Sun tzu 292350 feb


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sun tzu art of war and applicability in 20th/21st century by Asghar Ali

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Sun tzu 292350 feb

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  4. 4. ART OF WAR“If instructions are not clear and commands notexplicit, it is the commander‟s fault. But whenthey have been made clear, and are not carriedout in accordance with military law, it is a crimeon the part of officers” Sun Tzu, The Art of War by Samuel Griffith P. 84 5
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  6. 6. ART OF WAR“Your servant has already received yourappointment as commander and when commanderis at the head of the army, he needs not accept allthe sovereign orders” Sun Tzu, The Art of War by Samuel Griffith P. 115 7
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  8. 8. King Ho - Lu General Sun Tzu 9
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  10. 10. Alexander The Great Tamerlane Sun Tzu Genghis Khan 11
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  12. 12. ART OF WAR Self ExcellenceExecution Strategy 13
  13. 13. AIMTo apprise the audience about Sun Tzu Art of War & its applicability in 21st Century 14
  14. 14. SCHEME OF PRESENTATIONBackgroundAuthorship of Art of WarExposure of Sun Tzu Art of WarSalient of Art of WarApplicability in 21st CenturyAsymmetric Warfare & Sun TzuConclusion 15
  15. 15. BACKGROUNDSun Tzu lived around 500 BC Sun Tzu - “Master Sun” Chi Born in state of Chi, China Military doctrine in 510 BC Worked for King Ho-Lu King Ho - Lu 16
  16. 16. BACKGROUNDChina divided in small states Warring States Ch‟i Yellow Sea Ch‟i & Wu most prominent Wu South China Sea 17
  17. 17. BACKGROUND“Bing-Fa” – “Art of War” More than 2500 years 13 ChaptersFollowed by great leaders Reference book 18
  18. 18. AUTHORSHIP OF ART OF WAR Analysis of classical period, era extending from 551 to 249 BC Thirteen chapters were not composed around 500 BC, but belong to later stage 19
  19. 19. AUTHORSHIP OF ART OF WAR 100,000 armoured troops used in relation to problems of war finances, supply & replenishment Armies of this size unknown in China before 500 BC 20
  20. 20. AUTHORSHIP OF ART OF WAR Strategic & tactical doctrine of „The Art of War‟ is based on • Deception • False Appearance • Indirect Approach • Adaptability • Flexible & Coordinated Manoeuvre • Speedy Concentration 21
  21. 21. AUTHORSHIP OF ART OF WAR Application of such tactics required highly mobile & well trained troops Such formations were not common until Warring States (453 – 221 BC) Sun Tzu thirteen chapters be placed in category of „Authorship Unsettled‟ 22
  22. 22. EXPOSURE TO WORLD Art of War” was introduced to Japan around 760 AD Sun Tzu was first brought to attention of western world by Father Amiot Published in Paris – 1772 23
  23. 23. EXPOSURE TO WORLD Sun Tzu Art was focused in beginning of 20th Century First English translation “The Art of Modern Warfare” was published in 1905 24
  24. 24. EXPOSURE TO WORLD Four translations in Russian language Later translations in  German  Italian  Several other languages 25
  25. 25. ART OF WARApplicability in 21st Century 26
  26. 26. ART OF WARUS way of War – Denial of Sun Tzu principles Trillion Dollar war in Iraq resulted Loosing allies Fanatic enemies 27
  27. 27. ART OF WAR“The Best victory is towin without actualfighting. Supremeexcellence consists inbreaking the enemy‟sresistance withoutfighting”Sun Tzu, The Art of Modern Warfare byMark Mc Neilly P 5 28
  28. 28. ART OF WAR US keen to start warLittle interest in winning without warCost of war – Irrelevant to US regimes 29
  29. 29. ART OF WAR"Know yourself and know the enemy. If you knowthe enemy and know yourself, you need not fearthe results of hundred battles. If you knowyourself but not the enemy, for every victorygained you will also suffer a defeat. If you knowneither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumbin every battle“ Sun Tzu, The Art of War by Samuel Griffith P. 115 30
  30. 30. ART OF WARWar – Easy game for US US cared less about Muslim culture Religion History Tribalism 31
