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Sustainable Architecture and Green Building


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A little history of energy efficiency and green building and some of my own work. The verbal part of the presentation talks about how to plan a green building project and look at the building as a system of parts with overlapping function. I also stress in regards to energy, water and material resources that you always do your best design to lower the demand side before you address the supply side. Do More With Less.
Practice- "Just Right Sizing".

Published in: Design

Sustainable Architecture and Green Building

  1. 1. Sustainable Architecture /Green Building Darryl Duffé Duffé Design / Build Services
  2. 2. History of Green Building ● “The Energy Crisis” awakened us from a slumber about resource use and dependency in 1973. ● 1975- Pliny Fisk founds Center for Maximum Potential Building Systems - Focusing on Appropriate Technology- rammed earth, low cost, buildings as holistic systems ● 1976- First National Passive Solar Conference ● 1976- The Solar Home Book by Bruce Anderson , a textbook for solar ● The Los Alamos Lab study of 13 passive solar houses released in 1977. Results Published in Popular Science ● 1977- Amory Lovins wrote an article for Foreign Affairs which became the book Soft Energy Paths- identified a new demand side approach to energy ● 1979- Ed Mazria released The Passive Solar Energy Book, “The Designer's Bible” ● 1979- Solar System on White House- Carter 20% renewable energy goals for 2000 Duffé Design / Build Services
  3. 3. History of Green Building ● 1980- Another energy price shock results from the Iran hostage crisis. New Carter energy standards start taking effect, automobiles started getting better MPG, ap- pliances and insulation standards helped us grow GDP without increasing our energy consumption. While progress was being made in efficiency, Reagan sym- bolically removed the Carter solar system from the W.H. ● 1975-1985 Cars went from 1975 average of 14 MPG to 28 MPG average in 1985. These more efficient cars did not have as much torque for acceleration. (Today's cars are heavier and accelerate 50% faster with no improvement in mileage.) ● 1982- W. Laurence Doxsey & I founded Progressive Energy Works, Inc. in Asheville, NC, as working partners and brought architect Jim Samsel on board as a shareholder ● 1981- The First Energy Rating Systems and Energy Efficient mortgage loans, Fan- nie Mae and Freddy Mac, and other sponsors like Austin Energy Star -1985. ● 1986- 40% Federal Solar Tax Credits expire, Solar Hot Water industry suffers ma- jor setback some state tax credits remain. My petition saves NC's 25% credit Duffé Design / Build Services
  4. 4. History of Green Building ● 1992- The first Green Building Guide premiered at the Earth Summit in Rio, the project is a “sustainability” rating system coordinated by W. Laurence Doxsey for the City of Austin, Texas. Patterned after the Austin Energy Star Rating System except that “green points” 4 areas of consideration: WATER, ENERGY, BUILDING MATERIALS & SOLID WASTE ● 1986- Nuclear Disaster at Chernobyl ● 1993- First meeting to form what would become the USGBC. LEED rating system would go from pilot program to LEED 1.0 in 2000 with the choice of 12 LEED rated buildings from the pilot program ● 1993 – Pacific Gas and Electric Company installs the first grid-sup- ported PV system in Kerman, CA. This 500-kilowatt system is the first “distributed power” PV installation. Renewable expansion continues and this is now the greenest utility company. Duffé Design / Build Services
  5. 5. History of Green Building ● 2000- Denmark enacts legislation to encourage a national goal of 20% renewable energy by 2010. They used 'feed-in” tariffs to finance investment in wind and solar and reach the 20% goal 3 years early. ● 2003- George W. Bush installs a 9KW PV system on the White House and 2 solar water heating systems on the grounds maintenance building. This was Denmark harnesses renewables never announced publicly on the basis of “national security reasons”???? Duffé Design / Build Services
  6. 6. History of Green Building ● 2004- California Gov. Schwartzenegger Million Solar Roofs initiative to reach goal by 2017. ● 2004- Gov. Kathleen Sibelius issued a mandate for Kansas to produce 1 Gigawatt of renewable energy by 2015 per executive order ● 2005- polysilicon usage for solar power exceed use of polysilicon for computer chips and all other uses. ● 2006- 40% efficiency sunlight-to- electricity barrier achieved . Duffé Design / Build Services
