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  2. 2. WHAT IT IS Constipation , costiveness , or irregularity is a condition of the digestive system in which a person experiences difficulty in defecation. Obstipation is used for severe constipation that prevents passage of both stools and gas.
  3. 3. Causes <ul><li>Hardening of the feces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient intake of dietary fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration from any cause or inadequate fluid intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medication, e.g. diuretics and those containing iron, calcium, aluminum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paralysis or slowed transit, where peristaltic action is diminished </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypokalemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injured anal sphincter (patulous anus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medications, such as loperamide, opioids (e.g. codeine & morphine) and certain tricyclic antidepressants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead poisoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactose Intolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dyschezia (usually the result of suppressing defecation) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. CAUSES <ul><li>Diverticula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tumors, either of the bowel or surrounding tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obstructed defecation, Psychosomatic constipation, based on anxiety or unfamiliarity with surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking cessation ] </li></ul><ul><li>Abdominal surgery, other types of surgery, childbirth </li></ul><ul><li>Severe dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>Some causes are with particular respect to infants: [8] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Switching from breast milk to bottle feeds, or to solid meals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potty training anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hirschsprung’s disease - a condition from birth where the child has a nerve cell defect that affects communication between the brain and bowels </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Symptoms <ul><li>A desire to defecate, </li></ul><ul><li>pain and intestinal discomfort, </li></ul><ul><li>swelling in the abdomen, cramps and colic; </li></ul><ul><li>in some cases up to several days without being able to defecate with grave harm and body poisoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation is one of the main causes of hemorrhoids and appendicitis, as well as acne and general intoxication of the body. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of stool <ul><li>Type 1: Separate hard lumps, like nuts (hard to pass) </li></ul><ul><li>Type 2: Sausage-shaped, but lumpy </li></ul><ul><li>Type 3: Like a sausage but with cracks on its surface </li></ul><ul><li>Type 4: Like a sausage or snake, smooth and soft </li></ul><ul><li>Type 5: Soft blobs with clear cut edges (passed easily) </li></ul><ul><li>Type 6: Fluffy pieces with ragged edges, a mushy stool </li></ul><ul><li>Type 7: Entirely liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Types 1 and 2 indicate constipation , with 3 and 4 being the &quot;ideal stools&quot; especially the latter, as they are the easiest to pass , and 5–7 being further tending towards diarrhea or urgency. </li></ul>
  9. 10. CONSTIPATION DURING PREGNANCY <ul><li>Constipation is among the top three most uncomfortable complaints listed by pregnant women. </li></ul>
  10. 11. What causes constipation during pregnancy • In the first trimester it is caused by progesterone which slows down intestinal activity • In the later part of pregnancy the pressure of your uterus on your intestines and rectum makes your system sluggish • Iron supplement that you need for anemia has a constipating effect. • Stress and tension contributes to constipation • You are more susceptible to constipation if you had this problem in your prepregnancy days • You lead a sedentary lifestyle
  11. 12. How can you tell you are constipated.. • If you don't have bowel movement for several days in between • If you feel bloated, uneasy and fart in excess • If your stool is hard and difficult to excrete • If you feel you have not emptied your bowels totally • If you see blood in your stools.
  12. 13. Constipation prevention Drink 8 to 10 glasses of water per day (drink them before meals and never during or after meals it affects digestion). Also, eat plenty of food with higher fiber content or sprinkle some bran or meals (bran contains a lot of fiber). Eat one carrot a day (don’t forget to drink a lot of pure water). Exercise preferably before going to bed.
  13. 14. ROLE OF FIBER IN DIET The term dietary fibre does not refer to any single substance but rather to all the edible but largely indigestible parts of plant food such as grains, fruits, vegetables and pulses. Fibre is broken down in the gut but has negligible nutritive value-that it does not provide useful amounts of calories, protein, fat, vitamins and minerals. Even so, it is an essential part of healthy diet. It keeps the digestive tract functioning properly and has been shown to play a part in preventing some serious diseases. And since fibre provides bulk and feeling of fullness without excess calories, it can also help to control weight. Eating too little may result in constipation- which in turn can lead to piles and other intestinal disorders. A low fibre diet also tends to be high in refined carbohydrates and fats, promoting weight gain and, depending on the type of fat, heart disease.    
