H323 Digital Failures

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  • Inevitable redundancies Have to cover related topics, to provide context, for easy comprehensionSome overlap between “Call routing” and “ISDN config”, again, to provide proper contextConversely, if you find an area/topic is not covered, it is probably not within our scope
  • Two approaches possible-Problem/symptoms driven approachTutorial relevant topics approachWe will mostly do tutorial approach, but will discuss some problems/symptoms, as case studies
  • With MGCP, CUCM can decode Qsig facility IE. Calling name and redirect number, which are carried in the facility IE, are therefore available only when using MGCP trunks. You might need this function for voice-mail access
  • ANI not provided in T1 CASFGB.
  • Dial-peer no different from regular PRI, only pointing to ports with primary and backup D channels?
  • R2-Analog- defined in ITU-U Q.411 and is typically used in carrier systems. Signaling uses a Tone/A bit.R2-pulse - n ITU-U Supplement 7. It is a variant of R2-Analog in which the Tone/A bit is pulsed rather than continuous and is typically used for satellite links.
  • The router responds to the setup message with a SETUP ACK. This informs the network that it is ready to receive further information messages containing additional call routing elements.
  • H323 Digital Failures

    1. 1. H.323 digital failures Rich Byrne and Baktha Muralidharan BXB-MS 1
    2. 2. Part I ISDN configurationPart II Call Routing
    3. 3. Agenda Thanks! Why are we doing this? Scope ISDN Config on H.323 Gateways Call Routing with digital interfaces on H.323 gateways ReferencesPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3
    4. 4. Thanks!• Tony for supporting, encouraging us and making sure we had the time to complete this project.• David, Andy, Kamal, Adel, Mohammed, Ratin, Kevin for taking all those extra cases!• DK, David for their review comments• RTP and RCH for their support• Targeted Training Team for the opportunity!Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 4
    5. 5. Why are we doing this? TSIRT data • Sample of over 300 cases that had low bingos or transactional survey scores in the quarter FY Q2- •Call routing, dial-peers -- 42 •ISDN config -- 18 •Telco issues misc -- 17 •Voice translation -- 11 Most issues found in two areas- • Call Routing • ISDN Configuration Indicates a need for training in the above specific topicsPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
    6. 6. Scope Digital interfaces •ISDN T1 PRI •ISDN E1 PRI •ISDN BRI •ISDN NFAS •T1 CAS •E1 R2 H.323 gateway Call RoutingPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6
    7. 7. Scope - contdWhat is not covered Call Manager Review of H.323 protocols other than H.225 and H.245 Qsig, DPNSS In general, any topic that is not specific to digital interfaces and H.323 gateway Country-custom variations of E1 R2 CAS Call routing in SRST modePresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
    8. 8. Part I ISDN Configurationon H.323 GatewaysRich Byrne
    9. 9. Introduction Overview ISDN features ISDN switch types Q921/Q931 T1 PRI E1 PRI NFAS T1/E1 Clocking Troubleshooting/LabPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9
    10. 10. ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI) and Basic Rate Interface (BRI) Overview23B or 64 Kbps x 23 OR 64 Kbps x 31 1.544 Mbps (T1) 30B PRI or 2.048 Mbps (E1) D 64 Kbps B channels are for data, D channel is for signaling 64 Kbps 2B { 64 Kbps BRI BRI 144 Kbps D 16 Kbps Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 10
    11. 11. ISDN Features ISDN: Provides End-to-End Digital Communication Switch Switch ISDN BRI Telco ISDN PRI Uses ITU Q.921 (layer2) and Q.931(layer 3) signaling Integration of digital switching and transmission Integration of voice and data on the same links Switched (packet and circuit) and non-switched applications Separate channel for signaling and data out-of-band signalingPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 11
    12. 12. Q921Switch WAN Switch ISDN BRI ISDN PRI Q.921 Q.921 • Q.921 protocol is used between the TE and the local ISDN switch (not end-to-end) • The ISDN network does not impose the use of any data link layer protocol for the B channels • Full duplex protocol • Responsible for sending/receiving error-free data • Reference ITU-T Q921: http://wwwin-eng.cisco.com/Standards/WWW/ITU/pdf-files/q/q-921.pdf Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 12
    13. 13. Q931Switch WAN Switch ISDN BRI ISDN PRI Q.931 Q.931 • Q.931 protocol is used between the TE and the local ISDN switch (not end-to-end) • The ISDN network does not impose the use of any network layer protocol for the B channels • Full duplex protocol • Message based protocol responsible for call setup and call teardown • Q.931 signaling is encapsulated in Q.921 frames • Reference ITU-T Q931http://wwwin-eng.cisco.com/Standards/WWW/ITU/pdf-files/q/q931.pdf Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
    14. 14. Q931 – contdMessagesCall Establishment messages Call clearing messages • SETUP • DISCONNECT • SETUP ACKNOWLEDGE • RELEASE • CALL PROCEEDING • RELEASE COMPLETE • PROGRESS • RESTART • ALERTING • RESTART ACKNOWLEDGE • CONNECT • CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE Miscellaneous messagesCall information phase messages • INFORMATION • RESUME • NOTIFY • RESUME ACKNOWLEDGE • SERVICE/SERVICE ACK • RESUME REJECT • STATUS • SUSPEND • STATUS ENQUIRY • SUSPEND ACKNOWLEDGE • SUSPEND REJECTPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
    15. 15. Q931 - contdCommon Information Elements (IEs) • Bearer Capability • Calling Party Number • Cause • Calling Party Subaddress • Connected Number • Called Party Number • Call State • Called Party Subaddress • Channel Identification • Facility • Progress Indicator • DisplayPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 15
    16. 16. Q931 - contdExample from Q.931 SETUP IEs Protocol discriminator M Call reference M Message type M Bearer capability M Channel identification O M - inclusion is mandatory Progress indicator O O – includion is Optional Display O Calling party number O Calling party subaddress O Called party number O Called party subaddress O Redirecting number OPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 16
    17. 17. ISDN E1 PRI European Telecommunications Standards Institute primary-net5 •European ETSI •Cisco routers support network and user sides. •Supports En bloc or Overlap modes •Configuring Overlap receiving on the D-channel changes the way routers behave when receiving ISDN calls. The router responds to the setup message with a SETUP ACK. This informs the network that it is ready to receive further information messages containing additional call routing elements. • Good example can be seen here: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk801/tk133/technologies_tech_note09186a00800b48cb.shtmlPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 17
    18. 18. Non Facility Associated Signaling• Standard T1 ISDN PRI consists of 24 channels—where a single signaling channel (D- channel) controls the remaining 23 bearer channels (B-channels) on the interface. In system terms, this means ports 1 through 23 on the ISDN span (B-channels) are controlled by port 24 (D-channel). The NFAS option extends D-channel control to B- channels not resident on the same interface. This allows a single D-channel to control up to 10 PRI interfaces (a maximum of (10x24 – 1) = 239 B-channels, or a maximum of (10x24-2) = 238 with one B-channel as a backup).• NFAS supports D-channel redundancy. If a backup D-channel is defined for the group, all stable calls are maintained when control is passed to the standby D-channel.• NFAS is supported by: 4ess, DMS250, DMS100, National ISDN switch type. It is not supported on primary 5-ess• Saves on cost of D channelsPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18
    19. 19. ISDN PRI Configuration Ext. 2000 Digital T1 1/0/0 PBX ISDN PRI Ext. 1000isdn switch-type primary-4ess!controller T1 1/0 voice-port 1/0:23 framing esf ! linecode b8zs dial-peer voice 1 pots pri-group timeslots 1-24 description TO-PBX clock source line direct-inward-dial destination-pattern 2…! incoming called-number .interface Serial1/0:23 prefix 2 no ip address port 1/0:23 isdn switch-type primary-4ess isdn incoming-voice voice no cdp enable dial-peer voice 2 voip! destination-pattern 1000 port 1/0/0 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19