  7. 7. History of Green Building ● What are Feed-in Tariffs? Feed-in tariffs are simply payments per kilowatt-hour for electricity generated by a renewable resource. Regardless of the name, they are the world's most successful policy mechanism for stimulating the rapid development of renewable energy. Feed-in tariffs are also the most egalitarian method for determining where, when, and how much renewable generating capacity will be installed. Renewable Tariffs enable homeowners, farmers, cooperatives, and First Nations (Native Americans) to participate on an equal footing with large commercial developers of renewable energy. Electricity Feed Laws permit the interconnection of renewable sources of electricity with the electric-utility network and at the same time specify how much the renewable generator is paid for their electricity. Electricity Feed Laws are widely used in Europe. Advanced Renewable Tariffs (ARTs) are the modern version of Electricity Feed Laws. ARTs differ from the simpler feed-in tariffs in several important ways. Tariffs are differentiated by technology. There is one price for wind energy, another price for solar, and so on. Tariffs within each technology can also differentiated by project size or, in the case of wind energy, by the productivity of the resource. Tariffs for new projects are also subject to periodic review to determine if the program is sufficiently robust. 2008- Feed In Tariffs finally came to America in nearby Gainesville, FL. G.R.U.- Gainesville Regional Utilities contracted for 4 megawatts of additional capacity with this incentive program, paying 20 cents per KWH for 20 years guaranteed Duffé Design / Build Services
  8. 8. History of Green Building Dec. 2007-Nanosolar roll printed solar cells shipped the first commercial printed PV flexible sheet, claiming that they will eventually ship for less than $1/ Watt. However, the company does not publicly disclose the technical specifications or current selling price of the modules. Their first year’s output was purchased in advance by solar utilites in Germany with the feed-in tariff program. They have a factory in San Jose, CA which produces more solar capacity per year than any other factory in the world and they are building another similar factory in Germany. Their CIGS nano ink is the “secret sauce.” Duffé Design / Build Services
  9. 9. History of USGBC LEED ● LEED was created to accomplish the following • Define quot;green buildingquot; by establishing a common standard of measurement • Promote integrated, whole-building design practices • Recognize environmental leadership in the building industry • Stimulate green competition • Raise consumer awareness of green building benefits • Transform the building market LEED has just launched Version 3 which is bringing a whole new level of professionalism. LEED 3.0- 2 levels, LEED Green Associate and the LEED AP- Now requires more rigorous continuing education requiring the LEED professionals to stay up on current knowledge Duffé Design / Build Services
  10. 10. LEED PROGRAMS ● The full range of categories which LEED has a sustainability rating system for- ● The levels of sustainability are rated as follows: Certified Silver Gold Platinum Duffé Design / Build Services
  11. 11. My Work 1977 to present ● My First solar greenhouse addition Fairview, NC ● Adds heat and grows plants ● This photo from the Sierra Club Solar Home tour Duffé Design / Build Services
  12. 12. Richmond / Grams ..... Moog Retrofit / Addition ● 1978 2-Story attached sunspace addition on farmhouse circa 1890 ● Water thermal storage in 55 gal. Drums painted black with “Sunsponge” on south side. ● Amazing performance, oil furnace Not Used, ¼ cord of wood used entire first winter to heat house warm enough for newborn infant. Duffé Design / Build Services
  13. 13. Richmond / Grams ..... Moog Retrofit / Addition ● 11- 55 gal drums full of water with a temperature rise of 52 degrees to 87 degrees, these can store approximately 170,000 Btus. A thermostatically controlled fan blows heat into the living quarters during full sun. ● The 2 story effect and the consequent stratification is paramount to enhanced performance. Since the first floor of the sunspace is at the basement level. The lower level of the sunspace can afford to get cooler while the useful heat rises onto the living levels. Duffé Design / Build Services
  14. 14. First House- Superinsulated Solar ● 1986-1987 Highlands, NC ● R- 37 walls R-40 attic insulation ● Heat Mirror 88 R-4 glazing on 2- story sunspace ● 12” thick concrete mass wall on rear, brick veneer on side walls. ● No heat was necessary lowest temperature about 60 degrees F with no heat ● This solar house plan can be seen at the NC Solar Center at NCSU Duffé Design / Build Services
  15. 15. Second House I built ● 1988 Fender Residence Swannanoa, NC ● Well Insulated “Sun Tempered” ● R-22 walls R-38 Roof ● Chimney used as thermal mass ● Low E glass on three sides ● Double pane clear on south side for maximum solar gain Duffé Design / Build Services
  16. 16. Flat Top Mountain overlooking Fairview ● Drabka sun tempered residence at 5000' elevation- clerestory ● Built on solid granite gneiss ● Efficient Japanese kerosene water heater, framing treated with borate Duffé Design / Build Services