  31. 31. ART OF WAR“The best thing is to take the enemy‟s countrywhole and intact; to shatter and destroy it is not sogood” Sun Tzu, The Art of War by Samuel Griffith P. 115 32
  32. 32. ART OF WAR Iraq – Broken nation Millions fled Dysfunction electoral system Ethnic warTerrorism & kidnapping 33
  33. 33. ART OF WAROps DESERT STORM Deceived Saddam HussainAmphibious Assault in East Landed in West Low Causalities 34
  34. 34. Deception Enemy SpeedWeakness 35
  35. 35. SALIENT PRINCIPLES Win All Without Fighting Deception & Use of Human Intelligence Leadership Development Avoid Strength, Attack Weakness Speed & Preparation Shaping Enemy 36
  37. 37. WIN ALL WITHOUT FIGHTING “Generally in war the best policy is to take a state intact; to ruin it is inferior to this” “To capture the enemy‟s army is better than to destroy; to take intact a battalion, a company or a five-man squad is better to destroy them” “To gain one hundred victories in one hundred battles is not the highest excellence; To defeat the enemy‟s army without doing battle is the height of excellence” Sun Tzu and Art of Modern Warfare by Mark McNeilly P 15,18 38
  38. 38. WIN ALL WITHOUT FIGHTING Five principles provide means to achieve To accomplish nation‟s objective battles are not necessarily proper means Better to win “without fighting” 39
  39. 39. WIN ALL WITHOUT FIGHTING Destroying target without firing bullet More valuable thinking & workable options to decision makers  1962, Cuban Missile Crisis  1994, Haiti Crisis  1996, Taiwan Strait Missile Crisis 40
  40. 40. WIN ALL WITHOUT FIGHTING“War is a matter of vital importance to thestate; the province of life or death; the roadto survival or ruin. It is mandatory that it bethoroughly studied” Sun Tzu, The Art of War by Samuel Griffith, P. 91 41
  41. 41. WIN ALL WITHOUT FIGHTING Calculations/estimates essential before war Avoid actions if risks not properly deliberated If not, force will be in jeopardy & nation be ruined German invasion of USSR in 1941 Hitler‟s illogical determination resulted in failure of Ops Barbarossa 42
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  43. 43. WIN ALL WITHOUT FIGHTING“What is of supreme importance in war is toattack the enemy‟s strategy. Next best is todisrupt his alliances. The next best is to attackhis army” Sun Tzu and Art of Modern Warfare by Mark McNeilly P 21 44
  44. 44. WIN ALL WITHOUT FIGHTING Strategies with no significant benefits over opponent, may win a battle but will eventually lose war Doolittle‟s bombing had no significant tactical effect Disrupt Japan‟s national military strategy & war plans Led to Japan‟s total defeat 45
  46. 46. DECEPTION & HUMAN INTELLIGENCE“Know the enemy and know yourself; inhundred battles you will never be in peril.When you are ignorant of the enemy but knowyourself, your chances of winning or losingare equal. If ignorant both of your enemy andof yourself, you are certain in every battle tobe in peril” Sun Tzu, The Art of War P. 5 47
  47. 47. DECEPTION & HUMAN INTELLIGENCE Capable, make enemy believe that we are incapable Active, demonstrate that we are inactive Leaving, mislead to think that we are approaching Employ “Chi” (extraordinary force) & “Cheng” (normal force) 48
  48. 48. DECEPTION & HUMAN INTELLIGENCE Deceived Iraqi ground forces Deploying several U.S Navy SEAL along Kuwaiti coast Prevented huge human loss in 100 hrs battle 49
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  50. 50. DECEPTION & HUMAN INTELLIGENCE Local agents  Local inhabitants of area Inward agents  Grieved or rejected enemy officials Converted agents  Enemy agents used by giving bribes Doomed agents  Own agents used to leak fabricated information Surviving agents  Own clever, talented & loyal agents 51
  51. 51. DECEPTION & HUMAN INTELLIGENCE Utilizing secret agents & preventing enemy from using them, will stand much better chance of victory Afghanistan & Iraq – coalition forces relied on intelligence for success 52
  53. 53. LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT“There are five qualities which are dangerous in aGeneral  If reckless, can be killed  If cowardly, can be captured  If quick-tempered can be made fool  Too delicate sense of honor can calumniate him  Compassionate nature can be harassed” Sun Tzu and Art of Modern Warfare by Mark McNeilly P 210 54