    20. 20. CUCM H323 Gateway Configuration (1 of 3)Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 20
    21. 21. CUCM H323 Gateway Configuration (2 of 3)Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21
    22. 22. CUCM H323 Gateway Configuration (3 of 3)Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22
    23. 23. CUCM H323 Gateway Configuration Notes:Notes: Be aware that the h323 gateway will not register to CUCM. •Registration of ―Unknown‖ is to be expected Media Termination Point Required •Needed for Outbound FastStart Wait for Far End H.245 Terminal Capability Set •CUCM needs to receive the far-end TCS before it sends TCS Inbound Calls - Enable Inbound FastStart • Should match what the GW is doing (faststart by default) Outbound Calls •Numbering Plan and TypePresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23
    24. 24. ISDN Number Plan and Type (1 of 2)Can be set in CUCM or Gateway (CUCM) Called party IE number type : Cisco CallManager; Unknown; National; International; Subscriber. Calling party IE number type: Cisco CallManager; Unknown; National; International; Subscriber. Called Numbering Plan: Cisco CallManager; ISDN; National Standard; Private; Unknown. Calling Numbering Plan: Cisco CallManager; ISDN; National Standard; Private; Unknown.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24
    25. 25. ISDN Number Plan and Type (2 of 2)2 ways on Gateway where the ISDN Number Plan and Type can changed Voice Translation Rules •voice translation-rule 8 rule 1 /^2(...$)/ /017793451/ type unknown national plan unknown isdn This rule matches any four-digit number that starts with "2". The rule removes the "2", adds the number "01779345" as a prefix, and sets the plan to "isdn" and the type to "national". http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk652/tk90/technologies_tech_note09186a0080325e8e.shtml ISDN Map Address • Configured under the PRI Serial Interface (D-Channel)Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 25
    26. 26. ISDN Number Plan and Type Examples: (1 of 3)*Apr 26 22:42:22.795: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0x009A Bearer Capability i = 0x8090A2 Standard = CCITT Transfer Capability = Speech Transfer Mode = Circuit Transfer Rate = 64 kbit/s Channel ID i = 0xA98397 Exclusive, Channel 23 Calling Party Number i = 0x0081, 1900 Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown Called Party Number i = 0x80, 1111 Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26
    27. 27. ISDN Number Plan and Type Examples: (2 of 3)bxb-ms-3845-1(config-if)#isdn map address 1111 plan isdn type national*Apr 26 22:46:12.791: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0x009B Bearer Capability i = 0x8090A2 Standard = CCITT Transfer Capability = Speech Transfer Mode = Circuit Transfer Rate = 64 kbit/s Channel ID i = 0xA98397 Exclusive, Channel 23 Calling Party Number i = 0x0081, 1900 Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown Called Party Number i = 0xA1, 1111 Plan:ISDN, Type:National Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 27
    28. 28. ISDN Number Plan and Type Examples: (3 of 3)bxb-ms-3845-1(cfg-translation-rule)#rule 1 /1111/ /1111/ type any national plan any isdnbxb-ms-3845-1#test voice translation-rule 1 1111 type unknown plan unknownMatched with rule 1Original number: 1111 Translated number: 1111Original number type: unknown Translated number type: nationalOriginal number plan: unknown Translated number plan: isdn Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 28
    29. 29. ISDN Switch Type bxb-ms-3845-1(config-if)#isdn switch-type ? primary-4ess Lucent 4ESS switch type for the U.S. primary-5ess Lucent 5ESS switch type for the U.S. primary-dms100 Northern primary-net5 NET5 switch type for UK, Europe, Asia and Australia primary-ni National ISDN Switch type for the U.S. primary-ni2c The Cisco NAS-SC switchtype based on NI2C. primary-ntt NTT switch type for Japan primary-qsig QSIG switch type primary-ts014 TS014 switch type for Australia (obsolete)Telecom DMS-100 switch type for the U.S. Most common are the ―custom‖ switch types 4ess, 5ess, dms100, and ―standards‖ ni (National ISDN-2) . Most TDM switches/PBX’s can emulate different switch types, so important to find out how the PRI configured, not the physical switch type.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 29
    30. 30. T1/E1 ClockingSymptoms One-way audio or no audio in either direction, on plain old telephone service (POTS)-to-VoIP calls or POTS-to-POTS calls. Modems that do not train up Faxes are incomplete or have missing lines Fax connections that fail Echo and poor voice quality on VoIP calls Static noise heard during phone callsPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30
    31. 31. T1/E1 Clocking - contdConfiguration ISR Gateways network-clock-participate wic slot where slot is the WAN interface card (WIC) slot number in which the E1 or T1 multiflex trunk module (MFT) is installed. network-clock-select priority {E1 | T1} slot Where slot is the card or slot of the interface. AS5350, AS5400, 7200VXR, 2600, 3700, and 1760, have different implementations of a TDM-based architecture and allow clocking to be propagated across the backplane of the router and between different interface ports. All of the previously mentioned platforms use different command-line interface (CLI) commands to configure the clocking modes. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/routers/ps259/products_tech_note09186a008031a072.shtmlPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31
    32. 32. T1/E1 Clocking - contd bxb-ms-3845-1#show network-clocks Network Clock Configuration --------------------------- Priority Clock Source Clock State Clock Type 11 Backplane GOOD PLL Current Primary Clock Source --------------------------- Priority Clock Source Clock State Clock Type 11 Backplane GOOD PLL bxb-ms-3845-1#show controller t1 T1 0/1/1 is up. Applique type is Channelized T1 Cablelength is long 0db No alarms detected. AIS State:Clear LOS State:Clear LOF State:Clear Framing is ESF, Line Code is B8ZS, Clock Source is Line. Total Data (last 24 hours) 0 Line Code Violations, 0 Path Code Violations, 23 Slip Secs, 0 Fr Loss Secs, 0 Line Err Secs, 0 Degraded Mins, 23 Errored Secs, 0 Bursty Err Secs, 0 Severely Err Secs, 0 Unavail SecsAPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32
    33. 33. T1/E1 Clocking - contd bxb-ms-3845-1(config)#network-clock-select 1 t1 0/1/1 bxb-ms-3845-1#show network-clocks Network Clock Configuration Priority Clock Source Clock State Clock Type 1 T1 0/1/1 GOOD T1 11 Backplane GOOD PLL Current Primary Clock Source Priority Clock Source Clock State Clock Type 1 T1 0/1/1 GOOD T1 bxb-ms-3845-1#show controller t1 T1 0/1/1 is up. Applique type is Channelized T1 Cablelength is long 0db No alarms detected. AIS State:Clear LOS State:Clear LOF State:Clear Framing is ESF, Line Code is B8ZS, Clock Source is Line. Data in current interval (306 seconds elapsed): 0 Line Code Violations, 0 Path Code Violations 0 Slip Secs, 0 Fr Loss Secs, 0 Line Err Secs, 0 Degraded Mins 0 Errored Secs, 0 Bursty Err Secs, 0 Severely Err Secs, 0 Unavail SecsPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33
    34. 34. Troubleshooting ISDN Layer 2 TEI and SAPI belong to the Address field of the datalink Q.921 frame. TEI: Terminal Endpoint Identifier : Identifies a terminalISDN Layer 2 establishment: TEI = 0-63 are used for fixed TEIs TEI = 64 to 126 are reserved for assignment at activation TEI = 127 is reserved for broadcasting vnt-3745-32a#debug isdn q921 SAPI: Service Access Point Identifier : Defines the message type debug isdn q921 is ON. SAPI = 0 is used for Q931 signaling information SAPI = 16 is used for X.25 on the D-channel vnt-3745-32a# Feb 6 22:03:42.049: ISDN Se1/0:23 Q921: User TX -> SABMEp sapi=0 tei=0 Feb 6 22:03:43.048: ISDN Se1/0:23 Q921: User TX -> SABMEp sapi=0 tei=0 Feb 6 22:03:43.056: ISDN Se1/0:23 Q921: User RX <- UAf sapi=0 tei=0 Feb 6 22:03:53.042: ISDN Se1/0:23 Q921: User RX <- RRp sapi=0 tei=0 nr=0 Feb 6 22:03:53.042: ISDN Se1/0:23 Q921: User TX -> RRf sapi=0 tei=0 nr=0 Feb 6 22:04:03.035: ISDN Se1/0:23 Q921: User RX <- RRp sapi=0 tei=0 nr=0 Feb 6 22:04:03.039: ISDN Se1/0:23 Q921: User TX -> RRf sapi=0 tei=0 nr=0 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34
