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Philosophy, Science, Arts, Technology: World Knowledge Grand Unification


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Creating the Future
Global Research and Innovation Space
Internet of Everything
Intelligent Internet
Smart WWW

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Philosophy, Science, Arts, Technology: World Knowledge Grand Unification

  1. 1. Azamat Sh. Abdoullaev EIS Encyclopedic Intelligent Systems Ltd Smart Eco Community “X” Consortium The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  2. 2.   “All the sciences are conjoined with each other and interdependent”…” The sciences taken all together are identical with human wisdom…”, Descartes  Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge we have lost in information? Eliot  ‘’… the lack of a common frame of reference, the absence of any unifying set of concepts and principles, is now, if not the world's major disease, at least its most serious symptom.’’, Julian Huxley  Scientific wisdom, the ancient wisdom + modern science and technology, the Wisdom Science of the whole of world knowledge Introduction CREATING THE FUTURE: Towards a Unified Science and Research of Nature, Mind, Human Life and Technology The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  3. 3.  Philosophy, science, arts, and technology are united as an integrated network (web) of intellectual learning, scientific knowledge, and engineering sciences. Such a top union of human knowledge is identified as the “wisdom science” (or scientific wisdom = ancient wisdom + modern science and technology), affording a single representation and reasoning framework for New World Wide Web of Entities, designated as the Virtual Aristotle.  The Federated Knowledge Architecture works as a guiding pattern for the Global Research Framework of Science and Technology, encompassing rising international knowledge areas, with their built-in frameworks, programs, organizations, platforms, and initiatives, like as the European Research Area.  A federation-like union of all sciences and knowledge fields and subjects is shown to be produced by such an all-embracing world view, grounded to Standard Ontology, the reference frame of things in the world. The goodness of Standard Universal Ontology is confirmed by its power to make a substantial contribution into the global models of the world, integrity of science and advanced knowledge technology (generic knowledge applications, as emerging intelligent Internet and knowledge Web).  Azamat Abdoullaev, Keynote. Unifying Philosophy, Science, Arts, and Technology. The 21st international conference on Philosophy, Art and Technology, Paphos, 21st - 27th July 2009  BIG SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  4. 4.  The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015 REALITY and iWORLD: The Global Schema of Everything for i-Internet of Everything The Universe of NATURE Material substances, states, changes, relations The Universe of MIND Mental substances, states, changes, relations IoE ENTITIES&BEING Reality (Entity): {Thing; Substance, State, Change, Relation; Nothing} W = < T; O, S, C, R;  > World Web, iWeb The Universe of TECHNOLOGY Tech. objects, states, processes, relations The Universe of SOCIETY, HUMAN BEHAVIOR Social objects, states, processes, relations
  5. 5.  The standard ontology as the reference model of reality, its parts and levels, entity classes and properties and relationships;  The lifecycle of wisdom: the World (things; objects, states, events, links) > Data (individual facts) > Information (collected facts) > Knowledge (interrelated facts) > Wisdom (universal facts about the states of the world) > the World (reality; entity; substance, state, change, relationship)  Integrative Knowledge, Research and Learning schema of meta-fields, converging sciences and emerging technologies;  The wisdom web as the knowledge infrastructure and interoperability framework of the Web of Semantics, Intelligence and Wisdom; Future Internet of Everything  The Global Research and Innovation Space and the European Research and Innovation Area OUTLINES OF RESEARCH The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  6. 6.  Ontology (O), universal, global, foundation, formal, standard;  Mathematics (M), Logics (L), Semiotics (S), and Epistemology (E), generic and formal sciences;  Natural Philosophy (NP), Mental Philosophy (MP), Axiology and Aesthetics (A) or Social Philosophy, Praxiology and Ethics (P), or Engineering Philosophy, domain philosophies. Accordingly, a network of regional sciences with special divisions (and symbolizations) are to be arranged as:  Natural sciences (NS), Physical sciences with Earth sciences (PS), Chemistry (CS), Biology, or Bioscience (BS), and Applied Mathematics (AM), {PS, CS, BS, AM};  Mental sciences (MS), Neuroscience (N), Psychology (Ps), Cognition science (C), Linguistics (L), {N, Ps, C, L};  Social sciences (SS) and key Humanities, Economics (E), Politics (P), Sociology (S), and History (H), {E, P, S, H};  Technological Sciences, Engineering, Technology, or Applied Science (TS) with Mathematical Engineering (ME), Physical Engineering (PE), Chemical Engineering (CE), Biological Engineering (BE), {ME, PE, CE, BE}. THE WISDOM WEB: THE FEDERATION OF PHILOSOPHY, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  7. 7.  What are the nature, composition and structure of reality, its classes and types, wholes, parts and properties?  