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Electronic Voting Machines ("EVM") are being used in Indian General
and State Elections to implement electronic voting in part from 1999
elections and in total since 2004 elections.
The EVMs reduce the time in both casting a vote and declaring the
results compared to the old paper ballot system.
The EVMs were devised and designed by Election Commission of India in
collaboration with two Public Sector undertakings viz., Bharat Electronics
Limited, Bangalore and Electronics Corporation of India Limited, Hyderabad.
In 1980, Mr. M. B. Haneefa designed the first Indian voting machine.
His original design was exhibited to the public in six Government Exhibitions
of Tamil Nadu, viz.: Madras (Chennai), Trichy, Coimbatore, Salem, Madurai
Remarkably, the voting machine was designed using only Integrated Circuits.
EVMs were first used in 1981 in the by-election to North Paravur Assembly
Constituency of Kerala for a limited number of polling stations (50 polling
It is a reliable machine for conducting Elections.
Has mainly 2 units: Ballot and Control Units.
Operates on a Special Battery
Information recorded is retained in memory even when the
battery is removed.
Each Unit has been provided a casing.
Once opened 3 things will be found:
Control Unit Ballot Unit
EVMs are powered by an ordinary 6 volt alkaline battery
They are Special batteries supplied separately
These batteries have a Seal which should be removed before Using
They have an active lifetime of 24 hours.
Used by Voters for casting their votes.
It consists of :
To start with EVM Ballot unit is divided into 2 main sub sections:-
1) Motherboard board circuit
2) votecast LED and feedback panel.
Motherboard circuitry consists of following
Resistor and a capacitor
network for reset circuit of
Votecast LED panel—
A vote cast LED panel is a section which will be
at the voters end for the voters to cast their
votes. Here there are following components:
8 push to on switch
8 Red LED’s
8 green LED’s
Additionally one more red LED and push to
on switch has been added for a machine
ready signal. Ideally this push to on switch
is at the control panel but since here we
have only a ballot unit therefore this button
is mounted on this panel.
It is a flat protected cable and who’s one end is connected to the
Ballot Unit permanently while the other end is attached VIA a
connector to the Control unit.
Make sure that the cable is properly secured to the Control unit.
15 PIN CONNECTOR
Ready lamp glows GREEN when Ballot button on Control Unit is pressed
by P.O. to enable voting. Goes Off when voter has finished casting his
Slide Switch Panel used to set anyone of the 4 options: 1,2,3,or 4. ie. For
1 ballot unit Switch is set to 1 and so on…
Candidates lamp: glows RED when the voter has pressed the candidate
button pertaining to the candidate of his choice.
Ballot paper Screen: where the Ballot Paper with name, sr,no., Symbol of
contesting candidates is inserted.
Masking tabs provided under the Candidate buttons. So depending on
the no. of candidates contesting, the tabs are unmasked. Ones not in use
Controls the polling process.
Operated only by P.O.
Display section has: 2 lamps: On and Busy ; also 2 display panels: one of 2 digit and other of 4
Candidate Set Section: has a cover opening l-r: we see a left compartment which
accommodates the Battery and the right one a Red Cad Set button. This section is closed by
Result Section: also has same cover as above. On opening we find the left side has a Black
Close button while right side has inner compartment with its own door. One button her is
result 1 button. used for one type of election only: like only single Poll. Result 2 used for both
types conducted at the same time, Clear button. Provision kept for a seal in the cover of this
inner compt. and thread seal too.
Ballot Section: has 2 buttons , a gray Total button and a large Ballot button.
Bottom of C.Unit also open for plugging the cable from b.unit and a power switch to switch
On lamp: in display section will glow GREEN when Control
Unit Power switch is put ON, indicating EVM is ready for
Busy lamp: in display section glows RED when Ballot
button is pressed by P.O. to enable voter to cast vote. Goes
Off when over.
2 DIGIT DISPLAY
LE: link error: ie. Interconnecting cable not properly
PE: Pressed error, where any of the candidates buttons in
Ballot unit are jammed or kept pressed.
Er: Memory Error: Control unit not fit to use.
4 DIGIT DISPLAY
no: indicates a button pressed on Control unit is
pressed out of sequence.
End: End of display sequence after pressing Close ,
Result or clear button.
Full : indicates max no.of votes for which machine is
designed. 9999 is the max.
nP 1 : machine set for Single poll only.
Cd 6 : machine set for 6 candidates.
to 1234: total no. of votes casted = 1234
06 234: candidate 6 has 234 votes in his favor.
A beep of not less than 2 seconds after a voter
casted his vote.
A beep of 1 second, when displaying information on
Short interrupted beeps to show malfunctioning ,
Cand Set: used to set EVM for no. of candidates contesting the election.
Clear: pressed before start of a poll: to clear machine of recorded
informations. Used when election is over/ not done w/o orders.
Ballot: enables voter to record his vote: so once pressed: the BUSY lamp
goes Red, Ready lamp of C.Unit goes Green and voter can now caste his
vote. Then Pressed again to allow next voter to record his vote….
Total: shows no. of candidates and total no. of votes recorded so far.
Pressed at anytime: to see the same. But not when Busy lamp is ON.
Close: Once pressed: no further voting can take place. Only pressed at
the end of the Poll. When Pressed the no. of polls, no. of candidates,
total votes polled and the word end will be displayed.
Result: when EVM is used for simultaneous poll: ie Lok Sabha &
Legislative assembly polls , both Result 1 & 2 are used ie. R1 for
Loksabha,R2 for LA.
When only single Poll, only R1 is used. In our case Only Result 1
When Pressed it will display in sequence the no. of candidates, total no.
of votes polled, votes for each candidates. The finally displays END.
This button can be pressed as reqd.
It is easier to transport the EVMs compared to ballot boxes.
The vote-counting is very fast and the result can be declared within 2 to
3 hours as compared to 30–40 hours, on an average, under the ballot-
Easy to cast vote.
Bogus voting has been greatly reduced by the use of EVMs.
The Control Unit can store the result in its memory for 10 years and
With EVMs, there are much less incidences of invalid votes.
Saves 10,000 tons of ballot paper (roughly 200,000 trees).
Nepal, Bhutan, Namibia and Kenya have purchased India-manufactured
Fiji is expected to use Indian EVMs in the next elections in 2014.
In 2013, the Election Commission of Namibia acquired 1700 control units
and 3500 ballot units from India's Bharat Electronics Limited; these units
will be used in the regional and presidential elections in 2014
Ballot Unit Control Unit
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