    35. 35. Troubleshooting ISDNvnt-3660-33a#show isdn statusGlobal ISDN Switchtype = primary-niISDN Serial2/0:23 interface dsl 0, interface ISDN Switchtype = primary-ni Layer 1 Status: ACTIVE ― ACTIVE‖ indicates that the physical wiring looks good Layer 2 Status: TEI = 0, Ces = 1, SAPI = 0, State = MULTIPLE_FRAME_ESTABLISHED Layer 3 Status: Indicates the ISDN interface and Telco switch are have 1 Active Layer 3 Call(s) successfully negotiated Q.921 (ISDN L2) parameters CCB:callid=1F, sapi=0, ces=0, B-chan=23, calltype=VOICE Active dsl 0 CCBs = 1 The Free Channel Mask: 0x803FFFFF Number of L2 Discards = 0, L2 Session ID = 3 Total Allocated ISDN CCBs = 1 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35
    36. 36. Troubleshooting No Ring Back Ring Back can be played In-Band or by the Gateway Debugs: •debug ISDN Q931 •debug voip ccapi inout •debug voip hpi inout http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk1077/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094c33.shtmlPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36
    37. 37. Incoming PRI h323 to CUCM - GW plays Ring Back dial-peer voice 1 voip destination-pattern 1900 session target ipv4:10.86.176.140 incoming called-number 111. codec g711ulaw no vad004460: *Apr 26 17:19:55.584: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> ALERTING pd = 8 callref = 0x800B005242: *Apr 26 17:29:54.224: //155/293FD4A98028/CCAPI/ccCallAlert: Progress Indication=NULL(0), Signal Indication=SIGNAL RINGBACK(1)005259: *Apr 26 17:29:54.224: //155/293FD4A98028/HPI/[0/1:1]/hpi_inband_tone_on: CPTone ON Tone ID=1, Num of frequencies=2, Frequency(hz)=440/480, Power(dBm0)=7354/7354, Direction=1 Cadence(ms)=2000/4000 0/0 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37
    38. 38. Incoming PRI h323 to CUCM – Ring Back Played In-Banddial-peer voice 1 voipdestination-pattern 1900progress_ind alert enable 8session target ipv4:10.86.176.140incoming called-number 111.codec g711ulawno vad005364: *Apr 26 17:35:56.532: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> ALERTING pd = 8 callref = 0x8016 Progress Ind i = 0x8188 - In-band info or appropriate now available005348: *Apr 26 17:35:56.528: //157/01326ABB8029/CCAPI/ccCallAlert: Progress Indication=INBAND(8), Signal Indication=SIGNAL RINGBACK(1) Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38
    39. 39. Why Did This Call Fail?? (what is missing) *Apr 26 18:30:49.976: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0x0098 Bearer Capability i = 0x8090A2 Standard = CCITT Transfer Capability = Speech Transfer Mode = Circuit Transfer Rate = 64 kbit/s Channel ID i = 0xA98397 Exclusive, Channel 23 Calling Party Number i = 0x0081, 1900 Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown Called Party Number i = 0x80, 1111 Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown *Apr 26 18:30:50.108: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- CALL_PROC pd = 8 callref = 0x8098 Progress Ind i = 0x8188 - In-band info or appropriate now available *Apr 26 18:30:50.108: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> STATUS pd = 8 callref = 0x0098 Cause i = 0x80E018 - Mandatory information element missing Call State i = 0x01 *Apr 26 18:30:50.108: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- ALERTING pd = 8 callref = 0x8098 *Apr 26 18:30:50.112: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> STATUS pd = 8 callref = 0x0098 Cause i = 0x80E0 - Mandatory information element missing Call State i = 0x01 *Apr 26 18:30:50.132: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> RELEASE pd = 8 callref = 0x0098 Cause i = 0x80E0 - Mandatory information element missing *Apr 26 18:30:50.148: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- RELEASE_COMP pd = 8 callref = 0x8098Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39
    40. 40. Answer:Channel ID IE is Missing From ITU Q.931 TABLE 3-3/Q.931 CALL PROCEEDING message content Mandatory in the network-to-user direction if this message is the first message in response to a SETUP message. It is mandatory in the user-to-network direction if this message is the first message in response to a SETUP message, unless the user accepts the B-channel indicated in the SETUP message. Reference: ITU Q.931 Link to Q931: ISDN user-network interface layer 3 specification for basic call control http://wwwin-eng.cisco.com/Standards/WWW/ITU/pdf-files/q/q931.pdfPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40
    41. 41. Why did this call fail? *May 4 21:51:16.110: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0x00AA Bearer Capability i = 0x8090A2 Standard = CCITT Transfer Capability = Speech Transfer Mode = Circuit Transfer Rate = 64 kbit/s Channel ID i = 0xA98381 Exclusive, Channel 1 Display i = Targeted Training Calling Party Number i = 0x0081, 12345 Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown Called Party Number i = 0xA1, 1111 Plan:ISDN, Type:National *May 4 21:51:16.242: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- RELEASE_COMP pd = 8 callref = 0x80AA Cause i = 0x80AC - Requested circuit/channel not available *May 4 21:51:16.950: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> RELEASE pd = 8 callref = 0x00A9 Cause i = 0x8290 - Normal call clearing *May 4 21:51:16.966: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- RELEASE_COMP pd = 8 callref = 0x80A9Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41
    42. 42. RX Cause i = 0x80AC - Requested circuit/channelnot available Other side has this Bearer Channel either in use or busied out. The ―fix‖ has to be to clear this channel on the ISDN Switch side. Reasons it may have got into this state: • ISDN Switch Type mismatch? • Bad hardware • Protocol does not support Q931 Service Messages.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 42
    43. 43. How can we work around this problem?*May 4 21:51:16.110: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0x00AA Bearer Capability i = 0x8090A2 Standard = CCITT Transfer Capability = Speech Transfer Mode = Circuit Transfer Rate = 64 kbit/s Channel ID i = 0xA98381 Exclusive, Channel 1 Display i = Targeted Training Calling Party Number i = 0x0081, 12345 Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown Called Party Number i = 0xA1, 1111 Plan:ISDN, Type:National*May 4 21:51:16.242: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- RELEASE_COMP pd = 8 callref = 0x80AA Cause i = 0x80AC - Requested circuit/channel not available*May 4 21:51:16.950: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> RELEASE pd = 8 callref = 0x00A9 Cause i = 0x8290 - Normal call clearing*May 4 21:51:16.966: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- RELEASE_COMP pd = 8 callref = 0x80A9Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43
    44. 44. Answers (2 ways) One:bxb-ms-3845-1(config-if)#isdn service b_channel 1 state 2*May 4 21:51:52.542: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> SERVICE pd = 67 callref = 0x00 Change Status i = 0xC2 - out-of-service Channel ID i = 0xA98381 Exclusive, Channel 1*May 4 21:51:52.570: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- SERVICE ACKNOWLEDGE pd = 67 callref = 0x80 Change Status i = 0xC2 - out-of-service Channel ID i = 0xA98381 Exclusive, Channel 1May 4 21:52:00.786: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0x00AB <edited> Channel ID i = 0xA98382 Exclusive, Channel 2 <edited>*May 4 21:52:00.914: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- CALL_PROC pd = 8 callref = 0x80AB Channel ID i = 0xA98382 Exclusive, Channel 2*May 4 21:52:00.914: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- ALERTING pd = 8 callref = 0x80AB*May 4 21:52:07.426: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- CONNECT pd = 8 callref = 0x80ABPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 44
    45. 45. ISDN Channel/Service State bxb-ms-3845-1#show isdn service PRI Channel Statistics: ISDN Se0/1/1:23, Channel [1-24] Configured Isdn Interface (dsl) 2 Channel State (0=Idle 1=Proposed 2=Busy 3=Reserved 4=Restart 5=Maint_Pend) Channel : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 State : 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Service State (0=Inservice 1=Maint 2=Outofservice 8=MaintPend 9=OOSPend) Channel : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 State : 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 45