Which are the basic categories of things, the canonic entities and relationships? What are the higher levels of the standard scheme of things? How are the standard classes and properties organized? Are the standard categories defined by their elements or properties? How is scientific knowledge and research to be integrated by reference ontology?  How are domain ontologies, knowledge bases and data models structured by standard global schema?  Which languages, natural or formal, do most effectively represent the standard classes and relations?  How is it related to the existent information standards, as semantic web ontology languages?  How to apply the standard ontology system for building real world knowledge and reasoning machines? THE STANDARD ONTOLOGY and THE REFERENCE MODEL OF REALITY The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  9. 9.  O-M, Ontological Mathematics, or real mathematics, engaged in the formal representation of the real world;  O-L, ontological logic, or real logic, engaged in the formal description of the world;  O-S, ontological semiotics, engaged in the study of real meanings and real sign systems and processes and relationships;  O-E, ontological epistemology, engaged in the study of real mechanisms of knowledge;  O-NS, ontology of natural sciences, engaged in applying the ontological fundamentals for any natural science;  O-MS, ontology of mental sciences, engaged in applying the ontological fundamentals for any mental science;  O-SS, ontology of social sciences, engaged in applying the ontological fundamentals for any social science;  O-TS, ontological technology, or Ontological Engineering, engaged in applying the ontological fundamentals for engineering, as the science or art of applying ontological knowledge to business, commerce, and industry, as the design and construction of ontology technology; METAFIELDS: CONVERGING SCIENCES AND EMERGENT TECHNOLOGIES The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  10. 10.  Ontology > Mathematics > Physics > Chemistry > Biology > Psychology > Sociology > Engineering Wisdom > Knowledge > Information > Data > Information > Knowledge > Wisdom >… W = <Σ, Σ, ΣxΣ>, integrated and interrelated knowledge, Wisdom Web, Internet of Everything, Intelligent Internet, iNet WORLDWIDE KNOWLEDGE NETWORKS: Wisdom Web and Knowledge Internet The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  11. 11.  Core, Fundamental, Federal Research Areas (Ontology; Mathematics, Logic, Epistemology, Semantics; SH3_9, SH3_9, SH3_9; PE1_1 - PE1_11, PE1_14 );  Regional, Federated Research Fields, Subjects, and Disciplines (Natural Sciences; Mental Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences; Social Sciences; Engineering Sciences); namely:  Natural Sciences, studying the physical world and its entities, properties and relations, including Physical Sciences with Earth Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Biological Sciences, and Natural Mathematics, with all its cross-disciplines, as mathematical foundations of natural sciences, natural semantics, biophysics, bioinformatics, etc.;  Mental Sciences, studying the mental world and its entities, properties and relations, namely, SH4 the Human Mind, analyzed by psychology, neuroscience, cognitive sciences, linguistics, with all cross-disciplines as mathematical foundation of mental sciences, neuro-linguistics, neuro-cognition, etc;  Social Sciences, studying the social world and its entities, properties and relations, namely, SH1 Individuals, institutions and markets, SH2 Institutions, values, beliefs and behaviour, SH3 Environment and society, SH5 Cultures and cultural production, SH6 The human past;  Technology, or Engineering Sciences, engaged with applied sciences, or application of scientific knowledge to real world problems, including LS 9 Applied Life Sciences, PE6 Computer science and informatics; PE7 Systems and communication engineering; PE8 Products and process engineering, etc. (see the Table of Converging Sciences and Emerging Technologies).  Living many openings and gaps, all fields of science, engineering and scholarship, the ERC assigned to three research domains: Mathematics, Physical sciences, Information and Communication, Engineering, Universe and Earth sciences (PE); Life Sciences (LS); Social Sciences and Humanities (SH) THE GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE AND RESEARCH SPACE: the European Research Area, myth or reality The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  12. 12.  Merging the 21st Century Science, Technology and Humanities, the Knowledge Network is a footing for the Global Research Framework of Science and Technology, encompassing emerging international knowledge areas, with their frameworks, programs, organizations, platforms, and initiatives. Such as it was envisioned by the European Commission and the Council of Ministers in the European Research Area (ERA) Vision 2020  Integrating all the EU’s scientific resources, the ERA is formed as a trans- European system of R&D programs and organizations, as the Framework Programs for Research and Technical Development, European Research Council, Joint Research Center, and European Institute of Technology. All with a big view to fulfill the next decade strategic goal set up by the 2000 Lisbon European Council, ‘to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge- based economy in the world’, the grand social initiative promoted by the EU Council and Commission as the Lisbon Process (Strategy, Agenda), or the "Ljubljana Process“, inherited by the Europe 2020.  