  54. 54. LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT Military leaders are highest level thinkers & political military experts Think in multiple domains & operate flexibly to manage change Elements of national power as well as interrelationship among them 55
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  56. 56. LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT“Before going for the battle, one who calculateswill win. Many calculations mean victory but withfew calculations, no victory”“If a general who heeds my strategy is employedhe is certain to win. Retain him! When one whorefuses to listen to my strategy is employed, he iscertain to be defeated. Dismiss him” Sun Tzu, The Art of War by Samuel Griffith P. 96 57
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  58. 58. LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT“He whose generals are able and not interferedwith by the sovereign will be victorious” Sun Tzu, The Art of War by Samuel Griffith P. 96 59
  59. 59. LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT Political leaders should not interfere with military leaders during conduct of war Political leaders should delegate authority to commander to accomplish mission Affected morale, destroyed trust & complicated relationship between civilians & military 60
  60. 60. LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT“General who regards his men as infants, theywill march with him into the deepest valleys.He treats them as his own beloved sons andthey will die with him” Sun Tzu, The Art of War by Samuel Griffith P. 203 61
  62. 62. AVOID STRENGTH ATTACK WEAKNESS “Now an army may be likened to water, for just as flowing water avoids the heights and hastens to the lowlands, so an army avoids strength and strike weakness” Sun Tzu and Art of Modern Warfare by Mark McNeilly P 33 63
  63. 63. AVOID STRENGTH ATTACK WEAKNESS Enabled forces in Gulf War to defeat Iraqis in four days suffering almost no casualties Avoid strength & attack weakness is key to achieve goal Focusing resources against enemys critical weak point, success more easily achieved Attacking weakness by selecting key resource Create weakness through preemptive strike 64
  64. 64. AVOID STRENGTH ATTACK WEAKNESSAttacking Weakness by Selecting Key Resource “That you may march a thousand li withoutwearying yourself is because you travel where thereis no enemy. Go into emptiness, strike voids,bypass what he defends, hit him where he does notexpect you” Sun Tzu and Art of Modern Warfare by Mark McNeilly P 47 65
  65. 65. AVOID STRENGTH ATTACK WEAKNESSAttacking Weakness by Selecting Key Resource Attack weakest part of enemy defence by selecting key resource Submarine campaign in Pacific theatre by United States against Japan WW-II, US Submarines were able to cut off island of Japan Extreme shortage of logistics required to continue war 66
  66. 66. AVOID STRENGTH ATTACK WEAKNESSCreating Weakness Through Preemptive Strike“The potential of troops skillfully commanded inbattle may be compared to that of round boulderswhich roll down from mountain heights. Thus oneneed to use but little strength to achieve much” Sun Tzu and Art of Modern Warfare by Mark McNeilly P 51 67
  67. 67. AVOID STRENGTH ATTACK WEAKNESSCreating Weakness Through Pre Emptive Strike Weakness may be created through preemptive strikes Strategy employed by Israelis at beginning of Six Day War in 1967 Preemptive strikes gave advantage to negotiate Israel made no serious effort to come to terms with Arabs 68
  69. 69. SPEED & PREPARATION“Speed is the essence of war. Take advantageof the enemys un-preparedness; travel byunexpected routes and strike him where he hastaken no precautions” Sun Tzu and Art of Modern Warfare by Mark McNeilly P 96 70
  70. 70. SPEED & PREPARATION Forces must move rapidly to secure ground  Substitute for resources  Shocks & surprises enemy  Critical to exploit weakness  Builds momentum 71
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  72. 72. SPEED & PREPARATION“War is a matter of vital importance to the state;the province of life or death; the road to survivalor ruin. It is mandatory that it be thoroughlystudied. Therefore, appraise it in terms of fivefundamental factors and make comparison of theseven elements later named, so you may assessits essentials” Sun Tzu The Art of War by Samuel Griffith P. 91 73