    46. 46. ISDN Channel/Service Statebxb-ms-3845-1#*May 13 22:50:35.169: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- SERVICE pd = 3 callref = 0x0000 Change Status i = 0xC2 - out-of-service Channel ID i = 0xA98381 Exclusive, Channel 1*May 13 22:50:35.169: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> SERVICE ACKNOWLEDGE pd = 3 callref = 0x8000 Change Status i = 0xC2 - out-of-service Channel ID i = 0xA98381 Exclusive, Channel 1bxb-ms-3845-1#show isdn servicePRI Channel Statistics:ISDN Se0/1/1:23, Channel [1-24] Configured Isdn Interface (dsl) 2 Channel State (0=Idle 1=Proposed 2=Busy 3=Reserved 4=Restart 5=Maint_Pend) Channel : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 State : 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Service State (0=Inservice 1=Maint 2=Outofservice 8=MaintPend 9=OOSPend) Channel : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 State : 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 46
    47. 47. Second way:bxb-ms-3845-1(config-if)#isdn negotiate-bchan*May 4 21:53:00.938: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0x00AD Bearer Capability i = 0x8090A2 Standard = CCITT Transfer Capability = Speech Transfer Mode = Circuit Transfer Rate = 64 kbit/s Channel ID i = 0xA18381 Notice Channel 1 still requested (Preferred) Preferred, Channel 1 Display i = Targeted Training Calling Party Number i = 0x0081, 12345 Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown Called Party Number i = 0xA1, 1111 Plan:ISDN, Type:National*May 4 21:53:01.086: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- CALL_PROC pd = 8 callref = 0x80AD Channel ID i = 0xA98382 ISDN Switch replies with Channel 2 and the call completes Exclusive, Channel 2*May 4 21:53:01.086: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- ALERTING pd = 8 callref = 0x80AD*May 4 21:53:05.110: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- CONNECT pd = 8 callref = 0x80ADPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 47
    48. 48. What causes this?…..What can we do to fix this?bxb-ms-3845-1(config-controller)#*May 5 20:36:17.001: %CONTROLLER-5-UPDOWN: Controller T1 0/1/1, changed state to up*May 5 20:36:19.001: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0/1/1:23, changed state to up*May 5 20:36:21.001: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: Ux_DLRelInd: DL_REL_IND received from L2BADFRAME()BAD FRAME()*May 5 20:36:30.001: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: Ux_DLRelInd: DL_REL_IND received from L2BADFRAME()BAD FRAME()BAD FRAME()BAD FRAME()BAD FRAME()BAD FRAME()BAD FRAME()BAD FRAME() Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 48
    49. 49. Answer:ISDN PRI is a ―network‖ / ―user‖ Protocol One side must be the ―Network‖ the other side must be the ―User‖ 2 Reasons why you could see L2BAD FRAME()BAD FRAME() • (1) T1 line has a loopback on it. (What is sent on TX is being received on RX) o Fix by removing loopback • (2) Both ISDN sides are trying to do same network/user protocol. (both side configured as User or both sides are configured as Network) o Fix by bxb-ms-3845-1(config)#interface serial 0/1/1:23 bxb-ms-3845-1(config-if)#isdn protocol-emulate ? network ISDN protocol emulation network side user ISDN protocol emulation user side (default) obxb-ms-3845-1(config-if)#isdn protocol-emulate networkPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 49
    50. 50. Binding H.323 traffic to interfaceInbound call failure Sets the source address of packets carrying H.323 signaling messages to the interface. Configure h323-gateway voip bind srcaddr x.x.x.x under the source interface, where x.x.x.x is the IP address of the interface. x.x.x.x must be the same IP address that is configured in CallManager, for the H.323 gateway.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 50
    51. 51. Binding H.323 traffic to interface Example if h323 Bind is not there*Apr 28 21:49:26.030: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: RX <- SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0x002E Bearer Capability i = 0x8090A2 Standard = CCITT Transfer Capability = Speech Transfer Mode = Circuit Transfer Rate = 64 kbit/s Channel ID i = 0xA98381 Exclusive, Channel 1 Called Party Number i = 0x80, 1900 Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown*Apr 28 21:49:26.030: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: Received SETUP callref = 0x802E callID = 0x0002 switch = primary-niinterface = User*Apr 28 21:49:26.038: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> CALL_PROC pd = 8 callref = 0x802E Channel ID i = 0xA98381 Exclusive, Channel 1*Apr 28 21:49:26.046: ISDN Se0/1/1:23 Q931: TX -> DISCONNECT pd = 8 callref = 0x802E Cause i = 0x80A6 - Network out of order Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 51
    52. 52. Part II Call Routing withDigital Interfaces on H.323GatewaysBaktha Muralidharan
    53. 53. IntroTopics H.323 Digital interfaces Reference topologies Dial plans Call routing Digit manipulations Calling name display Fax Troubleshooting Call flow Common problem symptomsPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 53
    54. 54. H.323Intro H.323 is an ITU standard 4 is the current version Can handle video and data, in addition to audio Default protocol on Cisco gateways (―show gateway‖) Specifications: h.225, h.245, h.450, h.261, h.263 h.320, T.120 Components: gateways, gatekeepers, endpoints, MCU, proxy serversPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 54
    55. 55. H.323 - contdCall flow The gateway exchanges signaling messages with the TDM switch. E.g. if it is an ISDN switch, Q.931 messages are exchanged. Validates the endpoint information received from the switch and determines the H.323 peer entity corresponding to the endpoint. The H.323 gateway exchanges H.225 call setup messages, using TCP port 1720. One of those, the Connect message, contains the control channel address to use for H.245 signals. The gateway then exchanges several H.245 capabilities negotiation messages. When the negotiation is successful, the gateway exchanges the calling endpoint IP address and RTP port numbers, and the called endpoint IP address with RTP port numbers, in OpenLogicalChannel messages. The call is successful, and RTP media stream is sent.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 55
    56. 56. H.323 - contdConnect options Fast start •one of the setup messages includes a FastStart element, which contains a list of capabilities and supported coder/decoder (codec) options• H245 tunneling • Tunnels H.245 traffic inside H.225 messages; saves on TCP connections Slow start •H.245 exchange follows successful completion of h.225 exchange• We won’t be discussing these further, as they pertain to media negotiationsPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 56
    57. 57. H.323 - contdPros H.323 provides caller ID from Foreign Exchange Office (FXO) and T1 channel-associated signaling (CAS) ports, whereas MGCP does not. H.323 supports the use of a fractional PRI. H.323 is widely used and interoperates well with applications and devices from multiple vendors. Because all H.323 devices must support the core protocols, a gateway and CallManager have no version dependence H.323 allows a great amount of control over the treatment of calls to and from the gateway, such as for digit manipulation, load balancing, and call rerouting. You can use Toolkit Command Language (Tcl) and voice extensible markup language (VXML) applications.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 57
    58. 58. H.323 - contdPros Can integrate legacy systems based on POTS or ISDN lines into your H.323 network. H.323 supports more types of TDM interfaces and signaling than MGCP. Multimedia support— You can use H.323 for both voice calls and video conferencing. H.323 also allows data transfer. Non-Facility Associated Signaling (NFAS) support— H.323 supports NFAS, which allows you to control multiple ISDN PRI lines with just one D channel, thus giving you more usable channels. H.323 gatekeepers— Gateways can point to a gatekeeper for call control and address resolution. PRI call preservation— Because the gateway terminates both Q.921 and Q.931 signaling, the loss of its CallManager does not require dropping calls using the PRI line. Advanced Fax support – e.g. T.37Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 58
    59. 59. H.323 - contdCons Configuration Lack of centralized dial-plan Call survivability – by default, calls dropped on loss of connection to UCM Qsig facility IE supportPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 59
    60. 60. Digital InterfacesIntro Basically T1/E1 Typically offer much greater capacity, quality, and reliability Midsize and larger businesses use to connect to PSTN. Provide DNIS and ANI Theory covered extensively in first half as well as in VoIP bootcamp etc.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 60