  14. 15. Ensuring a proper mix of fibre To get a good combination of soluble and insoluble fibre in your diet, as well as, wide range of nutrients, eat a variety of fruits, vegetables, pulses and grains. Remember the body does not like certain changes, even if they are for the good- increase your intake gradually to guard against digestive upsets. 1. Eat plenty of wholegrain, unrefined food 2. Start a day with wholegrain or bran cereal, porridge, or whole meal bread or toast. 3. Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables and where possible scrub and eat the skins instead of peeling them. 4. Eat whole fruit instead of drinking juice. A whole orange contains about as much six times fibre as a glass of juice. 5. Try eating more of the stems of vegetables like broccoli and asparagus. Slice them finely if you find them tough in large pieces. 6. Add cooked beans, peas and lentils to soups and salads. 7. Add grated or sliced vegetables to salads. 8. Eat whole meal bread or fruit for snacks.
  15. 16. A lack of fiber in the diet may cause Obesity, gout, diabetes, kidney and gall bladder stones. Arterial hypertension, vascular-cerebral problems, varicose veins, pulmonary embolism. Appendicitis, intestinal constipation, diverticulums, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, and colon ulcers. Tooth decay, pernicious anemia, multiple sclerosis.
  16. 17. HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT <ul><li>Bryonia </li></ul><ul><li>Intestinal inactivity from perversion of gastric and hepatic functions; </li></ul><ul><li>inertia of rectum; constipation of lying-in women; costiveness during hot weather. </li></ul><ul><li>Stools hard, dark brown or back, dry as if burnt, too large in size, from </li></ul><ul><li>dryness of the alimentary tract, and passed with difficulty, attended perhaps </li></ul><ul><li>by prolapsus of rectum and burning sensation; great dryness of tongue, mouth </li></ul><ul><li>and lips, with thirst for large quantities of water; nausea after eating, </li></ul><ul><li>waterbrash, vomiting; disposition to headache and to become irritable and angry. </li></ul><ul><li>Rheumatic diathesis. Prefers cool weather; often caused by cold drinks or cold food. </li></ul>
  17. 18. HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT <ul><li>Calcarea carb </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared from oyster shell </li></ul><ul><li>No urging, stools at first hard, then mushy and finally fluid. smelling like </li></ul><ul><li>rotten eggs; involuntary, fermented, sour smelling diarrhoea, alternating </li></ul><ul><li>with constipation; stools looking like lumps of chalk in children during </li></ul><ul><li>dentition; stools hard, undigested; bleeding from anus after stool: after </li></ul><ul><li>stool feeling of faintness; late in going to sleep; aggravation in the </li></ul><ul><li>morning before breakfast; in cold, wet weather; on ascending, from milk, </li></ul><ul><li>after eating , getting wet; amelioration after breakfast, loosening garments, </li></ul><ul><li>rubbing . </li></ul>
  18. 19. HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT <ul><li>Lycopodium </li></ul><ul><li>Depressed and imperfect digestion; constant sensation as if the bowels were loaded; torpor of bowels, faeces hard, scanty, passed with difficulty, from </li></ul><ul><li>constriction of the sphincter ani, and feeling as if much remained behind. </li></ul><ul><li>obstructed flatus, with pains striking from right to left; itching and tension at anus in the evening in bed; itching eruptions at anus, painful to touch; sense of fulness after </li></ul><ul><li>eating, even very little, with drowsiness, sour vomiting; nightly </li></ul><ul><li>restlessness; aggravation 4 to 8 P.M., from cold food, cabbage and vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>with husks, oysters, from wrapping up, amelioration on getting cool, after loosening garments, discharge of flatus either way, from from warm food; </li></ul><ul><li>constipation in elderly people </li></ul>
  19. 20. HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT <ul><li>Nux vomica </li></ul><ul><li>Large, hard, difficult stools; frequent urging without effect; sensation as </li></ul><ul><li>if much remained after stool to discharge, or of narrowing and constriction </li></ul><ul><li>of the rectum, hindering a free stool; the action of bowels irregular and </li></ul><ul><li>spasmodic; obstructed portal circulation; relief after stool; alternate </li></ul><ul><li>constipation and diarrhoea; frequent scanty micturition. </li></ul>
  20. 21. HOMEOPATHIC TREATMENT <ul><li>Opium </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation of long standing; no urging; stools occurring but seldom, sometimes many day apart. </li></ul><ul><li>Stool composed of a few hard, round, dark balls; rectum inactive; want of sensibility in intestinal canal, with dryness of its mucous membranes, as also of mouth and fauces. </li></ul><ul><li>Spasmodic retention of faces and flatus, in small intestines, which press upward and against the chest; beating and sensation of heaviness in abdomen, rush of blood to head, sleepiness, bed feels hot, hot sweat. </li></ul><ul><li>Constipation in connection with ovaritis or ovaralgia; constipation from fright and fear, from lead poisoning, from abuse of spirits; suits </li></ul><ul><li>good-humored corpulent women and children. </li></ul>
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