  17. 17. K & K Health Resort Wolf Laurel, NC ● Earth sheltered dug into slope with sod roof on the north side ● Motorized continuous vent air intakes below ● Thermal stratification was very well demonstrated Duffé Design / Build Services
  18. 18. DESIGNED MOM'S HOUSE ● 1986 Lake City, FL ● Built Heat Mirror 66 Solarium, Hurd HM 66 R-4 Windows ● Less than 10 years later HM failed fogged up, wrinkled film ● Heat Mirror discontinued by Hurd... Alpen purchased by Serious Duffé Design / Build Services
  19. 19. Storefront in Asheville, NC ● Shelter Technology Center 5,000 SF ● Progressive Energy Works- Building envelope concerns: high tech windows and shades, superinsulation, passive solar, some solar hot water, design and construction. ● Fleming Associates- State of the art mechanical systems, sealed combustion boilers, warm floors, solar interface. Duffé Design / Build Services
  20. 20. Skylights and Sunspaces ● Duffé Design / Build Services
  21. 21. Skylights and Sunspaces ● Duffé Design / Build Services
  22. 22. Skylights and Sunspaces ● Duffé Design / Build Services
  23. 23. Passive Solar Houses ● Duffé Design / Build Services
  24. 24. Structural Insulated Panels ● 1.6 + times stronger than a stud wall with plywood sheathing, a 2 x 4 SIP wall is better insulated than a 2 x 6 stud wall with fiberglass batts ● Virtually airtight if installed correctly. Make it tight. Ventilate right. SIPs have less impact on forests than wood framing. There's less need for hurricane strapping. Withstood hurricanes and earthquakes. Quicker than stick building. Whole walls can be fabricated and shipped. EPS can be melted down and made into polystyrene resin beads again or can be ground up to use as a potting soil amendment like perlite Duffé Design / Build Services
  25. 25. Structural Insulated Panels ● Can be used for roofs walls and floors and can be shipped pre-fabricated, you can also hang a picture anywhere. Duffé Design / Build Services
  26. 26. Insulating Concrete Forms ● Super strong, Super insulated ● Comfortable, noise reducing, air tight ● Concrete cures 50% stronger inside foam form due to moisture not evaporating as quickly as in a normal concrete pour. Duffé Design / Build Services
  27. 27. Insulating Concrete Forms ● Duffé Design / Build Services
  28. 28. Florida Projects Amelia Coastal Realty’s Office may not look like a gas station today but it is a former Brownfield site.  When Phil and Janet were searching for a building to house the new office there were no buildings that were new and energy efficient.  This former gas station became the perfect site for a test project to build an energy efficient building using sustainable building practices. Plans were submitted to the City of Fernandina Beach in early 2005.  Unfortunately local Ordinances were not written to allow sustainable building standards such as low water usage and on site water retention.  A local Green development expert and friend, Darryl Duffe, then designed the 1,500 square foot building and redeveloped the site to allow for on site water retention, low energy usage and at the same time enhance the street appeal as an office.  The former 100 feet of entrance for the gas station was narrowed to 16 feet.  500 square feet of impervious asphalt along the front of the parcel and planted with native species that required no water once bedded.  The parking lot was sloped to self water the plants and eliminate most site runoff. The building itself was stripped down to one block wall and the footers.  Clean concrete and block debris were donated to local property owners with riverfront for use as erosion control material (rip rap).  The building was then reconstructed using Structural Insulated Panels (SIPS) and the roof system sealed with Icynene to further minimize heating and cooling.  Low voltage lighting, low VOC paints and other green products were installed to minimize green house gases and minimize energy costs.  Other features include solar lighting, low flush toilets, low voltage lighting and a high efficient HVAC system.  Monthly electric bills average $74 and water bills are less than $35.  Total energy usage on the 1,250 net square foot heated and cooled building is less than $1.10 per square foot per year. excerpted from Duffé Design / Build Services
  29. 29. Florida Projects Gas Station Conversions on S. 8th Street Duplex townhomes Duffé Design / Build Services
  30. 30. Solar Hot Water SOLAR PATHFINDER Solar Equivalent of Geiger Counter Both help prospect for where the radiation is Duffé Design / Build Services
  31. 31. Solar Hot Water DHW in NC Duffé Design / Build Services
  32. 32. Solar Electricity ● Duffé Design / Build Services
  33. 33. Best Efficiency Strategies for this Climate Duffé Design / Build Services
  34. 34. New Technologies ● Duffé Design / Build Services
  35. 35. Thermal Imagery ● Inefficient Building Efficient Building Duffé Design / Build Services
  36. 36. Earth Too Big to Fail, Too Precious to Ruin Let's not be our own waste enemy. Duffé Design / Build Services