    61. 61. Digital Interfaces - contdSignaling types CAS – Channel Associated Signaling. Signaling takes place within the voice channel (inband). Also known as ABCD signaling and Robbed bit signaling. CCS – Common Channel Signaling. Signaling messages is sent in a dedicated (out of band) channel (DS0)Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 61
    62. 62. Digital interfaces - contdCommon Interface types T1 CAS E1 R2 ISDN •T1 PRI •E1 PRI •BRI •PRI NFAS •Fractional PRIPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 62
    63. 63. Digital Interfaces - contdSignaling protocols CAS •―Analog signaling‖ on a digital circuit •Most common forms •Loop start •Ground start •E&M variants •Note: ABCD signaling without robbed bit (e.g. E1 R2) CCS •Q.931 •SS7 •Other, proprietary protocolPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 63
    64. 64. Digital interfaces - contdT1 PRI 23 B channels 1 D channel (channel # 23) controller T1 0/1/0 pri-group 0 timeslots 1-24 dial-peer voice 1 pots direct-inward-dial port 0/1/0:23Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 64
    65. 65. Digital Interfaces - contdE1 PRI 30 B channels 1 D channel (channel #15) controller E1 0/2/0 pri-group 0 timeslots 1-31 dial-peer voice 1 pots direct-inward-dial port 0/2/0:15Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 65
    66. 66. Digital Interfaces - contdBRI 2 B channels 1 D channel (16kbps) Common in Europe interface BRI0/0/0 isdn switch-type ntt isdn tei-negotiation first-call isdn incoming-voice voice dial-peer voice 1 pots direct-inward-dial port 0/0/0Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 66
    67. 67. Digital Interfaces - contdFractional PRI H.323 gateways supports fractional T1 PRIs For example, can configure 12 B-channels. The D-channel is always required. D channel automatically added, i.e. even if you do not include the D-channel in the timeslot range. controller T1 0/1/0 pri-group 0 timeslots 1-12 dial-peer voice 1 pots direct-inward-dial port 0/1/0:23Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 67
    68. 68. Digital Interfaces - contd NFAS  Allows single D channel to serve as signaling channel for multiple PRIs  Frees up a channel in the PRIs to carry voice  Backup D channel can be configured  Dial peer config for each NFAS controller should contain the primary of the NFAS group controller T1 1/0 pri-group timeslots 1-24 nfas_d primary nfas_interface 0 nfas_group 1 controller T1 1/1 pri-group timeslots 1-24 nfas_d backup nfas_interface 1 nfas_group 1 dial-peer voice 35 pots incoming called-number . destination-pattern 35... direct-inward-dial port 1/0:23http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/docs/ios/12_3/vvf_c/cisco_ios_isdn_voice_configuration_guide/isdn06.html Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 68
    69. 69. Digital Interfaces - contdT1 CAS LSB [of every DS0] on every sixth frame; ESF has 24 frames; A in 6th, B in 12th, C in 18th and D in 24th frames E&M signaling most widely used http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/tech/tk652/tk653/technologies_tech_note09186a00800e2560.s htmlPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 69
    70. 70. Digital Interfaces - contdT1 CAS FGB supports ANI collection, but only on AS5xx platforms FGD - can only receive ANI FGD-EANA - can only send ANI controller T1 0/1/0 ds0-group 0 timeslots 1-12 type e&m-fgd ds0-group 1 timeslots 13-24 type fgd-eana ! dial-peer voice 1 pots incoming called-number . destionation-patter 9T port 0/1/0Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 70
    71. 71. Digital Interfaces - contdE1 R2 It is CAS for E1 Signaling is not completely in-band. Supervisory is Out-of-band. Defines two types of signaling Line signaling Inter-register signaling Similar ―Supervisory‖ and ―addressing‖ Signaling exists in several country versions or variants http://www-tac.cisco.com/Training/voice_bootcamp/lecture_ppt/revised-02/day3_e1r2.pdfPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 71
    72. 72. Digital Interfaces - contdE1 R2 Line signaling; Used for call setup and teardown. R2 supports three methods of line signaling: •R2-Digital (more common) •Line Signaling carried in timeslot 16 of the E1 frame. •Only the A and B bits are used by R2 •In the on-hook state, the A bit is set to 1 and the B bit is set to 0. •These bits have different meanings depending on which side is initiating the call. •forward - bits coming from the calling party •backward - bits coming from the called party. •R2-Analog •Only A bit is used •R2-PulsePresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 72
    73. 73. Digital Interfaces - contdE1 R2 Inter-register signaling; Cisco VGs support- •R2-Compelled— Forward tones stay on until the remote end responds. The tones are compelled to stay on until you turn them off. •R2-Noncompelled— Forward tones are sent as pulses. Group-B responses are also sent as pulses. Noncompelled inter-register signaling has no Group-A signals. •R2-Semi-Compelled— Forward tones are sent as compelled. Responses are sent as pulses. Semi-compelled is the same as compelled, except that the backward signals are pulsed instead of continuous. •DTMF— In-band DTMF tones are used for address signaling.• Register signaling carried in-band, in each time slot.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 73
    74. 74. Reference network topologies SCCP VoIP, VoFR, VoATM RTP PSTN VPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 74
    75. 75. Reference network topologies - contdToll bypass VoIP, VoFR, PSTN VoATM & RTP PSTN V VPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 75
    76. 76. Dial plan Central part of any telephony solution. Has to be done regardless of the VoIP protocol, interfaces etc. •Specific dialing patterns •Access codes •Area codes •Specialized codes •Combinations of number of digits dialed However, unlike MGCP, with H.323, dial plan configuration has to happen on gateways as wellPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 76
    77. 77. Dial plan - contdComponents Endpoint addressing Call routing and path selection Digit manipulation Calling privileges Call coveragePresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 77
    78. 78. Call routing Route the call depending on the dialed number Select the appropriate path Handled by dial peersPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 78
    79. 79. Call routing - contdDial-peers Dial-peers are like static routes that define where the phone numbers are located in the VOIP network. Dial-peers define both locally connected phone numbers (e.g. FXS ports) as well as remote phone numbers on other VOIP Gateways. Big topic! Covered extensively in VoIP bootcamp. In this presentation, we will focus on- •Aspects of dial-peer that are peculiar to digital interfacesPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 79
    80. 80. Call routing - contdCall legsPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 80
    81. 81. Call routing - contdImportance of inbound dial-peers Common misunderstanding- dial-peers only configured for outbound functionality, that is, to map a dial string to a remote network device. Inbound dial peers determine some important call parameters Also needed in scenarios where non−default services, applications, and/or capabilities are present. On inbound POTS call legs received at the originating router/gateway, some non−default services and applications of incoming calls include: •Direct−inward−dial (DID) •TCL-based Applications- •Interactive Voice Response (IVR) •On−Ramp FaxingPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 81
    82. 82. Call routing - contdDirect-inward-dial Direct Inward Dialing (DID) is a service offered by telephone companies that enables callers to dial directly to an extension on a PBX without operator assistance. If direct-inward-dial is configured on the selected inbound POTS dial peer, the entire called number is used to match outbound dial peers. This is referred to as one-stage dialing. If the direct-inward-dial command is not configured on the selected inbound POTS dial peer, digit-by-digit analysis is performed. This is called two-stage dialing. In this case, the gateway will play secondary dial-tone. The only case in which the called number is not used to match the destination pattern is when overlap-receiving is configured on an ISDN interface. With overlap-receiving, switch sends additional digits after the initial setup message. Digit-by-digit matching is used. DNIS is en-bloc on ISDN interfaces. On T1 CAS, en-bloc if ―dtmf dnis‖ is configured; Digit-by-digit, otherwisePresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 82