Without the unified science and technology, without common knowledge and research foundation, there are no any real prospects for the Global Research and Innovation Space as well as for one European Research Area. THE GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE AND RESEARCH SPACE: the European Research Area, myth or reality The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  13. 13.  The principles of designing the NL driven knowledge and reasoning applications, like as NL question/answering systems, domain reasoning engines, representation tools, web search mechanisms, and many other knowledge artifacts, empowered with human language understanding. The most important applications of the USECS comes to be the NL encyclopedic intelligence, titled the Virtual Aristotle Machine (VAM), whose progenitor more than 2200 years ago had envisioned an ‘instrument’ that ‘could accomplish its own work, obeying or anticipating the will of others, like the statues of Daedalus, or the tripods of Hephaestus’ (Aristotle, Politics, section 1.4).  The principal component of universal ontology language machine is a question-answering system possessing the world knowledge and large lexicon enabling deep causal reasoning in any open domain in terms of human language. The USECS as a global schema of things can determine a full set of question classes (and answer types) satisfying human/machine search inquiry in any knowledge domain. The VAM’s Reasoning Engine is planned to possess the most sought-after features and capacities:  to identify and process top constructs and relationships in any knowledge area; to resolve complex problems revealing their central causes and reasons; to generate questions and answer explanations in natural language; to interact with the human being exchanging information and thoughts on every lively topic; to predict possible events, consequences, effects, or outcomes brought about by human actions or natural processes.  Unlike the demised Halo project of Digital Aristotle ( using the traditional KR&R formal logical technologies for modeling, inference, query encoding, answer justification, the VAM is to be designed by applying onto-semantic techniques involving real world modeling, entity (or content)-based reasoning, NL query, and causal explanation and prediction.  The project Halo lesson teaches us that that to become a general query system, or the Virtual Aristotle Machine (VAM), it should appear as an ontology-based NL question-answering system with the world knowledge and vast lexicon able to real (causal) reasoning and explanation in any domain area. Accordingly, the NL application should be designed as a universal language machine made up of knowledge bases and natural language resources organized by standard ontology and thoroughly processed by onto-logical reasoning engine for formulating novel knowledge, principles, rules, and facts in natural language forms.  The VAM is expected to critically contribute into transforming the Syntactic HTML Web into the Semantic Ontology Web as the next generation of the Internet’s World Wide Web. Emphasizing the principal distinctions of the Virtual Aristotle from the Digital Aristotle as a traditional KR&R system, we further will study the way how to create the VAM as a know-all natural language machine with an open domain Q&A facility. META-PROJECTs: VIRTUAL OR DIGITAL ARISTOTLE, Know-all Machine as Smart Internet and Wisdom Web The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  14. 14.  Without a standard global ontology as a common code of meanings and rules, there is no base and foundation for the 21st century ontological semantic mega-technology, the Future Smart Internet of Everything (IoE).  The Smart IoE makes networks of networks with trillions of connections to interrelate Entities, as People, Process, Data, and Things, into a world-wide cyber-physical ecosystem of E2E:  THINGS (T) (BUILDING (B), INFRASTRUCTURE (I), MACHINE (M), DEVICE (D))  PROCESS (P) (ACTIVITY (A), EVENT (E), SERVICE (S))  AGENTS (A) (PERSON, ORGANIZATION, SOFTWARE AGENT, OR ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE)  DATA (D) (INFORMATION (I), KNOWLEDGE (K))  Its key technological part is the Internet of Things (IoT) which enables a global connectivity between the real world and a virtual world of entities.  The Internet of Everything enables a connectivity of distinct entities, as in (T, P, H, D) x (T, P, H, D) = {T2T, P2P, H2H, D2D,…, M2M,…H2M,…}. For example, person-to-person connections include telework, BYOD, connected learning, mobile collaboration, or travel avoidance, whereas machine-to-person/person-to-machine connections include smart parking, disaster response, and inpatient medical monitoring  It is “to open up new opportunities (and risks) that public-sector leaders need to consider from multiple perspectives: policy leadership, services provision, and regulation”. Cisco’s white paper indicates that non-smart “IoE is poised to generate $4.6 trillion in Value at Stake for the public sector over the next decade (compared with $14.4 trillion for the private sector over the same period)”.  The total operating cost of global manufacturing is currently about $25 trillion per year and could reach more than $47 trillion by 2025. Perhaps, 80 to 100 percent of all manufacturing could be using Smart or Intelligent Internet of Things applications by that time. (McKinsey Global Institute. Disruptive technologies: Advances that will transform life, business, and the global economy, May 2013)  The Global Ontology of Everything is the most effective theoretical and engineering tool to handle the Intelligent IoE, iNet, Smart Cybernet, as the largest hierarchy of distinct kinds of entities organized by distinct types of relationships connecting two distinct worlds, real and virtual, as New Smart and Intelligent World, iWorld. The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015 The Global Ontology and Smart Internet/Web of Everything
