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Alcohol presentation... Listaning and speaking III

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  1. 2. Alcoholic beverage <ul><li>An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>They are legally consumed in most countries, and over 100 countries have laws regulating their production, sale, and consumption. In particular, such laws specify the minimum age at which a person may legally buy or drink them. This minimum age varies between 16 and 25 years, depending upon the country and the type of drink. Most nations set it at 18 years of age. </li></ul>
  2. 3. Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: <ul><li>Beers </li></ul><ul><li>Wines </li></ul><ul><li>Spirits </li></ul>
  3. 4. Alcoholism <ul><li>Alcoholism is a disabling addictive disorder. It is characterized by compulsive and uncontrolled consumption of alcohol despite its negative effects on the drinker's health, relationships, and social standing. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Causes <ul><li>A complex mixture of genetic and environmental factors influence the risk of the development of alcoholism. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes which influence the metabolism of alcohol also influence the risk of alcoholism, and may be indicated by a family history of alcoholism </li></ul><ul><li>Severe childhood trauma is also associated with an general increase in the risk of drug dependency </li></ul>
  5. 6. Effects of alcohol on health <ul><li>Heart Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Dementia </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Longevity </li></ul>
  6. 7. Heart disease <ul><li>One study found that men who drank moderate amounts of alcohol three or more times a week were up to 35% less likely to have a heart attack than non-drinkers, and men who increased their alcohol consumption by one drink per day over the 12 years of the study had a 22% lower risk of heart attack. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Dementia <ul><li>Long-term moderate or short-term excessive drinking has been linked to dementia; it is estimated that 10% to 24% of dementia cases are caused by alcohol consumption, with women being at greater risk than men. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Cancer <ul><li>Alcohol consumption has been linked with seven types of cancer: mouth cancer, pharyngeal cancer, oesophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer, breast cancer, bowel cancer and liver cancer. Heavy drinkers are more likely to develop liver cancer due to cirrhosis of the liver. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Diabetes <ul><li>Daily consumption of a small amount of pure alcohol by older women may slow or prevent the onset of diabetes by lowering the level of blood glucose. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Stroke <ul><li>A study found that lifelong abstainers were 2.36 times more likely to suffer a stroke than those who regularly drank a moderate amount of alcohol beverages. Heavy drinkers were 2.88 times more likely to suffer a stroke than moderate drinkers. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Longevity <ul><li>Alcohol consumption by the elderly results in increased longevity, which is almost entirely a result of lowered coronary heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>In a 2010 long-term study of an older population, the beneficial effects of moderate drinking were confirmed, but abstainers and heavy drinkers showed an increase of about 50% in mortality </li></ul>
  12. 13. THANK YOU!