    83. 83. Incoming Interface POTS? y nInbound dial-peer matching digit-by-digit? y Dial-peers searched based on extract DNIS type (of incoming call interface) Match incoming y Select dial- Different processing for en-bloc called-number? peer! versus digit-by-digit Having destination-pattern in the Loop y Select dial- through Mach answer- config allows for same dial-peer All POTS address? peer! to be used as inbound as well as dial-peers outbound Match y Answer-address destination- Select dial- pattern? peer! •―Calling Party‖ from ISDN (Q.931) •ANI from T1 CAS fgd y Select dial- Match port? peer! dial-peer 0 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 83
    84. 84. Call routing - contdOutbound call matching Both POTS and VoIP dial peers are considered ―destination-pattern <called-number pattern>‖ is used to find the dial-peer On POTS dial peers, the port command is then used to forward the call. On VoIP dial peers, the session target command is then used to forward the call.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 84
    85. 85. Call routing - contdOutbound call matching, with variable length dial-plan  DNIS received one digit at a time • best shortest complete matching dial-peer is selected, unless digit ―T‖ is not used. • This could result in premature/incorrect call routing • Longest match followed if all destination-patterns have digit ―T‖.  If DNIS received en-bloc, then longest match used.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 85
    86. 86. Call Routing - contdOverlap receivingDigits are sent after the initial Setup message. Because the entire digitstring might not be received when the inbound dial peer is matched, digit-by-digit matching is used. interface Serial3/0:15 no ip address no logging event link-status isdn switch-type primary-qsig isdn overlap-receiving isdn incoming-voice isdn send-alertingPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 86
    87. 87. Call Routing - contdOverlap receiving – incorrect configuration interface Serial3/0:15 no ip address no logging event link-status isdn switch-type primary-qsig isdn overlap-receiving isdn incoming-voice isdn send-alerting dial-peer voice 1 voip destination-pattern 55 session target ipv4:10.0.0.1Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 87
    88. 88. Call Routing - contdOverlap-receiving – incorrect configuration# An incoming call with the first digit of called number 5.*Mar 2 01:47:05.705: ISDN Se3/0:15: RX <- SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0 001A*Mar 2 01:47:05.705: Bearer Capability i = 0 8090A3*Mar 2 01:47:05.709: Channel ID i = 0xA9839B*Mar 2 01:47:05.713: Calling Party Number i = 0 00, 0 83, ‘5000′, Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown*Mar 2 01:47:05.717: Called Party Number i = 0 80, ‘5′, Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown*Mar 2 01:47:05.717: High Layer Compat i = 0 9181# An information message with the next digit 5.*Mar 2 01:47:05.729: ISDN Se3/0:15: TX -> SETUP_ACK pd = 8 callref = 0 801A*Mar 2 01:47:05.729: Channel ID i = 0xA9839B*Mar 2 01:47:06.385: ISDN Se3/0:15: RX <- INFORMATION pd = 8 callref = 0 001A*Mar 2 01:47:06.385: Called Party Number i = 0 80, ‘5′, Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown# The router matches received digits 55 with dial peer 1.*Mar 2 01:47:06.393: ccCallSetupRequest numbering_type 0 80*Mar 2 01:47:06.393: ccCallSetupRequest encapType 2 clid_restrict_disable 1null_orig_clg 0 clid_transparent 0 callingNumber 5000*Mar 2 01:47:06.393: dest pattern 5, called 55, digit_strip 0*Mar 2 01:47:06.393: callingNumber=5000, calledNumber=55, redirectNumber= display_info=calling_oct3a=83Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 88
    89. 89. Call Routing - contdOverlap-receiving – correct configuration interface Serial3/0:15 no ip address no logging event link-status isdn switch-type primary-qsig isdn overlap-receiving t302 10000 isdn incoming-voice isdn send-alerting dial-peer voice 1 voip destination-pattern 5T session target ipv4:10.0.0.1 The "T" terminator causes the router to wait for the T302 timer to expire after each digits reception, allowing the full number to be collected before placing the call.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 89
    90. 90. Call Routing - contd# An incoming call with the first digit of called number 5. (called number: 5678)*Mar 2 21:36:10.132: ISDN Se3/0:15: RX <- SETUP pd = 8 callref = 0 0024*Mar 2 21:36:10.136: Bearer Capability i = 0 8090A3*Mar 2 21:36:10.136: Channel ID i = 0xA98386*Mar 2 21:36:10.140: Calling Party Number i = 0 00, 0 83, ‘5000′, Plan:Unknown,Type:Unknown*Mar 2 21:36:10.144: Called Party Number i = 0 80, ‘5′, Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown*Mar 2 21:36:10.144: High Layer Compat i = 0 9181# An information message with the next digit 6.*Mar 2 21:36:10.164: ISDN Se3/0:15: TX -> SETUP_ACK pd = 8 callref = 0 8024*Mar 2 21:36:10.164: Channel ID i = 0xA98386*Mar 2 21:36:10.360: ISDN Se3/0:15: RX <- INFORMATION pd = 8 callref = 0 0024*Mar 2 21:36:10.364: Called Party Number i = 0 80, ‘6′, Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown# An information message with the next digit 7.*Mar 2 21:36:10.660: ISDN Se3/0:15: RX <- INFORMATION pd = 8 callref = 0 0024*Mar 2 21:36:10.664: Called Party Number i = 0 80, ‘7′, Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown# An information message with the next digit 8.*Mar 2 21:36:10.924: ISDN Se3/0:15: RX <- INFORMATION pd = 8 callref = 0 0024*Mar 2 21:36:10.924: Called Party Number i = 0 80, ‘8′, Plan:Unknown, Type:Unknown# The router matches received digits 5678 with dial peer 1.*Mar 2 21:36:20.168: ccCallSetupRequest encapType 2 clid_restrict_disable 1null_orig_clg 0 clid_transparent 0 callingNumber 5000 Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 90
    91. 91. Call routing - contdIncoming call with no calling number  Ends up selecting dial-peer based on using port dial-peer voice 1 pots matching direct-inward-dial destination-pattern 1234  Matches a dial peer that is configured with any port 1/0:23 destination pattern  Gateway uses the value of the destination pattern as the calling number on the outgoing call  Prevent by configuring a POTS dial peer with dial-peer voice 2 pots just ―incoming called-number‖. ―incoming called- direct-inward-dial number‖ has higher priority than destination incoming called-number . pattern for inbound POTS matching.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 91
    92. 92. Call routing - contdMiscellaneous In Europe, BRI interfaces sometimes get deactivated (by layer 1) on call inactivity. no dial-peer outbound status-check pots To get around this- service ani_filter Service ani-filter flash:ani_filter.tcl group-name ani_filter ! new_dest should be something unreachable so that the caller gets number of out service message from telco param new_dest 5555 param clid1 626xxxxxxx param clid2 714xxxxxxx param clid3 562xxxxxxx param clid999 212xxxxxxxPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 92
    93. 93. Call Routing - contdTrunks and trunk groups Used to group multiple voice ports or ISDN channels into a single logical target for an outbound dial peer Reduce the no. of peers required in scenarios with multiple PRIs. Can dedicate some channels of an ISDN circuit to particular dial peers. See example below Trunk groups apply only to outbound calls. The gateway cannot control channel assignment of incoming calls. Gateway(config)#controller t1 2/0 Gateway(config-controller)#pri-group timeslots 1-24 Gateway(config-controller)#trunk-group Emergency timeslots 1-2 Gateway(config-controller)#trunk-group Standard timeslots 3-23Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 93
    94. 94. Call Routing – contdCall Manager Interface With H.323, CallManager sees the gateway only as a peer call routing entity- •Cannot specify which port /route the call should use •Does not even know that multiple ports exist on the gateway. •In the reverse direction, an H.323 gateway decides how to route calls. In MGCP, didn’t have to configure gateway and CallManager separately for dialing. Need to make sure that CallManager sends the appropriate digits as well as prefix digits (e.g. 9) for proper call routing. Inbound CSS of gateway should allow incoming calls to reach IP phones. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/sw/voicesw/ps556/products_tech_note09186a0080094636.shtPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 94