  15. 15.  I. USECS 2.0 (Universal Standard Entity Classification System, a.k.a.:  World Encyclopedia Vocabulary; World Stock List; World Knowledge Directory (Tree); Universal Scheme of Things; Universal Directory of Meanings; Meaning Searcher, or Sense Finder; Human Knowledge Digest; Global Catalog of Things; Universal Directory of Entities; Global Nomenclature; Global Knowledge Base; Integrated World Intelligence. II. Virtual or Digital Aristotle or Global Intelligence as the Future Internet of Everything and Wisdom Web III. Global Research and Innovation Space and Smart Green Europe Research & Innovation Area  TRANSDISCIPLINARY PROJECTS The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  16. 16.  There is one single reality and infinite possible worlds, actualities and existences;  Reality is the universe of global ontology, the reference system of things in the world;  The world is the totality of Nature, Mind, Society, and Technology;  The world is the universe of discourse of scientific knowledge;  Science, Arts, Philosophy, and Technology are interconnected parts of the Wisdom Web of Knowledge.  Scientific inquiry, mathematical modeling, philosophical investigation, humanistic research, and technological activity are constituent elements of unified science and research.  Engineering or Technology is of all possible kinds and sorts: ontological, logical, epistemological, mathematical, semiotic, natural; mental, social, and special philosophical technologies, as well as all inter-, multi-, meta-, and trans- technologies.  The Wisdom Web allows for Knowledge Networks of Science and Technology (as Knowledge Internet/WWW or Future Internet of Everything, iNet, or Smart Cyberspace);  The wisdom web affords the Global Research and Innovation Space of national and trans-national Research Areas;  A unified science and technology, arts and philosophy necessitate the Global Research and Innovation Space. CONCLUSION The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  17. 17.   Philosophy’s reference and meaning ranges as:  a way of life (practical wisdom), an attitude of mind;  a work of vision, speculation, or belief (myth, poetry, and religion);  the study of fundamental and general things;  thinking about thinking;  the attainment of wisdom;  a meta-science, covering all branches of scientific knowledge;  the summit of the sciences, arts and technologies;  a whole a tree whose roots are metaphysics, whose trunk is physics, and whose branches…are all the other sciences;  Our assumption: a first-order science underlying all the branches of knowledge and practice. SUPPLEMENT: What is Philosophy The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  18. 18.  “Philosophy is the investigation of the most general and abstract features of the world and the categories with which we think”. Oxford Dictionary.  “Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems of existence, knowledge, truth, beauty, law, justice, validity, mind, and language.” (Wikipedia)  "Philosophy is a study of problems which are ultimate, abstract and very general. These problems are concerned with the nature of existence, knowledge, morality, reason and human purpose."  "The aim of philosophical inquiry is to gain insight into questions about knowledge, truth, reason, reality, meaning, mind, and value."  "Philosophy is love of, or the search for, wisdom or knowledge; theory or logical analysis of the principles underlying conduct, thought, knowledge, and the nature of the universe”. Webster’s New World Dictionary.  The love of wisdom as leading to the search for it; knowledge of general principles – elements, powers, or causes and laws – as explaining facts and existences.  Practical wisdom, prudence (saving), providence (planning, doing preparing), looking far ahead and sacrificing the present to the future. To follow the most politic and profitable course.” Webster’s International  "Philosophy is rationally critical thinking, of a more or less systematic kind about the general nature of the world (metaphysics or theory of existence), the justification of belief (epistemology or theory of knowledge), and the conduct of life (ethics or theory of value).” (Oxford Companion to Philosophy)  “Philosophy is the critical examination of the grounds for fundamental beliefs and an analysis of the basic concepts (employed in the expression of such beliefs”. (Britannica).  “Philosophy is the rational explanation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics”  A collective belief, or a system of beliefs, school, doctrine, ism, philosophical system  A personal belief (cognitive content as being true) on how to live or deal with a situation. (WordNet)  "Philosophy is the most fundamental and general concepts and principles involved in thought, action and reality"; "the most general questions about our universe and our place in it"; the "absolutely fundamental reason of everything it investigates", or "the fundamental reasons or causes of all things".(the study of fundamental topics). HOW TO DEFINE PHILOSOPHY The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  19. 19.  