million people in cians, custodians, aides, visitors, salespeople, the United States are infected annually by hospital- delivery personnel and anyone who has contact acquired infections, resulting in 20,000 deaths. The with the hospital. most common nosocomial infections are of the uri- nary tract, surgical site and various pneumonias. In the United States, the Centers for DiseaseContributors: Control and Prevention estimate that roughly 1.7 TransmissionOluwabunmi Ifejola million hospital-associated infections, from all The drug-resistant Gram-negative germs for theE.P.I Afeonkai most part threaten only hospitalized patients whose types of microorganisms, including bacteria, combined, cause or contribute to 99,000 deaths immune systems are weak. The germs can survive each year. In Europe, where hospital surveys for a long time on surfaces in the hospital and enter have been conducted, the category of Gram- the body through wounds, catheters, and ventilators. negative infections are estimated to account for two-thirds of the 25,000 deaths each year. Noso- comial infections can cause severe pneumonia and infections of the urinary tract, bloodstream CORYGIENE WATCH
  2. 2. PAGE 2 Nosocomial Infection cont…..Risk factors Hand washing and glovingFactors predisposing a patient to infection can broadly be di- Hand washing frequently is called the single most importantvided into three areas: measure to reduce the risks of transmitting skin microorgan- People in hospitals are usually already in a poor state of isms from one person to another or from one site to another on health, impairing their defense against bacteria – ad- the same patient. Washing hands as promptly and thoroughly vanced age or premature birth along with immunodefi- as possible between patient contacts and after contact with ciency (due to drugs, illness, or irradiation) present a gen- blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, and equipment or eral risk, while other diseases can present specific risks - articles contaminated by them is an important component of for instance, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can infection control and isolation precautions. increase chances of respiratory tract infection. Invasive devices, for instance intubation tubes, catheters, Although hand washing may seem like a simple process, it is surgical drains, and tracheostomy tubes all bypass the often performed incorrectly. Healthcare settings must continu- body‟s natural lines of defence against pathogens and ously remind practitioners and visitors on the proper procedure provide an easy route for infection. Patients already colo- in washing their hands to comply with responsible hand wash- nised on admission are instantly put at greater risk when ing. they undergo an invasive procedure A patient‟s treatment itself can leave them vulnerable to All visitors must follow the same procedures as hospital staff to infection – immunosuppression and antacid treatment adequately control the spread of infections. Moreover, mul- undermine the body‟s defences, while antimicrobial ther- tidrug-resistant infections can leave the hospital and become apy (removing competitive flora and only leaving resis- part of the community flora if steps are not taken to stop this tant organisms) and recurrent blood transfusions have transmission. also been identified as risk factors. In addition to hand washing, gloves play an important role inPrevention reducing the risks of transmission of microorganisms. GlovesHospitals have sanitation protocols regarding uniforms, equip- are worn for three important reasons in hospitals. First, glovesment sterilization, washing, sanitizing, disinfecting and other are worn to provide a protective barrier and to prevent grosspreventative measures. Thorough hand washing and/or use of contamination of the hands when touching blood, body fluids,alcohol rubs by all medical personnel before and after each secretions, excretions, mucous membranes, and nonintact skin.patient contact is one of the most effective ways to combatnosocomial infections. More careful use of antimicrobial Wearing gloves does not replace the need for hand washing,agents, such as antibiotics, is also considered vital. because gloves may have small, non-apparent defects or may be torn during use, and hands can become contaminated duringDespite sanitation protocol, patients cannot be entirely iso- removal of gloves. Failure to change gloves between patientlated from infectious agents. Furthermore, patients are often contacts is an infection control hazard.prescribed antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs to helptreat illness; this may increase the selection pressure for the Surface sanitation e m e r - Sanitizing surfaces is an often overlooked, yet crucial compo- gence of nent of breaking the cycle of infection in health care environ- r esista nt ments. Modern sanitizing methods such as NAV-CO2 have strains. been effective against gastroenteritis, MRSA, and influenza. Use of hydrogen peroxide vapor has been clinically proven to Isolation reduce infection rates and risk of acquisition. Hydrogen perox- Isolation ide is effective against endospore-forming bacteria, such as precau- Clostridium difficile, where alcohol has been shown to be inef- tions are fective. A Bio-Intervention process is effective for hard surface designed disinfection, providing a 6-log kill (99.9999%)for many organ- to prevent isms including MRSA, VRE, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, transmis- Staphylococcus aureus, Rhinovirus, Salmonella enterica, sion of H1N1, HIV-1 and Hepatitis A. The unique kill mechanism is microor- new to the market and will be an effective method against mu- ganisms tation and resistance of organizations. by com-mon routes in hospitals. Because agent and host factors are Apronsmore difficult to control, interruption of transfer of microor- Wearing an apron during patient care reduces the risk of infec-ganisms is directed primarily at transmission. tion. The apron should either be disposable or be used only when caring for a specific patient. CORYGIENE WATCH
  3. 3. PAGE 3Global Handwashing Day Celebration Photo Gallery Global Hand Washing day, which is observed on October 15 of every year, when millions of people around the world wash their hands with soap and clean water, is one of such plat- forms Renew Hand wash has leveraged on to help raise hygiene-conscious generation.In 2007, the Public Private Partnership for Hand washing withSoap (PPPHW) established Global Hand washing Day as astimulating way to promote global and local vision of handwashing with soap. Renew Handwash, one of the front linersin the soap market in conjunction with UNICEF and LagosState ministry of water and rural development marked theevent in five riverine schools in Badagry area of Lagos statewhere school children, teachers and community leaders wereput through the six steps of effective handwashing techniques.Engineer Anibire who represented the honorable commis-sioner for rural development disclosed that over 1000 publicand private schools had been touched in the last three yearsand that the impact of the campaign has been positive becauseit has drastically reduced germ-related ailment from feedbacks gotten from schools. Pictures Clockwise: Chris Olusesi of cormart demonstrating handwash - Engr Anibire representing the commissioner for Rural Development, washing her hands - school children waiting to wash their hands - Pupils washing their handsSpeaking on the 2012 campaign, Chris Olusesi of Cormartsaid the involvement of Renew handwash underlined the com-mitment of the company to create hygiene conscious society. Hand washing ChallengesWhy Celebrate Hand washing?  Difficult to change behavior on a large scale6.9 million Children under 5 die each year. Two of the topthree causes are pneumonia and diarrhea.  Each critical time for hand washing has different targetHand washing with soap can cut pneumonia by up to 45% and users, motivators, prompts, and hardware needsdiarrhea rates by up to 50%.  What does it take to change hand washing social norms?Hand washing is an accessible, cost-effective method for pre-venting diarrheal and other diseases.A recent study also shows that intensive hand washing promo-tion is positively associated with child growth and develop-ment.JOKEA man was upset because he had lost his favorite hat. Instead of buying a new one, he decided that he would go to church thatSunday to steal one from the vestibule. Unfortunately, the usher saw the man coming in and before he could go into the vesti-bule, the usher led him to a pew, where the preacher was just beginning a sermon on the Ten Commandments. After church, theman went up to the preacher and shook his hand and said: „I want to thank you for saving my soul today. I came to church tosteal a hat, but after hearing your sermon on the Ten Commandments, I changed my mind.‟ „Why, that‟s wonderful,‟ thepreacher said: „so the commandment „Thou shalt not steal” changed your mind, did it?” ” No, it wasn‟t that commandment,” theman said: “It was the one about adultery. It reminded me where I left my hat!” CORYGIENE WATCH