    95. 95. Call routingCall parameters ISDN PRI ISDN BRI T1 CAS fgd T1 CAS T1 CAS E1 R2 Winkstart Winkstart dtmf dnisDID? yes yes yes no Yes noEnbloc? enbloc enbloc Enbloc Digit-by-digit enbloc Digit-by- digitInbound algorithm algorithm algorithm port Algorithm portdial-peermatchingDNIS Yes yes Yes yes yes yesANI Yes Yes yes No no yesANI format N/A N/A MF N/A N/A MFPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 95
    96. 96. Digit manipulations Refers to adding, subtracting and changing the following information- •Calling numbers Inbound voice port translation Match outbound dial-peer •Called numbers Numexp Match inbound dial-peer Dial-peer voice translation profile •Redirecting numbers Dial-peer translation profile on these calls Incoming Call •Inbound calls Global voice translation profile Match outbound dial peer Numexp Dial-peer voice translation •Outbound calls Or Match inbound dial-peer Digit strip Dial-peer voice translation Prefix •Globally to all calls profile forward• Since this is not specific to digital interface and has been dealt with extensively in VoIP bootcamp, we won’t be discussing this further.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 96
    97. 97. Calling name display CallManager interprets calling name information only in the Display IE of the H.323 Setup and Notify messages. Name display information delivered in an H.323 Facility message is not interpreted by CallManager. Two ways to fix this..Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 97
    98. 98. Calling Name display - contd When a Q.931 Setup msg with a "name-to- voice service voip follow" indication is received from an ISDN switch, an H.323 Setup msg with no name h323 information is sent to CUCM. When the h225 display-ie ccm-compatible subsequent Q.931 Facility msg is received with calling name information, it is mapped to an H.323 Notify Display IE. Gatewat receives abd buffers Setup msg until the subsequent Facility msg with calling name information is received. The name info from voice service voip the Q.931 Facility msg is then placed into the h323 H.323 Setup msg Display IE and sent to h225 timeout ntf <50-5000> CUCM. If the buffer timer expires before the isdn supp-service name calling Facility msg is received, an H.323 Setup is sent with no name information; if it subsequently arrives, the information is sent on using an H.323 Notify message.Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 98
    99. 99. FaxT.37 OnRamp Tcl application Invoked by ―application setting‖ under inbound pots dial-peer call application voice onramp flash:app_libretto_onramp.2.0.1.1.tcl … dial-peer voice 891314 pots application onramp incoming called-number 891314[4-5] direct-inward-dial port 0/0/0:23 http://cae-wiki.cisco.com/index.php/Cisco_Fax_Wiki#T.37_Store-and-Forward_FaxPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 99
    100. 100. troubleshooting show voice call sta debug isdn q931 Call manager traces show call active voice debug h225 asn1 show dialplan number debug h245 asn1 debug vpm signaling debug voip ccapi inoutPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 100
    101. 101. Tools “csim start” http://www.ccievoicestudy.com/Cisco/VoIP/csim_start:_Using_and_Understanding/ “show dialplan number” PCM capture http://tac-wiki/Image:Pcm-tool.pdf#filelinks EEM http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/iosswrel/ps6537/ps6555/ps6815/config_g uide_eem_configuration_for_cisco_integrated_services_router_platforms.html http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/netmgmt/configuration/guide/nm_eem_policy_cl i.html#wp1065918 “test voice translation-rule”Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 101
    102. 102. Common problem symptoms In general, any failures, issues with call connecting tend to be P1/P2. ―If you can’t connect, you have a ―service outage!‖ Connects and then drops? Might not be call routing, might be media/codec issue! Outbound call troubleshooting- Are calls even getting the correct gateway? Inbound calls fail? Locate and check the incoming dial-peer for digit manipulation, that might result in call being unroutable Firewall– check if port 1720 is blocked Dial-peer with ―incoming called-number .‖ not matched ? DNIS being received digit by digit ?Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 102
    103. 103. Common problem symptoms Sometimes, both pots and voip dial-peers have same destination-pattern– bad design! Change pots dial-peer to use more specific destination pattern ―Your call cannot be completed as dialed‖– on outbound calls? Look at CUCM route patterns ―Your call cannot be completed as dialed‖ on inbound calls? Check if digit-by- digit is happening High cpu– dial-peer looping? Only two calls in progress. Show commands show lot more call legs! With H.323, no registration is required. So, ip routing/connectivity issues between CUCM and VG won’t show until calls are attempted. T1 CAS- fast busy? Make sure ANI/DNIS is passed in (by telco) with correct delimitersPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 103
    104. 104. Direct-inward-dialDID not configured dial-peer voice 2 pots incoming called-number 1900 *Apr 27 15:05:25.983: //-1/xxxxxxxxxxxx/CCAPI/cc_setupind_match_search: Try with the demoted called number 1900 *Apr 27 15:05:25.983: //80/25012D5C8071/CCAPI/ccCallSetContext: Context=0xC0AC53C8 *Apr 27 15:05:25.983: //80/25012D5C8071/CCAPI/cc_process_call_setup_ind: >>>>CCAPI handed cid 80 with tag 2 to app "_ManagedAppProcess_Default" *Apr 27 15:05:25.983: //80/25012D5C8071/CCAPI/ccCallSetupAck: Call Id=80 *Apr 27 15:05:25.983: //80/25012D5C8071/CCAPI/cc_api_set_transfer_info: Transfer Number=, Transfer Reason=0x0 *Apr 27 15:05:25.983: //80/25012D5C8071/CCAPI/ccGenerateToneInfo: Stop Tone On Digit=TRUE, Tone=Dial Tone, Tone Direction=Network, Params=0x0, Call Id=80Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 104
    105. 105. Direct-inward-dialDID configured dial-peer voice 2 pots incoming called-number 1900 direct-inward-dial *Apr 27 15:49:36.203: //-1/xxxxxxxxxxxx/CCAPI/cc_setupind_match_search: Try with the demoted called number 1900 *Apr 27 15:49:36.203: //82/50A8A2958078/CCAPI/ccCallSetContext: Context=0xC0AAFD38 *Apr 27 15:49:36.203: //82/50A8A2958078/CCAPI/cc_process_call_setup_ind: >>>>CCAPI handed cid 82 with tag 2 to app "_ManagedAppProcess_Default" *Apr 27 15:49:36.203: //82/50A8A2958078/CCAPI/ccCallProceeding: Progress Indication=NULL(0) *Apr 27 15:49:36.207: //82/50A8A2958078/CCAPI/ccCallSetupRequest: Destination=, Calling IE Present=FALSE, Mode=0, Outgoing Dial-peer=1, Params=0xC0AB36A0, Progress Indication=ORIGINATING SIDE IS NON ISDN(3) *Apr 27 15:49:36.207: //82/50A8A2958078/CCAPI/ccCheckClipClirPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 105
    106. 106. “Your call cannot be completed as dialed” *May 10 18:14:52.388: //-1/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_api_display_ie_subfields: cc_api_call_setup_ind_common: cisco-username= controller T1 0/1/0 ----- ccCallInfo IE subfields ----- cisco-ani= cablelength long 0db cisco-anitype=0 cisco-aniplan=0 ds0-group 0 timeslots 1-24 type e&m-wink-start cisco-anipi=0 cisco-anisi=0 dest= dial-peer voice 2 pots cisco-desttype=0 incoming called-number 1900 (# Don’t Ca cisco-destplan=0 cisco-rdie=FFFFFFFF port 0/1/0:0 cisco-rdn= cisco-lastrdn= ! cisco-rdntype=0 dial-peer voice 1 voip cisco-rdnplan=0 cisco-rdnpi=0 destination-pattern 190 cisco-rdnsi=0 cisco-redirectreason=0 fwd_final_type =0 delay transport-address final_redirectNumber = hunt_group_timeout =0 session target ipv4:10.86.176.140 incoming called-number 111. *May 10 18:14:52.388: //-1/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_api_call_setup_ind_common: Interface=0x670F51EC, Call Info( codec g711ulaw Calling Number=,(Calling Name=)(TON=Unknown, NPI=Unknown, Screening=Not Screened, Presentation=Allowed), no vad Called Number=(TON=Unknown, NPI=Unknown), Calling Translated=FALSE, Subscriber Type Str=RegularLine, FinalDestinationFlag=FALSE, Incoming Dial-peer=2, Progress Indication=ORIGINATING SIDE IS NON ISDN(3), Calling IE Present=FALSE, Source Trkgrp Route Label=, Target Trkgrp Route Label=, CLID Transparent=FALSE), Call Id=-1Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 106