a man of practice (prudent, practically wise, prudential, shrewd and astute in business matters)  a man of opinion (sophistry, dogmatism, idle disputation, perpetual controversy)  a man of reason (faith, belief)  a man of vision (abstracted life, worldly-life abandoned)  a man of knowledge and science whose ultimate goal is wisdom  Our assumption: a man of fundamental knowledge seeking speculative wisdom. Who is the philosopher The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  20. 20.   THE FUTURE OF PHILOSOPHY IS COMPUTING PHILOSOPHY COMPRISING:  Metaphilosophy  Metamodels  Ontologies  Unified Modeling languages  Data Models  Semantic Metaschemas  Metatheories (in software engineering and systems engineering)  descending from Experimental Philosophy (of Galileo, Newton, and Faraday).  No Demarcation line (conceptual separation) between Philosophy, Science and Technology, as no dividing line between basic research and applied research, but just frontier multidisciplinary research, technological development and disruptive innovation. FUTURE PHILOSOPHY: COMPUTATIONAL PHILOSOPHY The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  21. 21.  Up to now, philosophers have been debating the possible methods or approaches to building ontologies, without actually building ontologies themselves.  By contrast, computer scientists have been building ontologies (such as USECS, WordNet and Cyc), but mostly neglecting philosophical debates and modern philosophical theories.  Ontology, dividing the world at its joints, primal cuts of the world body. Its scope and meanings as different as:  the study of Being and existence; includes the definition and classification of entities, physical or mental, the nature of their properties, and the nature of change. (Wikipedia)  the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence or reality in general, the basic categories of being and their relations.  the science (account) of entity (or being) in general;  the knowledge of the most general structures of reality;  the theory of the kinds and structures of things in every domain of reality;  the study of entity types and relations;  the most general theory concerning reality, being, or existence;  a collection of absolute assumptions;  the study of change;  the science of all possible worlds and everything conceivable;  the study of semantic values of natural and formal languages and ontological commitments about the world  Ontologies are used in information science, computer science, knowledge management, artificial intelligence, the Semantic Web, software engineering, biomedical informatics, library science, and information architecture, knowledge representation.  In computer science, ontology is a formal model for describing the world that consists of substances, states, processes and relationships. Azamat Sh. Abdoullaev, REALITY, UNIVERSAL ONTOLOGY AND KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS: Towards the Intelligent World; IGI Global, USA, 2009. FUTURE METASCIENCE: Computing Ontology The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015
  22. 22.  The book is basically about reality, its content, structure and dynamics, and how the real world may be effectively represented both by human minds and intelligent machines. The world is analyzed as the largest unbounded environment (entity) by the agency of ontological representations and mathematical descriptions of its cardinal entities and relationships. This approach affords to develop the emerging Knowledge Society intellectual technology as the real world knowledge systems and applications capable to represent and reason about reality, its diverse aspects and levels and nonlinear complexities. The whole research is performed with the basic goal to design a standard world model capable to uniformly organize human knowledge, to create powerful reasoning systems and to secure communication interoperability between two species of intelligences, existing human beings and nascent computing reasoning systems promising the profound revolution in human values and ways of life.  Developing a consistent account of the world as the unique intersection of general ontology and fundamental mathematics, designated as a unified framework ontology or universal formal ontology (UFO), we establish a line of research where reality occupies a determinative position:  Reality → World Representation {Theory of Reality (UFO) → Fundamental Mathematics (Lattice Theory, Set Theory, Category Theory) → Logic of Things → Science → Computer Science} → Knowledge Application {AI Technology → Onto-Semantic Web → Global Intelligent Cyberspace } → Knowledge Technology Civilization → Intelligent World (Reality, Universe)  Reality, being, the world, or the universe along with its first-class denizens (objects, states, changes, relations) are the kinds of things to be represented as the principal concepts of mind, the major categories of language, the underlying data structures and processes in information systems. The UFO is designed as the world knowledge groundwork or unifying semantic platform within which could be integrated the particular knowledge (sciences) of the physical, biological, mental, and cultural worlds, to be encoded as the entity data types and major rules of operations in the reasoning systems of high-level intelligence, fundamental to the Intelligent World. REALITY, UNIVERSAL ONTOLOGY AND KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS: Towards the Intelligent World The World, Philosophy, Science, Technology, Internet of Everything Azamat Abdoullaev 2009-2015