  73. 73. SPEED & PREPARATION Morale Weather Terrain Command Doctrine 74
  74. 74. SPEED & PREPARATIONMorale“Regard your soldiers as your children and theywill advance to the deepest valley and will diewith you” Sun Tzu, The Art of War by Samuel Griffith P 95 75
  75. 75. SPEED & PREPARATIONWeather Weather was a key factor for selecting D Day for Normandy landing Allied forces exploited uncertainty of weather as factor of surprise 76
  76. 76. SPEED & PREPARATIONTerrain “Know the ground, Know the weather, your victory will be total”Sun Tzu, The Art of War by Samuel Griffith P. 96 77
  77. 77. SPEED & PREPARATIONCommand  Wisdom  Sincerity  Humanity  Courage  Strictness 78
  78. 78. SPEED & PREPARATIONCommand  Recklessness  Cowardly  Quick tempered  Delicate of honor  Over concerned for his men 79
  79. 79. SPEED & PREPARATIONDoctrine“By Doctrine I mean organisation, control andassignment of appropriate ranks to officers,regulation of supply routes, and the provision ofprinciple items used by the army” Sun Tzu, The Art of War by Samuel Griffith P. 95 80
  80. 80. SPEED & PREPARATION Wiseness of ruler Ability of commander Advantage of nature & terrain Discipline enforcement Strength of army Training of officers & men Rewards & punishments 81
  81. 81. SPEED & PREPARATION Operations Desert Storm – Success Movement of thousand of troops, equipment, food, fuel, bullets & bombs was a feat unprecedented after WW-II Ensured victory within 100 hrs of ground battle with minimum causalities 82
  83. 83. SHAPING THE ENEMY“Therefore, those skills in war bring the enemyto the field of battle and are not brought there byhim” Sun Tzu and Art of Modern Warfare by Mark McNeilly P. 125 84
  84. 84. SHAPING THE ENEMY Leader must first make opponent conform to his  Strategy  Rules  Will Make enemy meet at time & place of his choice Strategy must utilize direct & indirect approaches 85
  85. 85. SHAPING THE ENEMY“He who knows the art of the direct; "Cheng;" andthe indirect; "Chi;" approach will be victorious.Such is the art of maneuvering” Sun Tzu and Art of Modern Warfare by Mark McNeilly P. 29 86
  86. 86. SHAPING THE ENEMY Possible to misdirect attention of enemy leaders Take them by surprise Put them off balance Exploit the resulting advantage 87
  87. 87. SHAPING THE ENEMY Holding Strategic Position Attacking Enemy‟s Strategy Use of Alliances Against Enemy 88
  88. 88. SHAPING THE ENEMYHolding Strategic Positions Raw materials such as oil have caused countries to go to war Strategic advantage through  Technology  Nuclear weapons  Diplomatic positions 89
  89. 89. SHAPING THE ENEMYAttacking Enemy‟s Strategy Supreme excellence is to attack an enemy‟s plan Attack was delayed and USSR attacked their strategy Resulted in successful destruction of German forces at Kursk 90
  90. 90. SHAPING THE ENEMYUse of Alliance Against Enemy Prevent enemies from combining Avoid attacking powerful alliance Separate main enemy from allies before attacking Skilful use of allies Do not choose wrong allies Know how to maintain an alliance & when to end 91
  91. 91. ASYMMETRIC WARFARE Conflict deviating from norm, or indirect approach No specific tactics Deception, indirect approach, avoiding strength & attacking weakness Avoid confrontation with enemys strength Prevent larger enemy from effectively utilizing larger force in effective manner 92
  92. 92. ASYMMETRIC WARFARE“As flowing water avoids the heights and hastens to the lowlands, so an army avoids strength and strikes weakness” “All warfare is based on deception” Sun Tzu and Art of Modern Warfare by Mark McNeilly P. 29 93
  93. 93. ASYMMETRIC WARFARE Israel & Palestinian organizations is classic case of asymmetric warfare Utilized asymmetric tactics i.e small gunfights, cross border sniping, rocket attacks & suicide bombing Sri Lankan government & Liberation Tigers of Tamil saw large scale asymmetric warfare 94
  94. 94. CONCLUSION Study the past, understand the future Guide to all types of warfare World‟s most enduring strategic thinkerPerspective of war Element of strength Strategy Leadership Use of Intelligence 95
  95. 95. Q&A