    107. 107. Why did this call fail - contd … *May 10 18:14:52.388: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_process_call_setup_ind: Event=0x66CF82C8 *May 10 18:14:52.388: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/ccCallSetContext: Context=0x663EFE4C *May 10 18:14:52.388: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_process_call_setup_ind: >>>>CCAPI handed cid 171 with tag 2 to app "_ManagedAppProcess_Default" *May 10 18:14:52.388: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/ccCallSetupAck: Call Id=171 *May 10 18:14:52.388: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_api_set_transfer_info: Transfer Number=, Transfer Reason=0x0 *May 10 18:14:52.388: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/ccGenerateToneInfo: Stop Tone On Digit=TRUE, Tone=Dial Tone,Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 107
    108. 108. Why did this call fail – contd *May 10 18:14:53.024: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_api_call_digit_begin: Destination Interface=0x0, Destination Mask=0x1, Destination Call Id=-1, Source Call Id=171, Digit=1, DigitBeginFlags=0x1, Rtp Timestamp=0x6023A47D, Rtp Expiration=0x0 *May 10 18:14:53.084: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_api_call_digit_end: Destination Interface=0x0, Destination Mask=0x1, Destination Call Id=-1, 1 Source Call Id=171, Digit=1, Duration=92, Xrule Calling Tag=0, Xrule Called Tag=0, Digit Tone Mode=DTMF *May 10 18:14:53.084: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_api_call_digit_end: Call Entry(Handoff Depth=0) *May 10 18:14:53.152: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_api_call_digit_begin: Destination Interface=0x0, Destination Mask=0x1, Destination Call Id=-1, Source Call Id=171, Digit=9, DigitBeginFlags=0x1, Rtp Timestamp=0x6023A885, Rtp Expiration=0x0 *May 10 18:14:53.200: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_api_call_digit_end: 9 Destination Interface=0x0, Destination Mask=0x1, Destination Call Id=-1, Source Call Id=171, Digit=9, Duration=90, Xrule Calling Tag=0, Xrule Called Tag=0, Digit Tone Mode=DTMF *May 10 18:14:53.200: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_api_call_digit_end: Call Entry(Handoff Depth=0) *May 10 18:14:53.272: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_api_call_digit_begin: Destination Interface=0x0, Destination Mask=0x1, Destination Call Id=-1, Source Call Id=171, Digit=0, DigitBeginFlags=0x1, Rtp Timestamp=0x6023AC48, Rtp Expiration=0x0 *May 10 18:14:53.320: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_api_call_digit_end: Destination Interface=0x0, Destination Mask=0x1, Destination Call Id=-1, 0 Source Call Id=171, Digit=0, Duration=87, Xrule Calling Tag=0, Xrule Called Tag=0, Digit Tone Mode=DTMF *May 10 18:14:53.320: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_api_call_digit_end: Call Entry(Handoff Depth=0) *May 10 18:14:53.320: //171/xxxxxxxxxxxx/CCAPI/ccCallReportDigits: (callID=0xAB, digit_event=0x0, enable=FALSE, consume=FALSE) *May 10 18:14:53.320: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/ccCallReportDigits: Enabled=TRUE, Call Id=171 *May 10 18:14:53.320: //171/xxxxxxxxxxxx/CCAPI/cc_api_call_report_digits_done: (vdbPtr=0x670F51EC, callID=0xAB, disp=0, digit_event=0x0, enable=FALSE, consume=FALSE)Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 108
    109. 109. Why did this call fail - contd *May 10 18:14:53.320: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/ccCallReportDigits: Enabled=TRUE, Call Id=171 *May 10 18:14:53.320: //171/xxxxxxxxxxxx/CCAPI/cc_api_call_report_digits_done: (vdbPtr=0x670F51EC, callID=0xAB, disp=0, digit_event=0x0, enable=FALSE, consume=FALSE) *May 10 18:14:53.320: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_api_call_report_digits_done: Enabled=TRUE, Disposition=0x0, Interface=0x670F51EC, Call Id=171 *May 10 18:14:53.320: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/cc_api_call_report_digits_done: Call Entry(Initial Digit Timeout=15000(ms), Inter Digit Timeout=10000(ms)) *May 10 18:14:53.320: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/ccCallProceeding: Progress Indication=NULL(0) *May 10 18:14:53.324: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/ccCallSetupRequest: Destination=, Calling IE Present=FALSE, Mode=0, Outgoing Dial-peer=1, Params=0x663EEB94, Progress Indication=ORIGINATING SIDE IS NON ISDN(3) *May 10 18:14:53.324: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/ccCheckClipClir: In: Calling Number=(TON=Unknown, NPI=Unknown, Screening=Not Screened, Presentation=Allowed) *May 10 18:14:53.324: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/ccCheckClipClir: Out: Calling Number=(TON=Unknown, NPI=Unknown, Screening=Not Screened, Presentation=Allowed) *May 10 18:14:53.324: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/ccCallSetupRequest: Destination Pattern=190, Called Number=190, Digit Strip=FALSE *May 10 18:14:53.324: //171/C347AE408153/CCAPI/ccCallSetupRequest:Presentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 109
    110. 110. Why did this call fail - contdAnswer dial-peer voice 2 pots incoming called-number 1900 (# Don’t Care) port 0/1/0:0 ! dial-peer voice 1 voip destination-pattern 190T delay transport-address session target ipv4:10.86.176.140 incoming called-number 111. codec g711ulaw no vadPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 110
    111. 111. H.323 Call processing VoIP, VoFR, VoATM PSTN Call Manager <-> IPphone Note: slow start Call AcceptedPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 111
    112. 112. h.323 Call processing - contdInbound ISDN call •If en-bloc, follow •Use DNIS, preference to inbound matching resolve outbound dial- •Receive Setup algorithm peer •Msg valid per Q.931 FSM? Else use port to •Apply outbound voice determine inbound dial- translation peer •Determine codec and other parameters •Validate msg params •Apply translation from Voice port •Overlap receiving? •Num-exp •Inbound dial-peer based on •Inbound Voice-port port translation •Setup_Ack •Inbound Dial-peer •Start t302 Translation profile •Wait and rcv INFO messages •If t302 expires, proceed toPresentation_ID process © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 112
    113. 113. H.323 call processing - contdInbound call •Receive response msg •Stop timer •Send ISDN alerting •Generate Ringtone? •H.245 exchange •Determine target •open TCP connection •Receive Connect msg •Build Setup msg •Stop timer •Add faststart element •Send ISDN Connect •Send Setup •Note down IP/port of •If fast start, done •Start H.323 timers endpoint •If slow start, set up •Wait for response another TCP Connection •If ―voice rtp send-recv‖, cut audio pathPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 113
    114. 114. ReferencesBooks, training courses Voip bootcamp Cisco Voice Gateways and Gatekeepers, David Mallory, Ken Salhoff, Denise Donohue, ciscopress.com Fax, modem, and Text for IP Telephony, David Hanes and Gonzalo SalgueiroPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 114
    115. 115. ReferencesReference links Link to Q931: ISDN user-network interface layer 3 specification for basic call control http://wwwin-eng.cisco.com/Standards/WWW/ITU/pdf-files/q/q931.pdf Link to Q850: Usage of cause and location in the Digital Subscriber Signalling System No. 1 http://wwwin-eng.cisco.com/Standards/WWW/ITU/pdf-files/q/q-850.pdf q931 IE decoder http://www-tac.cisco.com/wan/isdn/tools/q931frame.html Configuring NFAS with Four T1s http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk801/tk379/technologies_configuration_example09186a00800a6bf2.shtml Understanding debug isdn q931 Disconnect Cause Codes http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk801/tk379/technologies_tech_note09186a008012e95f.shtmlPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 115
    116. 116. ReferencesReference links - contd ITU Q-Series Recommendation http://wwwin-eng.cisco.com/Standards/ITU/q-series.html Digital Signaling http://www-tac.cisco.com/Teams/AVVID/rtp/Debugging/digital_signaling.html Integrating PBXs into VoIP Networks Using the TDM Cross Connect Feature http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk652/tk653/technologies_configuration_example09186a008010f05d.shtml Troubleshooting No Busy Tone and No Announcement Messages on ISDN-VoIP (H.323) Calls http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/tech/tk652/tk653/technologies_tech_note09186a0080111b58.shtml Configuring ISDN PRI http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/docs/ios/12_2/dial/configuration/guide/dafchant.htmlPresentation_ID © 2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 116

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